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Induction agent

Xiaopeng Zhou, Jingkai Wang, Weijing Fang, Yiqing Tao, Tengfei Zhao, Kaishun Xia, Chengzhen Liang, Jianming Hua, Fangcai Li, Qixin Chen
Nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration is usually the origin of intervertebral disc degeneration and consequent lower back pain. Although adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-based therapy is regarded to be promising for the treatment of degenerated NP, there is a lack of viable cell carriers to transplant ADSCs into the NP while maintaining cell function. In this study, we developed a type II collagen/chondroitin sulfate (CS) composite hydrogel-like ADSC (CCSA) delivery system with genipin as the cross-linking agent...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ruchi Mishra, Saurabh Sharma, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Savita Singh, Milind Madhav Sardesai, Sadhna Sharma, Vandana Mishra
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Viscum articulatum Burm. f. (leafless mistletoe) has been used in traditional system of medicines in India, China, Taiwan, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, to treat blood-related diseases and various inflammatory and degenerative diseases including cancer. Anticancer activities of some phytomolecules purified from Viscum articulatum Burm. f. have been tested. However scientific evidence for the anticancerous potential of aqueous extract of V. articularum (VAQE) used in traditional medicine is lacking...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Tetsuya Suzuki, Kyomu Matsumoto, Masamitsu Honma, Takehiko Nohmi
In regulatory genetic toxicology, it is an axiom that there is no threshold for genotoxicity of chemicals, such that genotoxic chemicals may impose carcinogenic risk on humans even at very low doses. This paradigm is counterintuitive, however, because humans possess a number of self-defense mechanisms that may suppress the genotoxicity at these low doses and therefore manifest a practical threshold. DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ) is a specialized Pol that plays an important role in DNA synthesis across DNA damage, thereby modulating cell survival and genotoxicity...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Gwang Hun Park, Hun Min Song, Su Bin Park, Ho-Jun Son, Yurry Um, Hyun-Seok Kim, Jin Boo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Because twigs of Cinnamomum cassia (TC) have been reported to exert anti-cancer activity, the mechanistic study for TC's anti-cancer activity is required. Thus, we elucidated the potential molecular mechanism of TC's anti-proliferative effect and the induction of apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: How water extracts form TC (TC-HW) was used in this study. Anti-cell proliferative effect of TC-HW was evaluated by MTT assay. The change of protein or mRNA level by TC-HW was evaluated by Western blot and RT-RCR, respectively...
January 25, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ulrich Hildebrandt, Alexander Marsell, Markus Riederer
Several anthraquinone derivatives are active components of fungicidal formulations particularly effective against powdery mildew fungi. The anti-mildew effect of compounds such as physcion and chrysophanol is largely attributed to host plant defense induction. However, so far a direct fungistatic/fungicidal effect of anthraquinone derivatives on powdery mildew fungi has not been unequivocally demonstrated. By applying a Formvar-based in vitro system we demonstrate a direct, dose-dependent effect of physcion, chrysophanol, emodin and pachybasin on conidial germination and appressorium formation of Blumeria graminis f...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yi-Chen Lee, Shui-Chin Lu, Yu-Lin Hsieh
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or those experiencing the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents may develop sensation disorders due to degeneration and injury of small-diameter sensory neurons, referred to as small fiber neuropathy. Present animal models of small fiber neuropathy affect both large- and small-diameter sensory fibers and thus create a neuropathology too complex to properly assess the effects of injured small-diameter sensory fibers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an experimental model of pure small fiber neuropathy to adequately examine these issues...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yukio Fujiwara, Yoichi Saito, Takuya Shiota, Pan Cheng, Tsuyoshi Ikeda, Koji Ohnishi, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
Recent progress in anti-tumor therapy has revealed the significance of anti-tumor immune responses in tumor progression and clinical course in several kinds of malignant tumors. The draining lymph node is an important immune system component that contains a number of antigen-presenting cells, which induce rapid immune responses to foreign antigens. Current studies have shown that higher expression of CD169 on lymph node sinus macrophages is associated with the induction of anti-tumor immunity. In the present study, we searched for natural compounds that regulate the CD169-positive phenotype in macrophages to identify potential new anti-cancer agents targeting macrophage activation...
