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Drosophila blood brain barrier

Samantha J Hindle, Roeben N Munji, Elena Dolghih, Garrett Gaskins, Souvinh Orng, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Allison Soung, Michael DeSalvo, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Michael J Keiser, Matthew P Jacobson, Richard Daneman, Roland J Bainton
Central nervous system (CNS) chemical protection depends upon discrete control of small-molecule access by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Curiously, some drugs cause CNS side-effects despite negligible transit past the BBB. To investigate this phenomenon, we asked whether the highly BBB-enriched drug efflux transporter MDR1 has dual functions in controlling drug and endogenous molecule CNS homeostasis. If this is true, then brain-impermeable drugs could induce behavioral changes by affecting brain levels of endogenous molecules...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
S M Müller, F Ebert, G Raber, S Meyer, J Bornhorst, S Hüwel, H-J Galla, K A Francesconi, T Schwerdtle
Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs), a subgroup of arsenolipids (AsLs) occurring in fish and edible algae, possess a substantial neurotoxic potential in fully differentiated human brain cells. Previous in vivo studies indicating that AsHCs cross the blood-brain barrier of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster raised the question whether AsLs could also cross the vertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we investigated the impact of several representatives of AsLs (AsHC 332, AsHC 360, AsHC 444, and two arsenic-containing fatty acids, AsFA 362 and AsFA 388) as well as of their metabolites (thio/oxo-dimethylpropionic acid, dimethylarsinic acid) on porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCECs, in vitro model for the blood-brain barrier)...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Siya G Sibiya, Musa V Mbandla, Thavi Govender, Adeola Shobo, William M U Daniels
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. These protein deposits impair synaptic plasticity thereby producing a progressive decline in cognitive function. Current therapies are merely palliative and only slow cognitive decline. Poly-N-methylated Aβ-Peptide C-Terminal Fragments (MEPTIDES) were recently shown to reduce Aβ toxicity in vitro and in Drosophila melanogaster, however whether these novel compounds are effective in inhibiting Aβ-induced toxicity in the mammalian brain remains unclear...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Anne Volkenhoff, Johannes Hirrlinger, Johannes M Kappel, Christian Klämbt, Stefanie Schirmeier
All complex nervous systems are metabolically separated from circulation by a blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents uncontrolled leakage of solutes into the brain. Thus, all metabolites needed to sustain energy homeostasis must be transported across this BBB. In invertebrates, such as Drosophila, the major carbohydrate in circulation is the disaccharide trehalose and specific trehalose transporters are expressed by the glial BBB. Here we analyzed whether glucose is able to contribute to energy homeostasis in Drosophila...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Julia Sellin, Heike Schulze, Marie Paradis, Dominic Gosejacob, Cyrus Papan, Andrej Shevchenko, Olympia Ekaterina Psathaki, Achim Paululat, Melanie Thielisch, Konrad Sandhoff, Michael Hoch
Sphingolipidoses are inherited diseases belonging to the class of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), which are characterized by the accumulation of indigestible material in the lysosome caused by specific defects in the lysosomal degradation machinery. While some LSDs can be efficiently treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), this is not possible if the nervous system is affected due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Sphingolipidoses in particular often present as severe, untreatable forms of LSDs with massive sphingolipid and membrane accumulation in lysosomes, neurodegeneration and very short life expectancy...
June 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Alamin Mohammed, Megan B O'Hare, Alice Warley, Guy Tear, Richard I Tuxworth
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are a group of recessively inherited, childhood-onset neurodegenerative conditions. Several forms are caused by mutations in genes encoding putative lysosomal membrane proteins. Studies of the cell biology underpinning these disorders are hampered by the poor antigenicity of the membrane proteins, which makes visualization of the endogenous proteins difficult. We have used Drosophila to generate knock-in YFP-fusions for two of the NCL membrane proteins: CLN7 and CLN3. The YFP-fusions are expressed at endogenous levels and the proteins can be visualized live without the need for overexpression...
