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Sarah Löw, Tracy T Batchelor
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma limited to the brain, spinal cord, leptomeninges, and eyes. The majority of patients are immunocompetent, with a median age of 65 years at diagnosis. Historically, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was the first and sole treatment for PCNSL. Today, due to the recognized neurotoxicity of WBRT, this modality is usually avoided in the treatment. Most chemotherapy regimens are based on high-dose methotrexate plus the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, leading to high response rates, but 5-year survival is still poor at approximately 30% compared with other extranodal lymphomas...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Marcel Adler, Valérie Lapierre, Riwa Sakr, Jean-Henri Bourhis, Bertrand Gachot, Cristina Castilla-Llorente, Benjamin Wyplosz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Souheil El-Chemaly, Kevin J O'Brien, Steven D Nathan, Gerald L Weinhouse, Hilary J Goldberg, Jean M Connors, Ye Cui, Todd L Astor, Philip C Camp, Ivan O Rosas, Merte Lemma, Vladislav Speransky, Melissa A Merideth, William A Gahl, Bernadette R Gochuico
Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal manifestation of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). Some patients with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis undergo lung transplantation despite their disease-associated bleeding tendency; others die while awaiting donor organs. The objective of this study is to determine the clinical management and outcomes of a cohort with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis who were evaluated for lung transplantation. Six patients with HPS-1 pulmonary fibrosis were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and one of two regional lung transplant centers...
2018: PloS One
John Klein, Amelia Jepsen, Amy Patterson, Richard R Reich, Tina M Mason
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) use a central venous catheter (CVC); heparin is often employed to maintain patency but may increase the risk of complications. Research has not provided conclusive differences in efficacy and safety regarding heparin flushing versus normal saline flushing in CVC maintenance. Minimal research is specific to this patient population. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine if differences exist in CVC patency, tissue plasminogen activator usage, and the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections when flushing with normal saline only versus heparin and normal saline among patients undergoing BMT...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Mitsuru Futakuchi, Takao Nitanda, Saeko Ando, Harutoshi Matsumoto, Eri Yoshimoto, Katsumi Fukamachi, Masumi Suzui
BACKGROUND: We examined the effects of recombinant human osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (hOCIF) on osteolysis, proliferation of mammary tumor cells, and induction of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumor-bone and tumor-subcutaneous microenvironments (TB- and TS-microE). METHODS: Mouse mammary tumor cells were transplanted onto the calvaria or into a subcutaneous lesion of female mice, creating a TB-microE and a TS-microE, and the mice were then treated with hOCIF...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hideaki Kagaya, Takenori Niioka, Mitsuru Saito, Takamitsu Inoue, Kazuyuki Numakura, Ryohei Yamamoto, Yumiko Akamine, Tomonori Habuchi, Shigeru Satoh, Masatomo Miura
While tacrolimus and everolimus have common metabolic pathways through CYP3A4/5, tacrolimus is metabolized solely by CYP3A4 in recipients with the CYP3A5*3 / *3 . The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the area under the blood concentration-time curves (AUC) of tacrolimus could be predicted based on CYP3A5 genotype and the AUC of everolimus in renal transplant patients taking both drugs. The dose-adjusted AUC (AUC/D) of tacrolimus and everolimus were calculated at one month and one year after transplantation...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Aneesh Srivastava, Anil Mani
Organ transplantation has improved the lives of hundreds of thousands of patients all the world. The total organ donation shortage of the country can be met with if even 5 to 10% of the victims involved in fatal accidents serve as organ donors. The challenges include an interplay of sociocultural factors, beliefs and superstitions, lack of communication and organizational support, and negative views by the media. Several initiatives to encourage deceased organ donation include the Indian Network for Organ Sharing, a subdivision of the National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization, the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THOA), as well as the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue Rules...
March 2018: Neurology India
K Ganapathy
Until six decades ago, death was considered to be a specific point in time, referring to the moment at which life ends. With the availability of ventilators, even determining when death has occurred is becoming difficult, as cessation of life functions is often not simultaneous across organ systems. With increasing accessibility to intensive care units (ICUs) even in Tier II and Tier III cities, and the government making it mandatory to notify brain death to facilitate cadaveric organ transplants, it behooves the neurosurgeon and neurologist to totally understand the minutiae of brain death...
March 2018: Neurology India
Guido Kobbe, Thomas Schroeder, Rainer Haas, Ulrich Germing
Allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation (aBSCT) still is the only curative therapy for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. While it carries the hope for cure for some patients, it may result in severe toxicity and death from complications or recurrent disease in others. Recent developments have improved patient and donor selection as well as technical aspects of the transplant procedure and post-transplant care, including early detection and treatment of relapse. Areas covered: This review will discuss current stratification tools to identify suitable patients, donors and transplant techniques...
