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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793179/nano-strategies-for-berberine-delivery-a-natural-alkaloid-of-berberis
#1
REVIEW
Elaheh Mirhadi, Mehdi Rezaee, Bizhan Malaekeh-Nikouei
Berberine, as a phytochemical component of some medicinal Chinese herbs (most frequently Berberis vulgaris), is an isoquinoline alkaloid with many therapeutic effects including anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diarrhea, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Berberine has some significant effects on type 2 diabetes through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, glycolysis stimulation, and mitochondrial function inhibition which subsequently improves both lipid and glucose metabolism...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792990/identification-of-group-a-rotaviruses-from-zambian-fruit-bats-provides-evidence-for-long-distance-dispersal-events-in-africa
#2
Michihito Sasaki, Masahiro Kajihara, Katendi Changula, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Hirohito Ogawa, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Aaron S Mweene, Martin Simuunza, Reiko Yoshida, Michael Carr, Yasuko Orba, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa
Group A rotavirus (RVA) is a major cause of diarrhea in children worldwide. Although RVA infects many animals, little is known about RVA in bats. The present study investigated the genetic diversity of RVA in Zambian bats. We identified RVA from two straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) and an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus), and analyzed the genome sequences of these strains. Genome segments of the RVA strains from Zambian E. helvum showed 97%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with those of other RVA strains from E...
May 21, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792989/novel-genotypes-and-multilocus-genotypes-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-pigs-in-northwestern-china-a-public-health-concern
#3
Sha-Sha Wang, Jun-Qiang Li, Yun-Hui Li, Xiang-Wei Wang, Xian-Chen Fan, Xin Liu, Zi-Juan Li, Jun-Ke Song, Long-Xian Zhang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most important and common microsporidian species, inhabits in most animals and humans causing diarrhea and systemic diseases. The objectives of the present study were to examine the prevalence and genetic variability of E. bieneusi in pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 560 pig faecal samples were collected from five different farms in Shaanxi province and molecularly characterized using multilocus genotyping (MLST) technology. High E. bieneusi infection rate (78...
May 21, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792233/antibiotic-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-non-typhoidal-salmonella-strains-isolated-from-infections-in-southwest-china
#4
Shun-Xian Zhang, Yong-Ming Zhou, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Rita Tinoco-Torres, Emmanuel Serrano, Shi-Zhu Li, Shao-Hong Chen, Lin Ai, Jun-Hu Chen, Shang Xia, Yan Lu, Shan Lv, Xue-Jiao Teng, Wen Xu, Wen-Peng Gu, Si-Tang Gong, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Lan-Lan Geng, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial diarrhea is one of the most common causes for medical consultations, mortality and morbidity in the world. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are major intestinal pathogens in developing countries, and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has greatly contributed to resistant strains. Hence, the aim of the present study is to identify the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the molecular characteristics of DEC and NTS in southwest, China...
May 7, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792229/characterization-of-medle-1-a-protein-in-early-development-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#5
Jilan Fei, Haizhen Wu, Jiayuan Su, Chanchan Jin, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are important diarrhea-causing pathogens in humans and animals. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that Cryptosporidium-specific MEDLE family proteins may contribute to host adaptation of Cryptosporidium spp., and a recent study of one member of this family, CpMEDLE-2 encoded by cgd5_4590, has provided evidence supporting this hypothesis. In this study, another member of the protein family, CpMEDLE-1 of Cryptosporidium parvum encoded by cgd5_4580, which is distinct from CpMEDLE-2 and has no signature motif MEDLE, was cloned, expressed and characterized to understand its function...