July 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
Dong Li, Yanling Liu, Chunli Pei, Peng Zhang, Linqing Pan, Jing Xiao, Songshu Meng, Zengqiang Yuan, Xiaolin Bi
The Hippo signaling pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to mammals and plays a central role in maintaining organ size and tissue homeostasis. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) physiologically isolates the brain from circulating blood or the hemolymph system, and its integrity is strictly maintained to perform sophisticated neuronal functions. Until now, the underlying mechanisms of subperineurial glia (SPG) growth and BBB maintenance during development are not clear. Here, we report an miR-285-Yorkie (Yki)/Multiple Ankyrin repeats Single KH domain (Mask) double-negative feedback loop that regulates SPG growth and BBB integrity...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Astrid Weiler, Anne Volkenhoff, Helen Hertenstein, Stefanie Schirmeier
The nervous system in higher vertebrates is separated from the circulation by a layer of specialized endothelial cells. It protects the sensitive neurons from harmful blood-derived substances, high and fluctuating ion concentrations, xenobiotics or even pathogens. To this end, the brain endothelial cells and their interlinking tight junctions build an efficient diffusion barrier. A structurally analogous diffusion barrier exists in insects, where glial cell layers separate the hemolymph from the neural cells...
February 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
Tibor Kovács, Viktor Billes, Marcell Komlós, Bernadette Hotzi, Anna Manzéger, Anna Tarnóci, Diána Papp, Fanni Szikszai, Janka Szinyákovics, Ákos Rácz, Béla Noszál, Szilvia Veszelka, Fruzsina R Walter, Mária A Deli, Laszlo Hackler, Robert Alfoldi, Orsolya Huzian, Laszlo G Puskas, Hanna Liliom, Krisztián Tárnok, Katalin Schlett, Adrienn Borsy, Ervin Welker, Attila L Kovács, Zsolt Pádár, Attila Erdős, Adam Legradi, Annamaria Bjelik, Károly Gulya, Balázs Gulyás, Tibor Vellai
Autophagy functions as a main route for the degradation of superfluous and damaged constituents of the cytoplasm. Defects in autophagy are implicated in the development of various age-dependent degenerative disorders such as cancer, neurodegeneration and tissue atrophy, and in accelerated aging. To promote basal levels of the process in pathological settings, we previously screened a small molecule library for novel autophagy-enhancing factors that inhibit the myotubularin-related phosphatase MTMR14/Jumpy, a negative regulator of autophagic membrane formation...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tina Schwabe, Xiaoling Li, Ulrike Gaul
During development, many epithelia are formed by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). Here, we examine the major stages and underlying mechanisms of MET during blood-brain barrier formation in Drosophila We show that contact with the basal lamina is essential for the growth of the barrier-forming subperineurial glia (SPG). Septate junctions (SJs), which provide insulation of the paracellular space, are not required for MET, but are necessary for the establishment of polarized SPG membrane compartments...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
Wenchao Sun, Seongsoo Lee, Xiaoran Huang, Song Liu, Mohammed Inayathullah, Kwang-Min Kim, Hongxiang Tang, J Wesson Ashford, Jayakumar Rajadas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Critical components of the two AD pathological pathways, Aβ-amyloidosis and Tauopathy, have been considered as therapeutic targets. Among them, much effort is focused on aberrant Tau phosphorylation and targeting Tau-phosphorylating kinases. Methylene blue (MB), a phenothiazine dye that crosses the blood-brain barrier, has been shown to hit multiple molecular targets involved in AD and have beneficial effects in clinical studies...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Alvaro Sanchez-Martinez, Michelle Beavan, Matthew E Gegg, Kai-Yin Chau, Alexander J Whitworth, Anthony H V Schapira
GBA gene mutations are the greatest cause of Parkinson disease (PD). GBA encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase) but the mechanisms by which loss of GCase contributes to PD remain unclear. Inhibition of autophagy and the generation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are both implicated. Mutant GCase can unfold in the ER and be degraded via the unfolded protein response, activating ER stress and reducing lysosomal GCase. Small molecule chaperones that cross the blood brain barrier help mutant GCase refold and traffic correctly to lysosomes are putative treatments for PD...
August 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Swapna Bera, Rajiv K Kar, Susanta Mondal, Kalipada Pahan, Anirban Bhunia
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have shown promise in nonpermeable therapeutic drug delivery, because of their ability to transport a variety of cargo molecules across the cell membranes and their noncytotoxicity. Drosophila antennapedia homeodomain-derived CPP penetratin (RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), being rich in positively charged residues, has been increasingly used as a potential drug carrier for various purposes. Penetratin can breach the tight endothelial network known as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), permitting treatment of several neurodegenerative maladies, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease...