2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
Michail Mitsis, George A Alexiou, Evrysthenis Vartholomatos, Georgios Markopoulos, Diamanto Lazari, Entela Hodaj, Dimitrios Nastos, Panagiota Zagorianakou, Vasiliki Galani, Athanasios P Kyritsis
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among women. Breast cancer cells may develop resistance to current chemotherapy, thus new chemotherapeutic agents are urgently needed. METHODS: A major number of drugs with anticancer activity have been isolated from plants. Herewith, we investigated for the first time the effect of N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (CS), isolated from Centaurea seed on a drug-resistant breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. Viability and proliferation of the cells were examined with trypan blue exclusion assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Lan Luo, Haibo Zhao, Qian Luo
PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer is one of the major causes of death in females around the world. There are several drug regimens available for this type of cancer, but despite initial response to chemotherapy, the disease consistently relapses, showing that there is a need to find more efficient and novel anticancer agents. Plant-derived natural products may prove beneficial in this case due to their lower cytotoxicity. In the present study we evaluated the anticancer activity of swerchirin against human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Xuan Wang, Xiangli Yao, Shiming Fan, Chenshuang Xiang, Runjiao Liu, Juan Feng, Jing Huang, Shouxin Liu
Melanoma is highly resistant to most traditional treatments; therefore, its incidence and mortality rates are rapidly increasing. The effect of a novel sansalvamide A analogue named LY-15 on the growth and induction of apoptosis in B16 cancer cells was investigated in vitro . The inhibitory effects of LY-15 on B16 cells occurred in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The B16 cells were cultured in various concentrations of LY-15 (5, 15 and 25 µM), and the ameliorating effect of LY-15 was evaluated using apoptotic protein markers B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3 and caspase-9...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Zhenlei Li, Xiaoping Zou, Hao Zhu, Min Chen, Yan Zhao
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with a particularly poor prognosis contributing to a substantial percentage of cancer-associated mortality rates. In the present study, the combination treatment of baicalein (BAI) and gemcitabine (GEM) was investigated to examine whether it inhibited the growth of the human CFPAC-1 pancreatic cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo . The cytotoxic interactions between BAI and GEM in human pancreatic cancer cell lines were determined using MTT assays, and the effect of the two agents on apoptosis was detected using Hoechst 33258 staining and annexin V/7-AAD...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Steven A Rosenzweig
Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs exemplifies the greatest hindrance to effective treatment of cancer patients. The molecular mechanisms responsible have been investigated for over 50 years and have revealed the lack of a single cause, but instead, multiple mechanisms including induced expression of membrane transporters that pump drugs out of cells (multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype), changes in the glutathione system, and altered metabolism. Treatment of cancer patients/cancer cells with chemotherapeutic agents and/or molecularly targeted drugs is accompanied by acquisition of resistance to the treatment administered...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Nadia A Al-Banna, Farhan Cyprian, M John Albert
Campylobacter jejuni is an important enteric pathogen that causes diarrheas of different degrees of severity and several extra-intestinal manifestations, including Guillain-Barre syndrome. The variability of disease outcomes is thought to be linked to the immune response induced by C. jejuni. The virulence factors of C. jejuni induce a pro-inflammatory response, that is initiated by the intestinal epithelial cells, propagated by innate immune cells and modulated by the cells of the adaptive immune response...
