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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677683/application-of-solid-phase-microextraction-followed-by-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-in-the-determination-of-antibiotic-drugs-and-their-metabolites-in-human-whole-blood-and-tissue-samples
#1
Malgorzata Szultka-Mlynska, Pawel Pomastowski, Boguslaw Buszewski
A sensitive, rapid and specific analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS) was developed to determine selected antibiotic drugs and their metabolites (amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and metronidazole; amoxycilloic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl glycyl amoxicillin, desacetyl cefotaxime, 3-desacetyl cefotaxime lactone, ciprofloxacin N-oxide, N-demethylclindamycin, clindamycin sulfoxide, and hydroxy metronidazole) in human whole blood and vascularized tissue after single oral administration...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676395/comment-on-first-line-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-with-vonoprazan-clarithromycin-and-metronidazole-in-patients-allergic-to-penicillin
#2
COMMENT
Negin Kashani, Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671516/vaginitis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
Heather L Paladine, Urmi A Desai
Vaginitis is defined as any condition with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge, odor, irritation, itching, or burning. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Bacterial vaginosis is implicated in 40% to 50% of cases when a cause is identified, with vulvovaginal candidiasis accounting for 20% to 25% and trichomoniasis for 15% to 20% of cases. Noninfectious causes, including atrophic, irritant, allergic, and inflammatory vaginitis, are less common and account for 5% to 10% of vaginitis cases...
March 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668720/do-we-treat-our-patients-or-rather-periodontal-microbes-with-adjunctive-antibiotics-in-periodontal-therapy-a-16s-rdna-microbial-community-analysis
#4
Daniel Hagenfeld, Raphael Koch, Sebastian Jünemann, Karola Prior, Inga Harks, Peter Eickholz, Thomas Hoffmann, Ti-Sun Kim, Thomas Kocher, Jörg Meyle, Doğan Kaner, Ulrich Schlagenhauf, Benjamin Ehmke, Dag Harmsen
Empiric antibiotics are often used in combination with mechanical debridement to treat patients suffering from periodontitis and to eliminate disease-associated pathogens. Until now, only a few next generation sequencing 16S rDNA amplicon based publications with rather small sample sizes studied the effect of those interventions on the subgingival microbiome. Therefore, we studied subgingival samples of 89 patients with chronic periodontitis (solely non-smokers) before and two months after therapy. Forty-seven patients received mechanical periodontal therapy only, whereas 42 patients additionally received oral administered amoxicillin plus metronidazole (500 and 400 mg, respectively; 3x/day for 7 days)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666923/chemical-analysis-and-giardicidal-effectiveness-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-cymbopogon-citratus-stapf
#5
Eman M H Méabed, Alaa I B Abou-Sreea, Mohamed H H Roby
Searching for new effective and safe treatment of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) parasite is mandatory. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Cymbagogon citratus (CcAE) against G. lamblia and to reveal the phenolic and antioxidant properties of CcAE. METHODS: CcAE (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 500 μg/ml) was in vitro incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in comparison with metronidazole (MTZ 10 and 25 μg/ml). Growth inhibition was evaluated after 3, 24, and 48 h of drug exposure...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664080/green-synthesis-of-balsam-pear-shaped-bivo-4-bipo-4-nanocomposite-for-degradation-of-organic-dye-and-antibiotic-metronidazole
#6
Yunhui Yan, Tianjun Ni, Jinge Du, Li Li, Shuai Fu, Kun Li, Jianguo Zhou
A novel BiVO4/BiPO4 composite with a balsam pear-shaped morphology was fabricated by a green hydrothermal synthesis approach, which didn't employ a strong acid and base, and neither a template or surfactant. The co-precipitation hydrothermal process had significant influence not only on particle size and shape, but also on the BiVO4 oriented growth along the (040) facet. The morphology, microstructure, light absorption and emission properties were analyzed by several characterization techniques. A formation mechanism for the hollow BiVO4/BiPO4 composite was proposed on the basis of time-dependent SEM observations...
April 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663654/nifurpirinol-a-more-potent-and-reliable-substrate-compared-to-metronidazole-for-nitroreductase-mediated-cell-ablations
#7
David Bergemann, Laura Massoz, Jordane Bourdouxhe, Claudio A Carril Pardo, Marianne L Voz, Bernard Peers, Isabelle Manfroid
The zebrafish is a popular animal model with well-known regenerative capabilities. To study regeneration in this fish, the nitroreductase/metronidazole-mediated system is widely used for targeted ablation of various cell types. Nevertheless, we highlight here some variability in ablation efficiencies with the metronidazole prodrug that led us to search for a more efficient and reliable compound. Herein, we present nifurpirinol, another nitroaromatic antibiotic, as a more potent prodrug compared to metronidazole to trigger cell-ablation in nitroreductase expressing transgenic models...