May 23, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792020/daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir-combination-therapy-for-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b-infection-in-real-world
#6
Jae Young Oh, Byung Seok Kim, Chang Hyeong Lee, Jeong Eun Song, Heon Ju Lee, Jung Gil Park, Jae Seok Hwang, Woo Jin Chung, Byoung Kuk Jang, Young Oh Kweon, Won Young Tak, Soo Young Park, Se Young Jang, Jeong Ill Suh, Sang Gyu Kwak
Background/Aims: Previous studies have reported a high rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) and a low rate of serious adverse events with the use of daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) combination therapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DCV and ASV combination therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b infection in real world. Methods: We enrolled 278 patients (184 treatment-naïve patients) from five hospitals in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do...
May 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791981/inguinoscrotal-hernia-containing-the-urinary-bladder-successfully-repaired-using-laparoscopic-transabdominal-preperitoneal-repair-technique-a-case-report
#7
Tatsuya Tazaki, Masaru Sasaki, Mohei Kohyama, Yoichi Sugiyama, Shinnosuke Uegami, Ryuta Shintakuya, Yuji Imamura, Atsushi Nakamitsu
We report herein a patient with an inguinoscrotal hernia containing the urinary bladder. The hernia was safely repaired using the laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal repair technique. A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. His scrotum was swollen to fist size. Abdominal CT showed herniation of the sigmoid colon and the bladder into the right inguinal region, and his abdominal pain was attributed to incarceration of the sigmoid colon; this was manually reduced...
May 23, 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791507/a-novel-mouse-model-of-campylobacter-jejuni-enteropathy-and-diarrhea
#8
Natasa Giallourou, Gregory L Medlock, David T Bolick, Pedro Hqs Medeiros, Solanka E Ledwaba, Glynis L Kolling, Kenneth Tung, Patricia Guerry, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
Campylobacter infections are among the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea and of 'environmental enteropathy' (EE) and growth failure worldwide. However, the lack of an inexpensive small animal model of enteric disease with Campylobacter has been a major limitation for understanding its pathogenesis, interventions or vaccine development. We describe a robust standard mouse model that can exhibit reproducible bloody diarrhea or growth failure, depending on the zinc or protein deficient diet and on antibiotic alteration of normal microbiota prior to infection...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789941/new-variants-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-with-large-deletions-in-the-spike-protein-identified-in-the-united-states-2016-2017
#9
Yunfang Su, Yixuan Hou, Melanie Prarat, Yan Zhang, Qiuhong Wang
Four types of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variants with a large deletion in the spike protein were detected, together with the original US PEDV, from pig fecal and oral fluid samples collected during 2016-2017 in the US. Two of the variants are similar to those identified in Japan: one contains a 194-aa deletion, the same as PEDV variant TTR-2/JPN/2014, while the other contains a 204-aa deletion, the same as PEDV variant JKa-292/CS1de204. Two new S1 NTD-del PEDV variants were found: one contains a 201-aa deletion located at residues 30-230 and the other contains a 202-aa deletion located at residues 24-225 of the S protein...
May 22, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788497/a-study-of-the-focal-adhesion-kinase-inhibitor-gsk2256098-in-patients-with-recurrent-glioblastoma-with-evaluation-of-tumor-penetration-of-11c-gsk2256098
#10
Nicholas F Brown, Matthew Williams, Hendrik-Tobias Arkenau, Ronald A Fleming, Jerry Tolson, Li Yan, Jianping Zhang, Lisa Swartz, Rajendra Singh, Kurt R Auger, Laurie Lenox, David Cox, Yvonne Lewis, Christophe Plisson, Graham Searle, Azeem Saleem, Sarah Blagden, Paul Mulholland
Background: GSK2256098 is a novel oral focal adhesion kinase inhibitor. Preclinical studies demonstrate growth inhibition in glioblastoma cell lines. However, rodent studies indicate limited blood-brain barrier penetration. In this expansion cohort within a phase I study, the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and clinical activity of GSK2256098 were evaluated in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Biodistribution and kinetics of [11C]GSK2256098 were assessed in a sub-study using positron-emission tomography (PET)...
