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Orbital apex

S Chawla, J Bowman, M Gandhi, B Panizza
BACKGROUND: The skull base is a highly complex anatomical region that provides passage for important nerves and vessels as they course into and out of the cranial cavity. Key to the management of pathology in this region is a thorough understanding of the anatomy, with its variations, and the relationship of various neurovascular structures to the pathology in question. Targeted high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging on high field strength magnets can enable the skull base surgeon to understand this intricate relationship and deal with the pathology from a position of relative advantage...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Quanbo Jiang, Aline Pham, Serge Huant, Joel Bellessa, Cyriaque Genet, Aurélien Drezet
We report a highly efficient generation of singular surface plasmon (SP) fields by an achiral plasmonic structure consisting of Λ-shaped apertures. Our quantitative analysis, based on leakage radiation microscopy (LRM), demonstrates that the induced spin-orbit coupling can be tuned by adjusting the apex angle of the Λ-shaped aperture. Specifically, the array of Λ-shaped apertures with the apex angle 60° is shown to give rise to the directional coupling efficiency. The ring of Λ-shaped apertures with the apex angle 60° was found to generate the maximum extinction ratio (ER=11) for the SP singularities between two different polarization states...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
W Zhou, Q Liu, W D Zhao, H P Yu, X C Sun, J J Wang, Z F Liu, H Y Li, C Q Zheng, S Y Wang, D H Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the survival outcomes of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by analyzing the clinical features. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for cases of invasive fungal sinusitis proved by histological analysis between March 2006 and November 2015. All relevant factors including interval from the onset of symptoms to initiation of diagnosis, clinical characteristics, features of CT and MRI, treatment and prognosis were collected. A total of 18 patients (10 males; 8 females) were identified...
August 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Murat Ulutas, Suat Boyacı, Akın Akakın, Türker Kılıç, Kaya Aksoy
BACKGROUND: Tumors of the middle fossa or cavernous sinus (CS), or intraorbital tumors, can penetrate each other through the superior orbital fissure (SOF) or neighboring tissue. These complicated pathologies are often treated with highly invasive surgical procedures. In this article, we demonstrate surgical anatomic dissections of the CS, SOF, orbital apex (OA), and dura mater extending to the periorbita from the middle fossa, by performing an epidural dissection via a lateral orbitotomy approach, and discuss findings that may provide guidance during surgery in these regions...
November 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Kurren S Gill, David Hsu, Patrick Tassone, John Pluta, Gurston Nyquist, Howard Krein, Jurij Bilyk, Ann P Murchison, Alfred Iloreta, James J Evans, Ryan N Heffelfinger, Joseph M Curry
OBJECTIVES: To assess risk factors for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and complications after microvascular reconstruction of cranio-orbitofacial resection with orbital exenteration (CFOE). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients at a tertiary hospital underwent 76 procedures with microvascular reconstruction of CFOE defects. Patients were stratified by extent of skull base exposure and presence or absence of dural resection...
September 7, 2016: Laryngoscope
Tanya T Khan, Betsy Colon-Acevedo, Pradeep Mettu, Claudio DeLorenzi, Julie A Woodward
BACKGROUND: Embolia cutis medicamentosa (ECM) is a rare phenomenon attributed to intra-arterial drug injection. Glabellar filler injections can result in potentially devastating visual loss from inadvertent retrograde arteriolar embolization due to the extensive vasculature within the upper face. The minimum amount of filler necessary to potentiate this complication has not yet been reported. OBJECTIVES: We aim to determine the volume of filler necessary to occupy the supratrochlear artery from the glabella to the bifurcation of the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries...
