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Poul Jørgen Jennum, Lars Østergaard Pedersen, Justyna Maria Czarna Bahl, Signe Modvig, Karina Fog, Anja Holm, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Steen Gammeltoft
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurodegeneration are altered in narcolepsy in order to evaluate whether the hypocretin deficiency and abnormal sleep-wake pattern in narcolepsy leads to neurodegeneration. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with central hypersomnia (10 type 1 narcolepsy, 5 type 2 narcolepsy, and 6 idiopathic hypersomnia cases) aged 33 years on average, and with a disease duration of 2-29 years, and 12 healthy controls underwent CSF analyses of levels of β-amyloid, total tau protein (T-tau), phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau181), α-synuclein, neurofilament light chain (NF-L), and chitinase 3-like protein-1 (CHI3L1)...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Mohammad Haddadi, Samaneh Reiszadeh Jahromi, Upendra Nongthomba, T Shivanandappa, S R Ramesh
Oxidative stress is one of the major etiological factors implicated in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Since neurons are more sensitive to oxidative damage there is an increasing interest in developing novel antioxidant therapies, especially herbal preparations due to their safety profile and high efficiency. In this regard, the neuroprotective potential of a novel antioxidant compound, 4-hydroxyisophthalic acid (4-HIPA) isolated from aqueous extract of Decalepis hamiltonii roots was examined using transgenic Drosophila model of taupathy expressing wild-type and mutant forms of 2N4R isoform of human microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT)...
September 9, 2016: Neurochemistry International
A C Jiji, A Shine, Vinesh Vijayan
In tau proteins, the hexapeptides in the R2 and R3 repeats are known to initiate tau fibril formation, which causes a class of neurodegenerative diseases called the taupathies. We show that in R3, in addition to the presence of the hexapeptides, the correct turn conformation upstream to it is also essential for producing prion-like fibrils that are capable of propagation. A time-dependent NMR aggregation assay of a slow fibril forming R3-S316P peptide revealed a trans to cis equilibrium shift in the peptide-bond conformation preceding P316 during the growth phase of the aggregation process...
September 12, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Mohamed Salama, Wael M Y Mohamed
There is a strong correlation between taupathies and the development and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Abnormal tau becomes hyperphosphorylated and dissociated from microtubules with the aggregation of intracellular tau aggregates within the patient's brain. The current review is divided into two broad sections. In the first section we discuss the molecular biology and the clinicopathologic features of taupathies. While in the second section we discuss the relationship between mitochondrial complex-I and taupathies...
June 1, 2015: Applied & Translational Genomics
Edward Rockenstein, Kiren Ubhi, Michael Mante, Jazmin Florio, Anthony Adame, Stefan Winter, Hemma Brandstaetter, Dieter Meier, Eliezer Masliah
BACKGROUND: Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders with accumulation of three-repeat (3R) or four-repeat (4R) Tau. While 3R tau is found in Pick's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD), 4R tau is more abundant in corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and AD. We have previously shown that Cerebrolysin™ (CBL), a neuropeptide mixture with neurotrophic effects, ameliorates the pathology in amyloid precursor protein transgenic (tg) mouse model of AD and 4R tau, however it is unclear if CBL ameliorates the deficits and neuropathology in the mouse model of Pick's disease over expressing 3R tau...
November 26, 2015: BMC Neuroscience
Nirav Patel, Srinivasan Ramachandran, Rustam Azimov, Bruce L Kagan, Ratnesh Lal
Tau is a microtubule associated protein implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Because of the channel forming properties of other amyloid peptides, we employed planar lipid bilayers and atomic force microscopy to test tau for its ability to form ion permeable channels. Our results demonstrate that tau can form such channels, but only under acidic conditions. The channels formed are remarkably similar to amyloid peptide channels in their appearance, physical and electrical size, permanence, lack of ion selectivity, and multiple channel conductances...