May 17, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788400/real-time-incidence-of-travel-related-symptoms-through-a-smartphone-based-app-remote-monitoring-system-a-pilot-study
#11
N Rodriguez-Valero, M J Ledesma Carbayo, D Cuadrado Sanchez, A Vladimirov, M Espriu, I Vera, M Roldan, T de Alba, S Sanz, J L Gonzalez Moreno, M Luengo Oroz, J Muñoz
Trip Doctor®, a Smartphone-based app monitoring system, was developed to detect infections among travelers in real-time. For testing, 106 participants were recruited (62.2% male, mean age 36 years (SD = 11)). Majority of trips were for tourism and main destinations were in South East Asia. Mean travel duration was 14 days (SD = 10). Diarrhea was the most frequently reported symptom (15.5%). The system demonstrated adequate usability and is ready to be used on a larger scale.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788296/comparison-of-c-difficile-stool-toxin-concentrations-in-adults-with-symptomatic-infection-and-asymptomatic-carriage-using-an-ultrasensitive-quantitative-immunoassay
#12
Nira R Pollock, Alice Banz, Xinhua Chen, David Williams, Hua Xu, Christine A Cuddemi, Alice X Cui, Matthew Perrotta, Eaman Alhassan, Brigitte Riou, Aude Lantz, Mark A Miller, Ciaran P Kelly
Background: We used an ultrasensitive, quantitative Single Molecule Array (Simoa) immunoassay to test whether concentrations of C. difficile toxins A and/or B in the stool of adult inpatients with CDI were higher than in asymptomatic carriers of toxinogenic C. difficile. Methods: Patients enrolled as CDI-NAAT had clinically significant diarrhea and positive nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), per US guidelines, and received CDI treatment. Potential carriers had recently received antibiotics and did not have diarrhea; positive NAAT confirmed carriage...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788266/dietary-magnesium-alleviates-experimental-murine-colitis-through-upregulation-of-the-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-6-channel
#13
Valentina Trapani, Valentina Petito, Angelica Di Agostini, Daniela Arduini, Willem Hamersma, Giuseppe Pietropaolo, Francesca Luongo, Vincenzo Arena, Egidio Stigliano, Loris R Lopetuso, Antonio Gasbarrini, Federica I Wolf, Franco Scaldaferri
Background: Magnesium (Mg) is essential for human health and is absorbed mainly in the intestine. In view of the likely occurrence of an Mg deficit in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the documented role of Mg in modulating inflammation, the present study addresses whether Mg availability can affect the onset and progression of intestinal inflammation. Methods: To study the correlation between Mg status and disease activity, we measured magnesemia by atomic absorption spectroscopy in a cohort of IBD patients...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788180/rotavirus-vaccination-is-associated-with-reduced-seizure-hospitalization-risk-among-commercially-insured-u-s-children
#14
Rachel M Burke, Jacqueline E Tate, Rebecca Moritz Dahl, Negar Aliabadi, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus commonly causes diarrhea but can also cause seizures. Analysis of insurance claims for 1,773,295 US children with 2950 recorded seizures found that, compared to rotavirus-unvaccinated children, seizure hospitalization risk was reduced by 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13% - 33%) and 14% (95%CI, 0% - 26%) among fully and partially rotavirus-vaccinated children, respectively.
