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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215023/hpa-axis-activation-as-a-key-moderator-of-childhood-trauma-exposure-and-adolescent-mental-health
#1
Kate R Kuhlman, Elisa G Geiss, Ivan Vargas, Nestor Lopez-Duran
Individual differences in a child's sensitivity to stress may influence whether youth exposed to trauma develop symptoms of psychopathology. We examined the interaction between HPA-axis reactivity to an acute stressor and exposure to different types of childhood trauma as predictors of mental health symptoms in a sample of youth. Youth (n = 121, ages 9-16; 47% female) completed a standardized stress task, including 5 post-stress salivary cortisol samples. Parents also completed the Child Behavior Checklist as a measure of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms in the past month, and completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI) as a measure of their child's trauma exposure...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215021/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-processing-speed-and-internalizing-symptoms-the-moderating-effect-of-age
#2
Lisa A Jacobson, Megan Geist, E Mark Mahone
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) has been defined by a constellation of caregiver-reported symptoms that includes daydreaming, difficulty initiating and sustaining effort, lethargy, and physical underactivity. These symptoms have been observed in both typically developing children and in some children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-especially those with the predominantly inattentive presentation. Symptoms of SCT (typically identified via rating scales) appear separable from DSM inattentive ADHD symptoms, but have also been associated with internalizing symptoms...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215016/reconciling-competing-values-placed-upon-goose-populations-the-evolution-of-and-experiences-from-the-islay-sustainable-goose-management-strategy
#3
Rae McKenzie, Jessica M Shaw
The Scottish island of Islay hosts 45 000 barnacle geese Branta leucopsis (56% of the Greenland barnacle goose population, plus those passing through on migration), 5000 Greenland white-fronted geese Anser albifrons flavirostris (up to 30% of the world population) and 2500 greylag geese Anser anser, most of which feed on 9000 ha of grassland. The financial impacts of estimated agricultural damage have risen greatly over the past 20 years due to increasing goose numbers and higher farming costs. Mechanisms implemented to resolve conflict over time are reviewed for their effectiveness...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215015/goose-management-schemes-to-resolve-conflicts-with-agriculture-theory-practice-and-effects
#4
Einar Eythórsson, Ingunn M Tombre, Jesper Madsen
In 2012, the four countries hosting the Svalbard population of pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus along its flyway launched an International Species Management Plan for the population. One of the aims was to reduce conflicts between geese and agriculture to an acceptable level. Since 2006, Norway has offered subsidies to farmers that provide refuge areas for geese on their land. We evaluate the mid-Norwegian goose management subsidy scheme, with a view to its adjustment to prevailing ecological and socio-economic parameters...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215013/crowded-skies-conflicts-between%C3%A2-expanding%C3%A2-goose-populations-and-aviation-safety
#5
David R Bradbeer, Camilla Rosenquist, Thomas Kjær Christensen, Anthony D Fox
We here review the collision risks posed by large-bodied, flocking geese to aircraft, exacerbated by recent major increases in northern hemisphere goose populations and air traffic volume. Mitigation of goose-aircraft strike risks requires knowledge of local goose movements, global goose population dynamics and ecology. Airports can minimise goose strikes by managing habitats within the airport property, applying deterrents to scare geese away and lethal control, but goose migration and movements at greater spatial scales present greater challenges...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215012/threatened-species-to-super-abundance-the-unexpected-international-implications-of-successful-goose-conservation
#6
Anthony D Fox, Jesper Madsen
Wild geese wintering in western Europe were declining by the 1930s probably due to loss of natural habitat and over exploitation through hunting, although the causes will never be known. Refuge provision and hunting restrictions from the 1950s enabled numbers to recover. Improved monitoring systems enabled the description of progressive increases and extensions of wintering range since that time, especially amongst those goose populations that increasingly exploited agricultural landscapes. This introductory article sets the scene for the special issue on the increasing interactions and conflicts created by recent increases in the range and abundance of wild geese throughout the northern hemisphere, especially with regard to agricultural damage, but including issues associated with air flight safety, human and animal health, ecosystem effects and conflicts with other biodiversity objectives...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215011/implementation-of-the-first-adaptive-management-plan-for-a-european-migratory-waterbird-population-the-case-of-the-svalbard-pink-footed-goose-anser-brachyrhynchus
#7
Jesper Madsen, James Henty Williams, Fred A Johnson, Ingunn M Tombre, Sergey Dereliev, Eckhart Kuijken
An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215010/key-actions-towards-the-sustainable-management-of-european-geese
#8
David A Stroud, Jesper Madsen, Anthony D Fox
Increasing abundance of geese in North America and Europe constitutes a major conservation success, but has caused increasing conflicts with economic, health and safety interests, as well as ecosystem impacts. Potential conflict resolution through a single, 'one size fits all' policy is hindered by differences in species' ecology, behaviour, abundance and population status, and in contrasting political and socio-economic environments across the flyways. Effective goose management requires coordinated application of a suite of tools from the local level to strategic flyway management actions...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214998/optimal-visual-haptic-integration-with-articulated-tools
#9
Chie Takahashi, Simon J Watt
When we feel and see an object, the nervous system integrates visual and haptic information optimally, exploiting the redundancy in multiple signals to estimate properties more precisely than is possible from either signal alone. We examined whether optimal integration is similarly achieved when using articulated tools. Such tools (tongs, pliers, etc) are a defining characteristic of human hand function, but complicate the classical sensory 'correspondence problem' underlying multisensory integration. Optimal integration requires establishing the relationship between signals acquired by different sensors (hand and eye) and, therefore, in fundamentally unrelated units...