December 22, 2015: Biochemistry
José Joaquín Merino, Vilma Muñetón-Gómez, María-Isabel Alvárez, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz
Microglia and astrocytes are the major source of cytokines in Alzheimer,s disease (AD). CX3CR1 is a delta chemokine receptor found in microglia and its neuronal ligand, Fractalkine, has two isoforms: an anchored-membrane isoform, and a soluble isoform. The reduced soluble fractalkine levels found in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) of aged rats, may be a consequence of neuronal loss. This soluble fractalkine maintains microglia in an appropiate state by interacting with CX3CR1. The ablation of the CX3CR1 gene in mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP/PS-1) increased cytokine levels, enhanced Tau pathology and worsened behavioural performance in these mice...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
M S Bele, K A Gajare, A A Deshmukh
Typical form of neurons is crucially important for their functions. This is maintained by microtubules and associated proteins like tau. Hyperphosphorylation of tau is a major concern in neurodegenerative diseases. Glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β) and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) are the enzymes that govern tau phosphorylation. Currently, efforts are being made to target GSK3β and Cdk5 as possible therapeutic avenues to control tau phosphorylation and treat neurodegenerative diseases related to taupathies...
June 2015: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Eloi Magnin, Claire Paquet, Maité Formaglio, Bernard Croisile, Ludivine Chamard, Carole Miguet-Alfonsi, Gregory Tio, Julien Dumurgier, Isabelle Roullet-Solignac, Mathilde Sauvée, Catherine Thomas-Antérion, Alain Vighetto, Jacques Hugon, Pierre Vandel
BACKGROUND: Patients with logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) display neuropathological differences from typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker levels between patients with lvPPA due to AD (lvPPA-AD), non-logopenic forms of AD (nlAD), and amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to AD (aMCI-AD). METHODS: CSF biomarker concentrations were assessed in 124 patients divided into three groups matched for age, level of education, center, and disease duration: lvPPA-AD (n = 30), nlAD (n = 67)...
2014: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Syed Waseem Bihaqi, Nasser H Zawia
Late Onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD) constitutes the majority of AD cases (∼90%). Amyloidosis and tau pathology, which are present in AD brains, appear to be sporadic in nature. We have previously shown that infantile lead (Pb) exposure is associated with a change in the expression and regulation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its beta amyloid (Aβ) products in old age. Here we report that infantile Pb exposure elevated the mRNA and protein levels of tau as well as its transcriptional regulators namely specificity protein 1 and 3 (Sp1 and Sp3) in aged primates...
December 2013: Neurotoxicology
Lili-Naz Hazrati, Maria C Tartaglia, Phedias Diamandis, Karen D Davis, Robin E Green, Richard Wennberg, Janice C Wong, Leo Ezerins, Charles H Tator
BACKGROUND: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the term coined for the neurodegenerative disease often suspected in athletes with histories of repeated concussion and progressive dementia. Histologically, CTE is defined as a tauopathy with a distribution of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that is distinct from other tauopathies, and usually shows an absence of beta-amyloid deposits, in contrast to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the connection between repeated concussions and CTE-type neurodegeneration has been recently proposed, this causal relationship has not yet been firmly established...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
K R Mridula, S Alladi, D R Varma, J R Chaudhuri, Y Jyotsna, R Borgohain, S Kaul
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is characterised by asymmetric apraxia, cortical sensory loss, extrapyramidal features and cognitive decline. Although CBS is classically described as a taupathy, heterogeneity of its aetiology is increasingly recognised. Clinical presentation of CBS appears to reflect areas of the brain involved and not necessarily the nature of the underlying pathology. We report a patient in whom resolution of a thalamic tuberculoma was associated with progressive atrophy of the parietotemporal cortex, resulting in an unusual presentation of CBS...
2009: BMJ Case Reports
Bennet I Omalu, Ronald L Hamilton, M Ilyas Kamboh, Steven T DeKosky, Julian Bailes
UNLABELLED: We present a case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a retired National Football League (NFL) Player with autopsy findings, apolipoprotein E genotype, and brain tissue evidence of chronic brain damage. This 44-year-old retired NFL player manifested a premortem history of cognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment, which included in part, chronic depression, suicide attempts, insomnia, paranoia, and impaired memory before he finally committed suicide. A full autopsy was performed with Polymerase Chain Reaction-based analyses of his blood to determine the apolipoprotein genotype...