August 16, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Charudutt Kalamkar, Nishant Radke, Amrita Mukherjee, Snehal Radke
Orbital Apex Syndrome (OAS) is a rare complication of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO). We are reporting a case of 65-year-old male who developed OAS following HZO. Patient presented with vesicular rash in the typical dermatomal distribution, severe periocular congestion and limited ocular motility in all gazes along with loss of vision. Soft tissue inflammation improved within 4 weeks of initiation of treatment while ocular motility slowly improved over 3 months. Patient did not gain vision despite receiving systemic steroids and systemic anti-viral medication...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Michelle E Wilson, Charles Kim, Jacqueline Carrasco
A 48-year-old smoker with a history of hyperthyroidism treated 10 years prior to presentation with radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland presented to his ophthalmologist with a 2-week history of transient loss of vision in the right eye occurring for 1 to 2 hours each morning. He denied ocular pain, diplopia or change in the prominence of one or both eyes. Examination revealed 2 mm of relative proptosis on the right, bilateral temporal flare and lower lid retraction. There was minimal upper lid retraction and no evidence of lid lag...
October 2016: Orbit
Carlos A Pérez, Monaliza Evangelista
BACKGROUND: Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a painful ophthalmoplegia caused by an inflammatory process of unknown etiology in the region of the cavernous sinus, orbital apex, or superior orbital fissure. This disease is rare in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to provide a clinical framework for the evaluation and treatment of children with this disorder. A systematic approach to the diagnosis of painful ophthalmoplegia in children is proposed. METHODS: We present a 15-year-old girl whose clinical presentation and neuroradiological findings support a diagnosis of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome as defined by the 2013 International Classification of Headache Disorders (Third Edition, ICHD-3 beta) diagnostic criteria...
September 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Adam R Sweeney, Michael Chappell, Derek A Khorsand, Arash Jian-Amadi, Courtney E Francis
Surgical excision of orbital cavernous venous malformations located in the orbital apex is challenging due to difficulty obtaining surgical exposure and higher risk of morbidity. Intralesional bevacizumab injection has been utilized for the treatment of choroidal and intracranial cavernous venous malformations. A 52-year-old woman with an orbital apical mass consistent with a cavernous venous malformation causing decreased visual acuity, diminished color vision, and visual field loss was treated with intralesional bevacizumab injected under direct surgical visualization...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Kevin K Ma, Alison B Callahan, Shih-Hsiu J Wang, James E Goldman, Michael Kazim
Orbital schwannomas are typically slow-growing benign tumors that can cause gradual loss of vision, proptosis, and limitation of ocular motility. The authors present an atypical case of a rapidly growing orbital apex schwannoma in a patient with preexisting vision loss secondary to presumed sarcoidal optic neuritis. Contrary to the slowly progressive nature of a typical orbital schwannoma, the lesion was observed to enlarge from radiologically undiscernible to 3.5 cm over 4 years.
July 13, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Janet E Del Bene, Ibon Alkorta, José Elguero
Ab initio MP2/aug'-cc-pVTZ calculations have been carried out on B4H4 and B4(CH3)4 to investigate the base properties of these molecules with Td symmetry. Each face of the tetrahedral structure of B4H4 and B4(CH3)4 is stabilized by a two-electron, three-center B-B-B bond. The face uses these two electrons to act uniquely as an electron-pair donor for the formation of stable hydrogen-bonded and halogen-bonded complexes with C3v symmetry. The hydrogen-bonded complexes are B4H4:HY and B4(CH3)4:HY, with HY = HNC, HF, HCl, HCN, and HCCH; the halogen-bonded complexes are B4H4:ClY and B4(CH3)4:ClY, with ClY = ClF, ClCl, ClNC, ClCN, ClCCH, and ClH...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Kator Chaha, Dominic Chinda, Mustapha Abubakar Waziri, Emmanuel Raphael Abah
This study was conducted to highlight the diagnostic and management challenges of orbital apex lesions. It is a retrospective report of a 14-year-old female who presented with no perception of light vision in her left eye following a 1-year history of left unilateral axial proptosis. Her computed tomography scan revealed a mass surrounding the optic nerve which was reported to be an optic nerve glioma. She had lateral orbitotomy and a cystic mass was dissected and excised. Systemic steroids and antibiotics were administered...