April 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655966/secular-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-barcelona-2006-2015-a-prospective-observational-study
#8
Thais Larrainzar-Coghen, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Carles Pigrau, Carmen Ferrer, Virginia Rodríguez, Rosa Bartolomé, David Campany, Benito Almirante
OBJECTIVE: Describe secular trends in the epidemiology and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: All consecutive primary CDI episodes in adults (January 2006-December 2015) were included. CDI was diagnosed on the presence of diarrhoea and a positive stool test for C. difficile toxin A and/or B. To define trends, a time-series analysis was performed using yearly data on demographics, clinical characteristics, management, antimicrobial treatment, and outcome of CDI...
April 12, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653193/treatment-of-periodontitis-in-smokers-with-multiple-sessions-of-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-or-systemic-antibiotics-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Letícia Helena Theodoro, Naida Zanini Assem, Mariéllen Longo, Márcio Luiz Ferro Alves, Cristiane Duque, Rafael Nobrega Stipp, Natália Leal Vizoto, Valdir Gouveia Garcia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapies on smokers with chronic periodontitis, involving multiple adjunctive applications of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), and systemic metronidazole (MTZ) with amoxicillin (AMX). METHODS: All participants were treated with scaling and root planing (SRP). Seventeen patients received 400 mg of MTZ and 500 mg of AMX three times per day for 7 days (MTZ + AMX)...
April 10, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652559/point-prevalence-survey-of-antibiotic-use-and-resistance-at-a-referral-hospital-in-kenya-findings-and-implications
#10
Caleb Okoth, Sylvia Opanga, Faith Okalebo, Margaret Oluka, Amanj Baker Kurdi, Brian Godman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A substantial amount of antibiotic use in hospitals may be inappropriate, potentially leading to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects, mortality and increased hospital costs. The objective was to assess current patterns of antibiotic use in a leading referral hospital in Western Kenya. This would lead to the identification of opportunities for quality improvement in this hospital and across Kenya. METHODOLOGY: A point prevalence survey was carried out with data abstracted principally from patient medical records supplemented by interviews from physicians when needed...
April 13, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651860/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-baranya-county-southern-hungary
#11
Szabolcs Vigvári, Dávid Sipos, Ágnes Kappéter, Zsófia Feiszt, Beáta Kovács, Zoltán Péterfi
In the past decade, Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have become a major public health challenge. Their epidemiology has radically changed with a significant rise in the number of cases and an increase in severe episodes. Recurrence and failure of conventional treatments are very common. Furthermore, a spread of CDI has emerged in general population without the usual risk factors (unexposed to antibiotic treatment, young people, etc.). The conventional treatments (metronidazole and vancomycin) are still effective and are the first-line antibiotics with new recommendations...
April 13, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649308/subtyping-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-591-106-and-002-the-dominant-strain-types-circulating-in-medellin-colombia
#12
Clara Lina Salazar, Catalina Reyes, Astrid Vanessa Cienfuegos-Gallet, Emma Best, Santiago Atehortua, Patricia Sierra, Margarita M Correa, Warren N Fawley, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Mark Wilcox, Angel Gonzalez
We aimed to achieve a higher typing resolution within the three dominant Clostridium difficile ribotypes (591,106 and 002) circulating in Colombia. A total of 50 C. difficile isolates we had previously typed by PCR-ribotyping, representing the major three ribotypes circulating in Colombia, were analyzed. Twenty-seven isolates of ribotype 591, 12 of ribotype 106 and 11 of ribotype 002 were subtyped by multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). The presence of the PaLoc genes (tcdA/tcdB), toxin production in culture and antimicrobial susceptibility were also determined...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649197/metronidazole-stewardship-initiative-at-christchurch-hospitals-achievable-with-immediate-benefits
#13
Sharon J Gardiner, Sarah Cl Metcalf, Paul Kl Chin, Matthew P Doogue, Simon C Dalton, Stephen T Chambers
AIMS: To evaluate an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) initiative to change hospital prescribing practice for metronidazole. METHODS: In October 2015, the Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB) AMS committee changed advice for metronidazole to promote two times daily dosing for most indications, prioritisation of the oral route and avoidance of double anaerobic cover. Adoption of the initiative was facilitated via change in prescribing guidelines, education and ongoing pharmacy support...