February 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214989/exposure-response-analyses-of-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-changes-for-methylphenidate-in-healthy-adults
#10
Liang Li, Yaning Wang, Ramana S Uppoor, Mehul U Mehta, Tiffany Farchione, Mitchell V Mathis, Hao Zhu
The aim of the study was to evaluate the exposure-response (E-R) relationships of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy adults taking methylphenidate (MPH). Intensive time profiles of BP and HR from healthy adults in placebo and MPH treatment arms of seven clinical trials from the FDA internal database were utilized for this analysis. The analysis model contains a circadian component for placebo effect and an E-R component to describe drug effect. Internal validation was performed using goodness-of-fit plots and visual predictive check...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214948/reduced-anticoagulation-variability-in-patients-on-warfarin-monitored-with-fiix-prothrombin-time-associates-with-reduced-thromboembolism-the-fiix-trial
#11
Alma Rut Oskarsdóttir, Brynja R Gudmundsdottir, Olafur S Indridason, Sigrun H Lund, David O Arnar, Einar S Bjornsson, Magnus K Magnusson, Hulda M Jensdottir, Brynjar Vidarsson, Charles W Francis, Pall T Onundarson
Fiix-prothrombin time (Fiix-PT) differs from traditional PT in being affected by reduced factor (F) II or FX only. In the randomized controlled Fiix-trial, patients on warfarin monitored with Fiix-PT (Fiix-warfarin patients) had fewer thromboembolisms (TE), similar major bleeding (MB) and more stable anticoagulation than patients monitored with PT (PT-warfarin patients). In the current Fiix-trial report we analyzed how reduced anticoagulation variability during Fiix-PT monitoring was reflected in patients with TE or bleeding...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214916/facial-expression-an-under-utilised-tool-for-the-assessment-of-welfare-in-mammals
#12
Kris A Descovich, Jennifer Wathan, Matthew C Leach, Hannah M Buchanan-Smith, Paul Flecknell, David Farningham, Sarah-Jane Vick
Animal welfare is a key issue for industries that use or impact upon animals. The accurate identification of welfare states is particularly relevant to the field of bioscience, where the 3Rs framework encourages refinement of experimental procedures involving animal models. The assessment and improvement of welfare states in animals is reliant on reliable and valid measurement tools. Behavioural measures (activity, attention, posture and vocalisation) are frequently used because they are immediate and non-invasive, however no single indicator can yield a complete picture of the internal state of an animal...
February 8, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214906/-evaluating-the-quality-of-care-in-nursing-homes-comparison-of-three-international-models
#13
Alessandro Rubino, Fabrizio Leigheb, Carmela Rinaldi, Angelo Di Dio, Sanita Knesse, Chiara Donnarumma, Massimiliano Panella
The aim of this observational descriptive study was to identify the main international models evaluating the quality of nursing homes for non self-sufficient elderly persons, and to apply them in the Italian health system. Firstly, a bibliographic search of institutional websites and Pubmed-Medline was performed to identify the main international models. Secondly, three variables were chosen to evaluate the level of implementability of the models: (1) frequency of use of quality indicators in the international models; (2) degree of constructability of the models in two Italian nursing homes; (3) perceived relevance of the indicators used by the chosen models, by nursing home workers...