September 6, 2016: Biochemistry
Teresa Niccoli, Melissa Cabecinha, Anna Tillmann, Fiona Kerr, Chi T Wong, Dalia Cardenes, Alec J Vincent, Lucia Bettedi, Li Li, Sebastian Grönke, Jacqueline Dols, Linda Partridge
Glucose hypometabolism is a prominent feature of the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disease progression is associated with a reduction in glucose transporters in both neurons and endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. However, whether increasing glucose transport into either of these cell types offers therapeutic potential remains unknown. Using an adult-onset Drosophila model of Aβ (amyloid beta) toxicity, we show that genetic overexpression of a glucose transporter, specifically in neurons, rescues lifespan, behavioral phenotypes, and neuronal morphology...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Marquis T Walker, Craig Montell
Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is a severe lysosomal storage disorder, which results from loss of the TRPML1 channel. MLIV causes multiple impairments in young children, including severe motor deficits. Currently, there is no effective treatment. Using a Drosophila MLIV model, we showed previously that introduction of trpml(+) in phagocytic glia rescued the locomotor deficit by removing early dying neurons, thereby preventing amplification of neuronal death from cytotoxicity. Because microglia, which are phagocytic cells in the mammalian brain, are bone marrow derived, and cross the blood-brain barrier, we used a mouse MLIV model to test the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation (BMT)...
July 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Sonia Hall, Robert E Ward
The septate junction (SJ) is the occluding junction found in the ectodermal epithelia of invertebrate organisms, and is essential to maintain chemically distinct compartments in epithelial organs, to provide the blood-brain barrier in the nervous system, and to provide an important line of defense against invading pathogens. More than 20 genes have been identified to function in the establishment or maintenance of SJs in Drosophila melanogaster Numerous studies have demonstrated the cell biological function of these proteins in establishing the occluding junction, whereas very few studies have examined further developmental roles for them...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ann-Christin Niehoff, Jacqueline Schulz, Jens Soltwisch, Sören Meyer, Hans Kettling, Michael Sperling, Astrid Jeibmann, Klaus Dreisewerd, Kevin A Francesconi, Tanja Schwerdtle, Uwe Karst
Arsenic-containing lipids (arsenolipids) are natural products of marine organisms such as fish, invertebrates, and algae, many of which are important seafoods. A major group of arsenolipids, namely, the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC), have recently been shown to be cytotoxic to human liver and bladder cells, a result that has stimulated interest in the chemistry and toxicology of these compounds. In this study, elemental laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and molecular matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-)MS were used to image and quantify the uptake of an AsHC in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster...
May 17, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Yanshu Wang, Hao Chang, Amir Rattner, Jeremy Nathans
Frizzled proteins are the principal receptors for the Wnt family of ligands. They mediate canonical Wnt signaling together with Lrp5 and Lrp6 coreceptors. In conjunction with Celsr, Vangl, and a small number of additional membrane and membrane-associated proteins, they also play a central role in tissue polarity/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. Targeted mutations in 9 of the 10 mammalian Frizzled genes have revealed their roles in an extraordinarily diverse set of developmental and homeostatic processes, including morphogenetic movements responsible for palate, ventricular septum, ocular furrow, and neural tube closure; survival of thalamic neurons; bone formation; central nervous system (CNS) angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier formation and maintenance; and a wide variety of processes that orient subcellular, cellular, and multicellular structures relative to the body axes...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Chin-Hsien Lin, Han-I Lin, Meng-Ling Chen, Tzu-Ting Lai, Li-Ping Cao, Matthew J Farrer, Ruey-Meei Wu, Cheng-Ting Chien
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that lacks a disease-modifying therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) was implicated as the most common genetic cause of PD. We previously established a LRRK2-G2019S Drosophila model that displayed the crucial phenotypes of LRRK2 parkinsonism. Here, we used a two-step approach to identify compounds from the FDA-approved licensed drug library that could suppress neurite degeneration in LRRK2-G2019S parkinsonism. Of 640 compounds, 29 rescued neurite degeneration phenotypes and 3 restored motor disability and dopaminergic neuron loss in aged LRRK2-G2019S flies...
May 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Ann-Christin Niehoff, Oliver Bolle Bauer, Sabrina Kröger, Stefanie Fingerhut, Jacqueline Schulz, Sören Meyer, Michael Sperling, Astrid Jeibmann, Tanja Schwerdtle, Uwe Karst
The uptake of mercury species in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was investigated by elemental bioimaging using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The mercury distribution in Drosophila melanogaster was analyzed for the three species mercury(II) chloride, methylmercury chloride, and thimerosal after intoxication. A respective analytical method was developed and applied to the analysis of the entire Drosophila melanogaster first, before a particular focus was directed to the cerebral areas of larvae and adult flies...
October 20, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
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