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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549055/is-it-worth-adding-loperamide-to-antibiotic-treatment-of-traveler%C3%A2-s-diarrhea
#1
Yazmín Pinos, María Isabel Ruiz, Óscar Corsi, Gabriel Rada
Travelers' diarrhea is a frequent condition, especially in those traveling to high-risk areas. Although antibiotic treatment reduces the duration of diarrhea, it has been suggested adding loperamide could further reduce the symptoms. To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We identified two systematic reviews including 28 studies overall, of which 15 were randomized trials relevant for the question of interest...
May 23, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548891/immunological-characteristics-of-colitis-associated-with-anti-ctla-4-antibody-therapy
#2
Giorgos Bamias, Ioanna Delladetsima, Marina Perdiki, Spyros I Siakavellas, Dimitrios Goukos, George V Papatheodoridis, George L Daikos, Helen Gogas
Anti-CTL4-A therapy is associated with development of colitis. We characterized ipilimumab-associated colitis in nine melanoma patients (6 male, mean age: 55.3-yrs). Median value for diarrhea grade was 2, number of ipilimumab doses 2, and interval since last administration 3-wks. Endoscopic characteristics resembled inflammatory bowel disease and histology revealed predominance of plasmacytes or CD4+ T-cells. We observed significant upregulation of Th1 and Th17 effector pathways (>10-fold increase for IFN-γmRNA, >5-fold for IL-17A, p < 0...
May 26, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548889/therapy-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-an-sn-38-anti-trop-2-drug-conjugate-sacituzumab-govitecan
#3
Rebecca Suk Heist, Michael J Guarino, Gregory Masters, W Thomas Purcell, Alexander N Starodub, Leora Horn, Ronald J Scheff, Aditya Bardia, Wells A Messersmith, Jordan Berlin, Allyson J Ocean, Serengulam V Govindan, Pius Maliakal, Boyd Mudenda, William A Wegener, Robert M Sharkey, David M Goldenberg, D Ross Camidge
Purpose Trop-2, expressed in most solid cancers, may be a target for antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We studied sacituzumab govitecan (IMMU-132), a Trop-2 ADC, for the targeting of SN-38. Patients and Methods We evaluated IMMU-132 in a single-arm multicenter trial in patients with pretreated metastatic NSCLC who received either 8 or 10 mg/kg on days 1 and 8 of 21-day cycles. The primary end points were safety and objective response rate (ORR). Progression-free survival and overall survival were secondary end points...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547525/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-with-trastuzumab-docetaxel-and-carboplatin-administered-every-3%C3%A2-weeks-for-japanese-women-with-her2-positive-primary-breast-cancer-efficacy-and-safety
#4
Ikuko Sugitani, Shigeto Ueda, Takashi Sakurai, Takashi Shigekawa, Eiko Hirokawa, Hiroko Shimada, Hideki Takeuchi, Kazuo Matsuura, Misono Misumi, Nobuko Fujiuchi, Takao Takahashi, Takahiro Hasebe, Akihiko Osaki, Toshiaki Saeki
BACKGROUND: This phase II neoadjuvant study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a triweekly regimen of docetaxel and carboplatin in combination with trastuzumab (TCbH) in Japanese women with human epidermal growth factor receptor type2 (HER2)-positive primary breast cancer. METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive, stage I-III invasive breast cancer received six courses of trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose, then 6 mg/kg, day 1), docetaxel (75 mg/m(2), day 1), and carboplatin (area under the curve: 6, day 1) every 3 weeks...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546830/antibiotic-resistance-serogroups-virulence-genes-and-phylogenetic-groups-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-yaks-with-diarrhea-in-qinghai-plateau-china
#5
Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Hui Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Shucheng Huang, Fazul Nabi, Houqiang Luo, Yanfang Lan, Jiakui Li
BACKGROUND: Ruminants serve as one of the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection with E. coli, a foodborne enteropathogen, can lead to asymptomatic infections that can cause life-threatening complications in humans. Therefore, from a clinical and human health perspective, it is important to know which virulence genes, phylogenetic groups, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in E. coli strains in yaks with diarrheic infections. METHODS: Two-hundred and ninety-two rectal swabs were collected from diarrheic yaks in Qinghai Plateau, China...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546477/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-a-human-parechovirus-from-a-child-with-diarrhea-in-china-revealed-intertypic-recombination
#6
Xiaoying Zhao, Chenglin Zhou, Xiaodan Zhang, Wang Li, Xinyu Wan, Yan Wang, Yuming Zeng, Wen Zhang
A human parechovirus (HPeV), CH-ZXY1, was detected in feces from a child with diarrhea. Phylogenetic trees over three different genomic regions revealed discordant topological structures. Recombination analysis indicates that CH-ZXY1 is a recombinant resulting from recombination between HPeV5 and HPeV1, which was confirmed by PCR covering the recombination breakpoint.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546075/antimicrobial-storage-and-antibiotic-knowledge-in-the-community-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study-in-north-western-angola
#7
Joana Cortez, Edite Rosário, João E Pires, João Taborda Lopes, Moisés Francisco, Erika Vlieghe, Miguel Brito
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are drugs that were once lifesavers and mainly curative. Nowadays their value is increasingly under pressure because of the fast and worldwide emergence of antimicrobial resistance, which, in low resources settings, frequently occurs in microorganisms that are likely to be transmitted in the community. METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study including 102 households within the 10th HDSS round in Dande, Bengo Province, Angola. RESULTS: From the total 102 households piloted, 77...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545907/impact-of-chemotherapy-on-gastrointestinal-functions-and-the-enteric-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Escalante, Rachel M McQuade, Vanesa Stojanovska, Kulmira Nurgali
Chemotherapy is the main treatment for many cancers, including colorectal cancer, a type of cancer with some of the highest prevalence and mortality rates worldwide. Although chemotherapeutic drugs have greatly improved the survival rates of cancer patients, there are many side-effects associated with their use. The gastrointestinal side-effects of chemotherapy often lead to dose reduction or even discontinuation of treatment, which in turn affects the clinical outcome. Gastrointestinal side-effects, such as chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and constipation, may persist many years after treatment, greatly reducing quality of life...