November 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214881/attenuation-of-low-ambient-temperature-induced-myocardial-hypertrophy-by-atorvastatin-via-promoting-bcl-2-expression
#14
Jing Liang, Kun Yin, Xuefeng Cao, Zhenbo Han, Qi Huang, Lai Zhang, Wenya Ma, Fengzhi Ding, Chongwei Bi, Dan Feng, Zhenwei Pan, Yu Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is well documented that myocardial hypertrophy is associated with low ambient temperature. Atorvastatin (Atv) has been shown to protect against atherosclerosis, cardiac fibrosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, etc. In this study, we aim to determine whether atorvastatin is effective in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy induced by cold exposure and to shed light on underlying mechanism. METHODS: The mice aged 4-week were randomized to Control (Ctl) group (raised at room temperature), Cold group (raised at 3-5ºC) and Atv treatment group (raised at 3-5ºC followed by 10mg/kg/day Atv infusion)...
January 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214832/the-burden-of-respiratory-disease-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-changes-in-perinatal-care-and-outcomes-in-a-decade-in-spain
#15
Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Antonio Losada Martínez, María Dolores Elorza Fernández, Julio Moreno Hernando, Josep Figueras Aloy, Máximo Vento Torres
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal care have led to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Much of this progress is related to the prevention and management of respiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in perinatal care and its influence on respiratory morbidity and mortality among VLBW infants in Spain in 2 consecutive periods (2002-2006 and 2007-2011). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected of all VLBW infants included in the Spanish SEN1500 network...
February 18, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214790/sensitising-intern-doctors-to-ethical-issues-in-a-doctor-patient-relationship
#16
Nilima D Shah, Ritambhara Y Mehta, Kamlesh R Dave
There is a felt need in India to influence the ethical behaviour of doctors by giving students formal education in ethics in medical colleges. Since internship is the interface between learning and independent practice, it is important to sensitise intern doctors to ethical issues in a doctor-patient relationship at this stage.
February 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214789/-truth-in-research-labelling-regarding-wame-s-quoted-comments
#17
Margaret Winker
We were surprised to read Dr Noble's article, "Truth in research labelling". Dr Noble quotes from an email exchange he and I had regarding a petition that he had asked the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) to endorse (personal communication, Bernard Carroll and John Noble, September 27, 2016). Unfortunately, the article's description of WAME's comments, which were intended to provide constructive suggestions to improve the petition by ensuring that it was fully supported by facts, is incomplete and the comments have been taken out of context...
February 13, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214788/authorship-criteria-and-reporting-of-ethical-compliance-in-indian-biomedical-journals
#18
Pravin Bolshete
The "instructions to authors" of a total of 55 PubMed/MEDLINE indexed Indian biomedical journals were evaluated to assess the authorship criteria and guidance on reporting of research ethics including incorporation of recent updates. Thirty-seven (67.3%) journals recommended the ICMJE guidelines for manuscript preparation. Thirty-two of 55 (58.2%) journals defined authorship; only two journals defined authorship as per the latest (2013) ICMJE criteria. The journals' recommendations which indicated ethical compliance in articles were - the conduct of a study in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki(n=39); ethical approval (n=37); consent (n=26); assent (n=10); and consent for identifiable information (n=31)...
February 1, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214765/higher-theta-and-alpha1-coherence-when-listening-to-vedic-recitation-compared-to-coherence-during-transcendental-meditation-practice
#19
Frederick Travis, Niyazi Parim, Amrita Shrivastava
This study compared subjective experiences and EEG patterns in 37 subjects when listening to live Vedic recitation and when practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM). Content analysis of experiences when listening to Vedic recitation yielded three higher-order code. Experiences during Vedic recitation were: (1) deeper than during TM practice; (2) experienced as an inner process; and (3) characterized by lively silence. EEG patterns support these higher-order codes. Theta2 and alpha1 frontal, parietal, and frontal-parietal coherence were significantly higher when listening to Vedic recitation, than during TM practice...
February 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214762/paracaecal-hernia-a-case-report-on-the-evolving-role-of-laparoscopy
#20
Ammar Tayaran, Haider Abdulrasool, Hai T Bui
A paracaecal hernia, a type of pericaecal hernias, is a rare cause of small intestinal obstruction. Failure of early recognition and reduction of this type of internal hernia may lead to strangulation of the herniated intestine. There has been a number of case reports in the literature about the different types of pericaecal hernias, however the anatomy of these hernias is still poorly understood and the management is still evolving. We are presenting a 75year old woman, who presented clinically and radiologically with distal small intestinal obstruction...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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