May 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
Kang-Jae Shin, Hyun Jin Shin, Shin-Hyo Lee, Wu-Chul Song, Ki-Seok Koh, Young-Chun Gil
BACKGROUND: Blocking the supraorbital nerve (SON) and supratrochlear nerve (STN) by injecting anesthetic distal to the surgical site has the advantage in upper eyelid surgery that avoids obscuring the surgical landmarks and compromising the levator function. OBJECTIVE: To identify the emerging points of the SON and STN in the supraorbital margin with reference to the lacrimal caruncle. METHODS: Forty-nine orbits from 27 embalmed Korean cadavers were dissected...
August 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Long Van Duong, Minh Tho Nguyen
Geometric and electronic structures of the boron cluster B14 and its silicon derivatives B13Si(+), B13Si(-), and B12Si2 were determined using DFT calculations (TPSSh/6-311+G(d)). The B12Si2 fullerene, which is formed by substituting two B atoms at two apex positions of the B14 fullerene by two Si atoms, was also found as the global minimum structure. We demonstrated that the electronic structure and orbital configuration of these small fullerenes can be predicted by the wavefunctions of a particle on a cylinder...
June 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Stefan Meierott, Nicolas Néel, Jörg Kröger
Line shapes of molecular vibrational quanta in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy may indicate the strength of electron-vibration coupling, the hybridization of the molecule with its environment, and the degree of vibrational damping by electron-hole pair excitation. Bare as well as C60-terminated Pb tips of a scanning tunneling microscope and clean as well as C60-covered Pb(111) surfaces were used in low-temperature experiments. Depending on the overlap of orbital and vibrational spectral ranges different spectroscopic line shapes of molecular vibrational quanta were observed...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
O Yu Yatsenko, I E Tyurin
OBJECTIVE: to study the characteristics of orbital soft tissues in health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Computed tomography scans of 210 individuals (266 orbits) with no orbital abnormality were examined. RESULTS: The paper presents the volumetric characteristics and parameters of the soft tissue density of the orbit and its apex (extraocular muscles, retrobulbar fat, optic nerve, lacrimal gland, eye, and vitreous body) in health. The internal surgical space fat at the orbital apex is estimated to be 75...
January 2016: Vestnik Rentgenologii i Radiologii
Anna See, Tiong Yong Tan, Eng Cern Gan
Skull base osteomyelitis typically arises as a complication of otogenic or sinonasal infections in immunocompromised patients. A much rarer entity, atypical skull base osteomyelitis is not associated with an obvious infective source. Atypical and culture-negative skull base osteomyelitis is even rarer and hampers diagnosis, as its clinical presentation is remarkably similar to skull base neoplasms. We report a case of extensive skull base osteomyelitis with orbital apex syndrome and multiple lower cranial nerve palsies which initially masqueraded as possible advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma...
May 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Chin Pei Siuw, Siow W Tan, Adrena B Abdul Wahid, Suresh Vasudevan
A 40-year-old man presented with right eye axial proptosis and ophthalmoplegia for 3 months. Imaging study showed a right intraconal mass with the erosion of the orbital floor. Incisional biopsy revealed mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Nasal endoscopy was normal and systemic tumor screening was negative for a primary source. The patient underwent right orbital exenteration, uncinectomy, nasal and maxillary mucosal biopsy. Malignant cells were found present in the mucosa of maxillary sinus roof and uncinate bone. The postoperative positron emission tomography scan showed residual active lesion in right orbital apex and maxilla but no primary lesion elsewhere...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Quentin Lisan, Frédéric Kolb, Stéphane Temam, Yungan Tao, François Janot, Antoine Moya-Plana
BACKGROUND: Indications for preservation of orbital contents in case of malignant sinonasal tumors invading the orbit remain controversial. METHODS: A retrospective consecutive review was conducted of patients in a tertiary care center over a 15-year period. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were diagnosed with a malignant tumor invading the orbit. Eighty-three were treated with curative intent of which 58 underwent surgery. Mean follow-up was 45 months...
April 30, 2016: Head & Neck
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