March 10, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Chen Fu, Chizhu Ding, Xianchao Sun, Ailing Fu
Nanotechnology plays an important role in the development of drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis. In this study, nanocapsules containing protein-functionalized gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) as the shell and hydrophobic drug curcumin as the core were prepared as a tumor cell theranostic agent. After the nanocapsules were added into tumor cell media, they entered the cells with high efficiency and exhibited strong fluorescence within the cells. The results indicated that the nanocapsules were broken up in the cells and curcumin was released...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Natalia Pawłowska, Agnieszka Gornowicz, Anna Bielawska, Arkadiusz Surażyński, Anna Szymanowska, Robert Czarnomysy, Krzysztof Bielawski
Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the anticancer activity and the detailed mechanism of novel diisoquinoline derivatives in human gastric cancer cells (AGS). Methods The viability of AGS cells was measured by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis assay were performed by standard flow cytometric method. Confocal microscopy bioimaging was used to demonstrate the expression of pivotal proteins engaged in apoptosis (caspase-8, caspase-3, p53) and cell signaling (AKT, ERK1/2)...
March 17, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Bei Wang, Shu-Sen Zheng, Tan-Yang Zhou, Chun-Hui Nie, Da-Long Wan
Bigelovin (BigV) is a sesquiterpene lactone, isolated from Inula helianthus aquatica, which has been reported to induce apoptosis and show anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. Nevertheless, the effects of BigV on liver cancer and the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. In the study, we found that BigV exhibited potential anti-tumor activities against human liver cancer in vitro and in vivo. BigV reduced the cell proliferation and colony formation. BigV induced apoptosis through improving the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1)...
March 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Pei-Hui Wang, Sin-Yee Fung, Wei-Wei Gao, Jian-Jun Deng, Yun Cheng, Vidyanath Chaudhary, Kit-San Yuen, Ting-Hin Ho, Ching-Ping Chan, Yan Zhang, Kin-Hang Kok, Wanling Yang, Chi-Ping Chan, Dong-Yan Jin
STING is a core adaptor in innate nucleic acid sensing in mammalian cells, on which different sensing pathways converge to induce type I interferon (IFN) production. Particularly, STING is activated by 2'3'-cGAMP, a cyclic dinucleotide containing mixed phosphodiester linkages and produced by cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS. Here, we reported on a novel transcript isoform of STING designated STING-β that dominantly inhibits innate nucleic acid sensing. STING-β without transmembrane domains was widely expressed at low levels in various human tissues and viral induction of STING-β correlated inversely with IFN-β production...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jameel Lone, Jong Pil Park, Jang Won Choi, Jong Won Yun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the browning and antioxidative effects of magnolol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as recruitment of beige-like adipocytes (browning) by natural compounds is being considered as a promising strategy to fight against obesity. METHODS: Magnolol-induced browning effect was evaluated by determining the expression levels of specific marker genes and proteins using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
Ana Carla Peixoto Guissoni, Célia Maria Almeida Soares, Kareem R Badr, Fabiola Sousa Ficcadori, Ana Flávia Alves Parente, Juliana Alves Parente, Lilian Cristina Baeza, Menira Souza, Divina das Dores de Paula Cardoso
Human Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are etiological agents of different syndromes such as gastroenteritis, cystitis, ocular, and respiratory diseases, and infection by these viruses may cause alterations in cellular homeostasis. The objective of the study was the proteomic analysis of A-549 cells infected with HAdV-40 using LC-MS. At 30 h of infection, the quantitative analysis revealed 336 differentially expressed proteins. From them, 206 were induced (up-regulated) and 130 were suppressed (down-regulated). The majority of up-regulated proteins were related to energy, cellular organization, stress response, and apoptosis pathways...
March 15, 2018: Virus Genes
Cheleka A M Mpande, One B Dintwe, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Mark Hatherill, Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba
Background: Maintenance of long-lasting immunity is thought to depend on stem cell memory T cells (TSCM ), which have superior self-renewing capacity, longevity and proliferative potential compared with central memory (TCM ) or effector (TEFF ) T cells. Our knowledge of TSCM derives primarily from studies of virus-specific CD8+ TSCM . We aimed to determine if infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, generates antigen-specific CD4+ TSCM and to characterize their functional ontology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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