March 16, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Katarzyna Skrzypek, Yazmin Brito Barrera, Thomas Groth, Dimitrios Stamatialis
INTRODUCTION: Encapsulation of pancreatic islets or beta cells is a promising strategy for treatment of type 1 diabetes by providing an immune isolated environment and allowing for transplantation in a different location than the liver. However, islets used for encapsulation often show lower functionality due to the damaging of islet endothelial cells during the isolation procedure. Factors produced by endothelial cells have great impact on beta cell insulin secretion. Therefore, mutual signaling between endothelial cells and beta cells should be considered for the development of encapsulation systems to achieve high insulin secretion and maintain beta cell viability...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Prashant Rao, Jack B Keenan, Taufiek K Rajab, Samuel Kim, Richard Smith, Orazio Amabile, Zain Khalpey
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular complications represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Marfan syndrome. Here, we describe a unique case where a total artificial heart was implanted in a young Marfan syndrome woman. METHODS: A 22-year-old postpartum African American female with Marfan syndrome developed multiple severe valve dysfunction and biventricular failure that was refractory to medical management. She previously had a Bentall procedure for Type A aortic dissection and repair of a Type B dissection...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Alessandra Maria Mont Alverne Pierre, Ana Cristina de Castro Amaral Feldner, Roberto José de Carvalho Filho, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida Lopes, Michele Soares Gomes Gouvea, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Claudia Teresa Carvente, Christini Takemi Emori, Genimari Arruda da Silva, Maria Lúcia Cardoso Gomes Ferraz
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver disease in hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients. Hepatitis Delta virus is a defective virus transmitted by the same route of hepatitis B virus, which requires the helper function of hepatitis B virus. Data about hepatitis B virus/hepatitis delta virus coinfection are scarce and there are no studies regarding the coinfection among hemodialysis patients and renal transplant in our country. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus infection among hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Kristin Bjørnland, Maren Hinna, Gunnar Aksnes, Kjetil Juul Stensrud, Kjetil Ertresvåg, Anniken Bjørnstad-Østensen, Truls Sanengen, Pål-Dag Line, Ingegerd Aagenæs, Lars Aabakken, Ragnhild Emblem, Runar Almaas
OBJECTIVES: The importance of case load for treatment of extrahepatic biliary atresia (BA) is debated. The aim of this study was to register results of BA treatment in a small volume centre. METHODS: Retrospective chart review study of patients with BA treated from 2000 to 2017. The institutional review board approved the study. RESULTS: Forty-five babies were identified of which 42 (93%) are alive. Forty-one patients had a Kasai portoenterostomy (PE), two had a hepaticojejunostomy and two had a primary liver transplantation...
March 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Marco Guarene, Carla Badulli, Anna L Cremaschi, Ilaria Sbarsi, Rosalia Cacciatore, Carmine Tinelli, Annamaria Pasi, Paola Bergamaschi, Cesare G Perotti
INTRODUCTION: Allele-level donor-recipient match at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-DRB1 loci impacts the outcome after cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancies and modifies the strategy of donor selection. High definition of both class I and II HLA loci at time of listing is a way to improve the attractiveness of cord blood bank inventories, reducing the time for donor search and procurement and simplifying donor choice, in particular, for patients of non-European heritage...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Andrea J Santamaría, Juan P Solano, Francisco D Benavides, James D Guest
Cell transplant-mediated tissue repair of the damaged spinal cord is being tested in several clinical trials. The current candidates are neural stem cells, stromal cells, and autologous Schwann cells (aSC). Due to their peripheral origin and limited penetration of astrocytic regions, aSC are transplanted intralesionally as compared to neural stem cells that are transplanted into intact spinal cord. Injections into either location can cause iatrogenic injury, and thus technical precision is important in the therapeutic risk-benefit equation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Biomaterials can be utilized to assist in the transplantation of Schwann cells to the central and peripheral nervous system. The biomaterials can be natural or man-made, and can have preformed shapes or injectable formats. Biomaterials can play multiple roles in cellular transplantation; for example, they can assist with cellular integration and protect Schwann cells from cell death initiated by the lack of a substrate, an occurrence known as "anoikis." In addition, biomaterials can be engineered to increase cell proliferation and differentiation by the addition of ligands bound to the substrate...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ying Dai, Caitlin E Hill
Adult Schwann cells (SCs) can provide both a permissive substrate for axonal growth and a source of cells to ensheath and myelinate axons when transplanted into the injured spinal cord. Multiple studies have demonstrated that SC transplants can be used as part of a combinatorial approach to repairing the injured spinal cord. Here, we describe the protocols for collection and transplantation of adult rat primary SCs into the injured spinal cord. Protocols are included for the tissue culture procedures necessary for collection, quantification, and suspension of the cells for transplantation and for the surgical procedures for spinal cord injury at thoracic level nine (T9), reexposure of the injury site for delayed transplantation, and injection of the cells into the spinal cord...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Susana R Cerqueira, Yee-Shuan Lee, Mary Bartlett Bunge
In vitro models using Schwann cell and astrocyte co-cultures have been used to understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of boundaries between these cells in vivo. Schwann cell/astrocyte co-cultures also mimic the in vivo scenario of a transplant in a spinal cord injury site, thereby allowing testing of therapeutic approaches. In this chapter, we describe a triple cell culture system with Schwann cells, astrocytes, and neurons that replicates axon growth from a Schwann cell graft into an astrocyte-rich region...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sa Cai, Daisy K Y Shum, Ying-Shing Chan
Here we describe the in vitro derivation of sensory neurons for use in effecting fate commitment of Schwann cell-like cells derived from human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). We adopt a novel combination of small molecules in an 8-day program that induces the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into sensory neurons. In co-cultures, the derived sensory neurons present contact-dependent cues to direct hBMSC-derived Schwann cell-like cells toward the Schwann cell fate. These derived human Schwann cells survive passaging and cryopreservation, retain marker expression despite withdrawal of glia-inducing medium and neuronal cues, demonstrate capacity for myelination, and therefore promise application in autologous transplantation and re-myelination therapy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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