2010: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Bennet I Omalu, Julian Bailes, Jennifer Lynn Hammers, Robert P Fitzsimmons
We present 5 cases of professional American contact sport athletes who committed parasuicides and suicides aged 50, 45, 44, 36, and 40 years old. Full forensic autopsies and immunohistochemical analyses of the brains revealed chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The brains appeared grossly normal at autopsy without gross evidence of remote traumatic injuries or neurodegenerative disease. Brain immunohistochemical analyses revealed widespread cerebral taupathy in the form of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic threads without neuritic amyloid plaques...
June 2010: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Anna Pavlova, Evan R McCarney, Dylan W Peterson, Frederick W Dahlquist, John Lew, Songi Han
We present a generally applicable approach for monitoring protein aggregation by detecting changes in surface hydration water dynamics and the changes in solvent accessibility of specific protein sites, as protein aggregation proceeds in solution state. This is made possible through the Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of water interacting with stable nitroxide spin labels tethered to specific proteins sites. This effect is highly localized due to the magnetic dipolar nature of the electron-proton spin interaction, with >80% of their interaction occurring within 5 A between the unpaired electron of the spin label and the proton of water...
August 21, 2009: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Alla B Salmina
Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations of neuron-glia interactions are associated with development of neurodegenerative diseases referred to as taupathies. Astrocytes contribute to a variety of functions of neurons, including synapse formation and plasticity, energetic and redox metabolism, and synaptic homeostasis of neurotransmitters and ions. Microglia represent the immune system of the brain and therefore are critically involved in various injuries and diseases. Oligodendrocytes have a role in regulation of steroid synthesis which is important for neuroprotection against degeneration...
2009: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Elena L Paley, Galina Denisova, Olga Sokolova, Natalia Posternak, Xukui Wang, Anna-Liisa Brownell
The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other taupathies include neurofibrillary tangles and plaques. Despite the fact that only 2-10% of AD cases are associated with genetic mutations, no nontransgenic or metabolic models have been generated to date. The findings of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) in plaques of the AD brain were reported recently by the authors. Here it is shown that expression of cytoplasmic-TrpRS is inversely correlated with neurofibrillary degeneration, whereas a nonionic detergent-insoluble presumably aggregated TrpRS is simultaneously accumulated in human cells treated by tryptamine, a metabolic tryptophan analog that acts as a competitive inhibitor of TrpRS...
2007: Neuromolecular Medicine
Haruhiko Akiyama
Many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are now characterized by abnormal accumulation of certain proteins in the brain. The key molecules include amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), tau and a-synuclein, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis and provide histopathological hallmarks of the diseases. Abeta is continuously produced in and removed from the brain. Microglia and astrocytes take up and degrade soluble Abeta. In the Alzheimer brain, once-deposited, insoluble Abeta is also removed by phagocytosis by activated microglia...
February 2006: Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi, Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology
Evan Elliott, Roee Atlas, Aya Lange, Irith Ginzburg
The microtubule-associated protein tau is essential for microtubule stabilization in neuronal axons. Hyperphosphorylation and intracellular fibrillar formation of tau protein is a pathology found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, and in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders referred to as 'taupathies'. In the present study, we investigated how brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an extracellular factor that is down-regulated in AD brains, affects tau phosphorylation. BDNF stimulation of neuronally differentiated P19 mouse embryonic carcinoma cells resulted in a rapid decrease in tau phosphorylation, at phosphorylation sites recognized by Tau 1, AT 8, AT 180 and p 262-Tau antibodies...
September 2005: European Journal of Neuroscience
I Arnulf
Dissociate states of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) are much more frequent in patients with synucleopathy than in patients with taupathy (except that REM sleep behavior disorder may affect one third of patients with supranuclear palsy), as are sleep onset REM periods, observed in patients with Parkinson's disease, multiple systemic atrophy and Lewy body disease. Recent evidences suggest that they may result from non dopaminergic lesions, including cholinergic neurons in the locus subcoeruleus and orexinergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus...
November 2003: Revue Neurologique
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