May 10, 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545321/virus-detection-by-pcr-following-vaccination-of-naive-calves-with-intranasal-or-injectable-multivalent-modified-live-viral-vaccines
#9
Paul H Walz, Benjamin W Newcomer, Kay P Riddell, Daniel W Scruggs, Victor S Cortese
We evaluated duration of PCR-positive results following administration of modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines to beef calves. Twenty beef calves were randomly assigned to either group 1 and vaccinated intranasally with a MLV vaccine containing bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), or to group 2 and vaccinated subcutaneously with a MLV vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2), BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544984/histo-blood-group-antigens-as-mediators-of-infections
#10
REVIEW
Julie E Heggelund, Annabelle Varrot, Anne Imberty, Ute Krengel
The critical first step of a microbial infection is usually the attachment of pathogens to host cell glycans. Targets on host tissues are in particular the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are present in rich diversity in the mucus layer and on the underlying mucosa. Recent structural and functional studies have revealed significant new insight into the molecular mechanisms, explaining why individuals with certain blood groups are at increased risk of some infections. The most prominent example of blood-group-associated diseases is cholera, caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544250/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-intraoperative-gastroesophageal-reflux-and-postanesthetic-vomiting-and-diarrhea-in-dogs-undergoing-general-anesthesia
#11
Carlos Torrente, Isabel Vigueras, Edgar G Manzanilla, Cecilia Villaverde, Laura Fresno, Bibiana Carvajal, Marina Fiñana, Cristina Costa-Farré
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of intraoperative gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and postanesthetic vomiting and diarrhea, and to evaluate risk factors associated with these gastrointestinal disorders (GID) in dogs undergoing general anesthesia. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Two hundred thirty-seven client-owned dogs undergoing general inhalant anesthesia for diagnostic or surgical purposes...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544102/a-multicenter-retrospective-case-cohort-study-of-the-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-cord-blood-transplant-recipients
#12
Carolyn D Alonso, David A Braun, Ishan Patel, Mona Akbari, Daniel Jungmyung Oh, Tomi Jun, Malgorzata McMasters, Sarah P Hammond, Brett Glotzbecker, Corey Cutler, Daniel Leffler, Karen K Ballen, Ciarán P Kelly
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of health-care associated infectious diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and risk factors for CDI in the 100 days following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) at three Boston hospitals. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, retrospective, case-cohort study of 226 UCBT recipients at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Dana Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center from 2003-2012...
May 24, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543805/mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-of-the-transverse-colon-a-rare-tumor-entity-with-literature-review
#13
Fei Han, Hong Jiang, Suxia Zhang
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare entity. Here, we report a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the transverse colon in a 77-year-old woman who presented with a 2-month history of epigastrium pain, diarrhea and melena. A giant tumor with apparently invading gallbladder was found by enhanced CT scan, then the extended resection of transverse colon was performed for the patient 2 weeks later. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of solid nests of epidermoid and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive mucin-producing cells with desmoplastic stroma...