April 13, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642831/-identification-of-anaerobic-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-various-clinical-specimens-and-determination-of-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-with-e-test-methods
#14
Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli
The aim of this study was to identify gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens that were obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles by using the antibiotic concentration gradient method. The study was performed in Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Research and Practice Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between 1 November 2014 and 30 October 2015. Two hundred and seventyeight clinical specimens accepted for anaerobic culture were enrolled in the study...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627951/risk-factors-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-israel
#15
Wasef Na'amnih, Amos Adler, Tamar Miller-Roll, Dani Cohen, Yehuda Carmeli
To estimate the rate and identified risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) in Israel. We conducted a retro-prospective case-control study of all adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients with an initial episode of CDI (iCDI) at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. We collected demographic, clinical, and epidemiological information for patients who were classified as recurrent (cases) and non-recurrent (control) groups. In total, 648 patients with iCDI were identified in the study...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627032/factors-associated-with-distal-symmetric-polyneuropathies-in-adult-zambians-a-cross-sectional-observational-study-of-the-role-of-hiv-non-antiretroviral-medication-exposures-and-nutrition
#16
Michelle Kvalsund, Takondwa Chidumayo, Johanna Hamel, David Herrmann, Douglas Heimburger, Amanda Peltier, Gretchen Birbeck
BACKGROUND: Non-antiretroviral (ART) drug exposures and poor nutrition may be important modifiable risk factors for distal symmetric polyneuropathies (DSP) in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of DSP prevalence and factors associated with DSP among clinic attendees in urban and rural Zambia. All participants underwent neurologist-performed examination. Laboratory investigations seeking comorbid risk factors for DSP were performed for DSP cases...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626003/probable-fidaxomicin-induced-pancytopenia
#17
Samantha Axtell, Aisha Shokoya, Christine Yocum
PURPOSE: A case of pancytopenia in a patient receiving treatment with fidaxomicin for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is described. SUMMARY: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital with a chief complaint of loose stools occurring approximately 7 times a day; she also reported fever, nausea, diffuse abdominal pain, and fatigue. The patient had a history of recurrent CDI, recurrent urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, chronic hepatitis C, and endometriosis...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624912/antichagasic-leishmanicidal-and-trichomonacidal-activity-of-2-benzyl-5-nitroindazole-derived-amines
#18
Vicente J Aran, Cristina Fonseca-Berzal, Alexandra Ibáñez-Escribano, Nerea Vela, José Cumella, Juan José Nogal-Ruiz, José Antonio Escario, Patrícia Bernardino da Silva, Marcos Meuser Batista, Maria de Nazaré C Soeiro, Sergio Sifontes-Rodriguez, Alfredo Meneses-Marcel, Alicia Gómez-Barrio
Three different series of new 5-nitroindazole derivatives, 1-(ω-aminoalkyl)-2-benzylindazolin-3-ones (series A; 10 compounds), 3-(ω-aminoalkoxy)-2-benzylindazoles (series B; 4 compounds) and 3-alkylamino-2-benzylindazoles (series C; 5 compounds), have been synthesized and evaluated against the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania amazonensis and Trichomonas vaginalis, etiological agents of Chagas disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis and trichomoniasis, respectively. Many indazoles of series A, B and C were efficient against T...
April 6, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623072/biodiversity-and-microbial-resistance-of-lactobacilli-isolated-from-the-traditional-greek-cheese-kopanisti
#19
Georgios Rozos, Chrysa Voidarou, Elisavet Stavropoulou, Ioannis Skoufos, Athina Tzora, Athanasios Alexopoulos, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Kopanisti is a Greek artisan cheese produced from raw milk in the island of Mykonos, Greece. The milk is left to rest for 12-24 h and then the rennet is added. After its formation the curd is left to drain for 2-3 days and is ready either for consumption (as tyrovolia fresh cheese), or with the addition of extra salt, the curd is left to ripen through further fermentation and surface development of Penicillium fungi, aprocess leading to the production of the traditional Greek cheese Kopanisti. From 120 samples of kopanisti, 574 Lactobacillus strains were isolated, distributed in 17 species (16 of them isolated from tyrovolia as well)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622912/uncommon-pathogen-bacillus-cereus-causing-subdural-empyema-in-a-child
#20
Prastiya Indra Gunawan, Leny Kartina, Dwiyanti Puspitasari, Erny Erny
Background: Subdural empyema (SDE) in children is a severe intracranial infection. Many pathogens can cause SDE. Case Details: In this articlewe present a 15-month old Indonesian boy diagnosed as SDE based on the clinical symptoms and neuroimaging. A complete blood count showed white blood cell count of 13.800/mm3 and the CRP level was 8.3 mg/L. Craniotomy following burr hole drainage procedure was performed to decrease intracranial pressure. The liquor culture indicated Bacillus cereus...
January 2018: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
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