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787594/is-community-led-total-sanitation-connected-to-the-rebuilding-of-latrines-quantitative-evidence-from-mozambique
#15
Hans-Joachim Mosler, Sebastian Mosch, Miriam Harter
To reduce open defecation, many implementers use the intervention strategies of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). But CLTS focuses on latrine construction and does not include latrine maintenance and repair damage or collapse. Some households rebuild their latrine while others return to open defecation. The reasons why are unknown. Using data from a cross-sectional survey, this article shows how physical, personal, and social context factors and psychosocial factors from the RANAS model are associated with CLTS participation, and how these factors connect to latrine rebuilding...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787356/selection-of-optimal-adjuvant-chemotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-for-early-breast-cancer-asco-clinical-practice-guideline-focused-update
#16
Neelima Denduluri, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Melinda L Telli, Andrea Eisen, Stephanie L Graff, Michael J Hassett, Jamie N Holloway, Arti Hurria, Tari A King, Gary H Lyman, Ann H Partridge, Mark R Somerfield, Maureen E Trudeau, Antonio C Wolff, Sharon H Giordano
Purpose To update key recommendations of the ASCO guideline adaptation of the Cancer Care Ontario guideline on the selection of optimal adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for early breast cancer and adjuvant targeted therapy for breast cancer. Methods An Expert Panel conducted targeted systematic literature reviews guided by a signals approach to identify new, potentially practice-changing data that might translate to revised practice recommendations. Results The Expert Panel reviewed phase III trials that evaluated adjuvant capecitabine after completion of standard preoperative anthracycline- and taxane-based combination chemotherapy by patients with early-stage breast cancer HER2-negative breast cancer with residual invasive disease at surgery; the addition of 1 year of adjuvant pertuzumab to combination chemotherapy and trastuzumab for patients with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer; and the use of neratinib as extended adjuvant therapy for patients after combination chemotherapy and trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787334/global-rotavirus-vaccine-introductions-and-coverage-2006-2016
#17
Alice Abou-Nader, Molly Sauer, A Duncan Steele, Jacqueline E Tate, Deborah Atherly, Umesh D Parashar, Mathuram Santosham, E Anthony S Nelson
An estimated 215,000 children died of rotavirus infections in 2013, accounting for 37% of diarrhea-related deaths worldwide, 92% of which occurred in low and lower-middle income countries. Since 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of rotavirus vaccines in all national immunization programs. This review compares rotavirus vaccine (RV) introductions and vaccine coverage by region, country income status and Gavi-eligibility from 2006-2016. Gross National Income data from the World Bank and surviving infant population from United Nations Population Division was obtained for 2016...
May 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786671/mechanisms-of-action-and-cell-death-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-toxins
#18
REVIEW
Mauricio A Navarro, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans...
May 22, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786521/mortality-diarrhea-and-respiratory-disease-in-danish-dairy-heifer-calves-effect-of-production-system-and-season
#19
M Reiten, T Rousing, P T Thomsen, N D Otten, B Forkman, H Houe, J T Sørensen, M K Kirchner
Diarrhea and respiratory disease are major health problems for dairy calves, often causing calf mortality. Previous studies have found calf mortality to be higher in organic dairy herds compared to conventional herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between production system (conventional/organic), season (summer/winter) and calf mortality risk, diarrhea, signs of respiratory disease and ocular discharge, respectively, for dairy heifer calves aged 0-180 days. Sixty Danish dairy herds, 30 conventional and 30 organic, were visited once during summer and once during winter...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786169/bangladeshi-children-with-acute-diarrhea-show-fecal-microbiomes-with-increased-streptococcus-abundance-irrespective-of-diarrhea-etiology
#20
Silas Kieser, Shafiqul A Sarker, Olga Sakwinska, Francis Foata, Shamima Sultana, Zeenat Khan, Shoheb Islam, Nadine Porta, Séverine Combremont, Bertrand Betrisey, Coralie Fournier, Aline Charpagne, Patrick Descombes, Annick Mercenier, Bernard Berger, Harald Brüssow
We report streptococcal dysbiosis in acute diarrhea irrespective of etiology. Compared to 20 healthy local controls, 71 Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute diarrhea (AD) of viral, mixed viral/bacterial, bacterial and unknown etiology showed a significantly decreased bacterial diversity with loss of pathways characteristic for the healthy distal colon microbiome (mannan degradation, methylerythritol phosphate and thiamin biosynthesis), an increased proportion of fecal streptococci belonging to the Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius species complexes, and an increased level of E...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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