May 24, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543534/a-chimeric-protein-of-cfa-i-cs6-subunits-and-ltb-sta-toxoid-could-protect-immunized-mice-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#14
Narges Zeinalzadeh, Ali Hatef Salmanian, Goli Goujani, Jafar Amani, Ghasem Ahangari, Asal Akhavian, Mahyat Jafari
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins are the main virulence determinants in ETEC pathogenesis. Heterogeneity of CFs commonly considered as the bottleneck to achieve an effective vaccine. On the other hand, it is believed that a broad spectrum protection against ETEC would be available when the anti-CF and anti-enterotoxin immunity were induced simultaneously...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543426/predictors-and-pathways-of-language-and-motor-development-in-four-prospective-cohorts-of-young-children-in-ghana-malawi-and-burkina-faso
#15
Elizabeth L Prado, Souheila Abbeddou, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Mary Arimond, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Jaden Bendabenda, Kenneth H Brown, Sonja Y Hess, Emma Kortekangas, Anna Lartey, Kenneth Maleta, Brietta M Oaks, Eugenia Ocansey, Harriet Okronipa, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, Anna Pulakka, Jérôme W Somé, Christine P Stewart, Robert C Stewart, Stephen A Vosti, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Kathryn G Dewey
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews have identified 44 risk factors for poor early child development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries. Further understanding of their relative influence and pathways is needed to inform the design of interventions targeting ECD. METHODS: We conducted path analyses of factors associated with 18-month language and motor development in four prospective cohorts of children who participated in trials conducted as part of the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project in Ghana (n = 1,023), Malawi (n = 675 and 1,385), and Burkina Faso (n = 1,122)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543045/colonic-or-ileocecocolic-volvulus-in-13-dogs-2005-2016
#16
Tanja Plavec, Stefan Rupp, Martin Kessler
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and clinicopathological features of colonic or ileocecocolic volvulus (CV/ICV) in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Thirteen dogs with surgically confirmed CV/ICV. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for signalment, medical history, clinical signs, laboratory data, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: All cases consisted of large-breed dogs (median weight 37...
May 20, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542567/effects-of-age-and-weaning-conditions-on-blood-indicators-of-oxidative-status-in-pigs
#17
Arnaud Buchet, Catherine Belloc, Mily Leblanc-Maridor, Elodie Merlot
Weaning is a source of social, nutritional and environmental disorders that challenge piglet health. This study assesses the relevance of using plasma indicators of oxidative status as biomarkers of health around weaning in pigs. Blood antioxidant potential (BAP), hydroperoxides (HPO), oxidative stress index (OSI, e.g. HPO/BAP), vitamin A and E concentrations were investigated in two different trials. Trial A was carried out in an experimental unit to investigate the effects of age (from 12 to 147 days of age), weaning (at 21 or 28 days of age) and management at weaning (in optimal (OC) or deteriorated (DC) conditions) on those parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542391/effectiveness-of-facility-based-personalized-maternal-nutrition-counseling-in-improving-child-growth-and-morbidity-up-to-18-months-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-rural-burkina-faso
#18
Laetitia Nikièma, Lieven Huybregts, Yves Martin-Prevel, Philippe Donnen, Hermann Lanou, Joep Grosemans, Priscilla Offoh, Michèle Dramaix-Wilmet, Blaise Sondo, Dominique Roberfroid, Patrick Kolsteren
The period from conception to 24 months of age is a crucial window for nutrition interventions. Personalized maternal counseling may improve childbirth outcomes, growth, and health. We assessed the effectiveness of facility-based personalized maternal nutrition counseling (from pregnancy to 18 months after birth) in improving child growth and health in rural Burkina Faso. We conducted a paired cluster randomized controlled trial in a rural district of Burkina Faso with 12 primary health centers (clusters). Healthcare providers in the intervention centers received patient-centered communication and nutrition counseling training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542235/environmental-persistence-of-porcine-coronaviruses-in-feed-and-feed-ingredients
#19
Michaela P Trudeau, Harsha Verma, Fernando Sampedro, Pedro E Urriola, Gerald C Shurson, Sagar M Goyal
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV), and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample) into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541500/prophylactic-efficacy-of-hyperimmune-bovine-colostral-antiadhesin-antibodies-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-diarrhea-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1-trial
#20
Stephen J Savarino, Robin McKenzie, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Aisling O'Dowd, Joyce A Cantrell, Stephanie A Sincock, Steven T Poole, Barbara DeNearing, Colleen M Woods, Hye Kim, Shannon L Grahek, Carl Brinkley, Joseph H Crabb, A Louis Bourgeois
Background.: Tip-localized adhesive proteins of bacterial fimbriae from diverse pathogens confer protection in animal models, but efficacy in humans has not been reported. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) commonly elaborate colonization factors comprising a minor tip adhesin and major stalk-forming subunit. We assessed the efficacy of antiadhesin bovine colostral IgG (bIgG) antibodies against ETEC challenge in volunteers. Methods.: Adults were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to take oral hyperimmune bIgG raised against CFA/I minor pilin subunit (CfaE) tip adhesin or colonization factor I (CFA/I) fimbraie (positive control) or placebo...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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