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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915438/variations-in-clinical-presentation-and-anatomical-distribution-of-gross-lesions-of-african-swine-fever-in-domestic-pigs-in-the-southern-highlands-of-tanzania-a-field-experience
#1
Maulilio John Kipanyula, Solomon Wilson Nong'ona
African swine fever is a contagious viral disease responsible for up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs. A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the clinical presentation and anatomical distribution of gross lesions in affected pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania during the 2010 to 2014 outbreaks. Data were collected during clinical and postmortem examination by field veterinarians and using a structured questionnaire. A total of 118 respondents (100%) showed awareness about African swine fever. During previous outbreaks, the mortality rate was almost 100%, while in 2014 it was estimated to be less than 50%...
December 3, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914957/multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-mlva-of-shigella-sonnei-isolates-of-2012-outbreak-i-r-iran
#2
Bita Bakhshi, Bahareh Bayat, Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari
Shigella sonnei is a major cause of diarrhea especially in children. Molecular study can help to determine the outbreak of this bacterium. Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) will largely influence the public health field by introducing newer, faster, safer, and effective procedure for typing of microorganisms. A total of fifty shigella isolates were collected between November 2012 to October 2013 in Tehran, Iran. The strains were identified base on biochemical and molecular tests. Subsequently, all shigella species were confirmed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914128/seroprevalence-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-in-southeastern-korea-2015
#3
Kye Hyung Kim, Mee Kyung Ko, Namhee Kim, Hyung Hoi Kim, Jongyoun Yi
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease characterized by fever, thrombocytopenia and diarrhea. SFTS was firstly reported in Korea in 2013 but its seroprevalence in the country has yet to be investigated. Here, we investigate the seroprevalence of SFTS in a Korean population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who had their sera tested for various reasons at a tertiary university hospital on particular days in May 2015. This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in southeastern Korea...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913776/necitumumab-for-the-treatment-of-squamous-cell-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Jessica K Brinkmeyer, Donald C Moore
Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common form of lung cancer, accounting for about 85% of all cases and is further subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, and large cell carcinoma. Necitumumab (Portrazza™, Eli Lilly and Company) is an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody approved for the first-line treatment of squamous cell non-small cell lung cancer in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine. The safety and efficacy of necitumumab has been evaluated in two-phase III clinical trials, one demonstrating a lack of efficacy in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer and another demonstrating improvement in overall survival and progression-free survival in squamous cell non-small cell lung cancer...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913512/walking-a-tightrope-clinical-use-of-ibrutinib-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma-in-the-elderly
#5
Marco Ruella, Pierre Soubeyran
Representative clinical case. A 74-year-old male patient was diagnosed with stage 3 mantle cell lymphoma in 2012. Because he was ineligible for intensive treatment (age, previous myocardial infarction [MI]), he received rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemoimmunotherapy for 6 cycles (reaching complete response) and then rituximab maintenance (RM) for 2 years. One year after the end of RM, he relapsed with disseminated disease. He was started on ibrutinib 560 mg/day...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911128/s-1-in-combination-with-docetaxel-and-oxaliplatin-in-patients-with-advanced-gastro-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-two-parallel-phase-1-2a-studies
#7
Per Pfeiffer, Camilla Qvortrup, Merete Krogh, Katrine Schoennemann, Lene W Vestermark, Helle A Jensen, Jon K Bjerregaard
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel in combination with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of several standard chemotherapy regimens for patients with advanced gastro-esophageal adenocarcinoma (aGEA) in Europe. To enable outpatient treatment, we evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended dose (RD), dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and safety of docetaxel in combination with oxaliplatin (O) and S-1 (DOS) in Caucasian patients with aGEA. METHODS: We present final results of two parallel phase 1/2a studies (3 + 3 design)...
December 2, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910140/side-effects-of-irinotecan-cpt-11-the-clinically-used-drug-for-colon-cancer-therapy-are-eliminated-in-experimental-animals-treated-with-latex-proteins-from-calotropis-procera-apocynaceae
#8
Nylane Maria Nunes de Alencar, Flávio da Silveira Bitencourt, Ingrid Samantha Tavares de Figueiredo, Patrícia Bastos Luz, Roberto César P Lima-Júnior, Karoline Sabóia Aragão, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Ronaldo Albuquerque Ribeiro, Ana Paula Fragoso de Freitas, Marcio Viana Ramos
Intestinal mucositis (IM) is the critical side effect of irinotecan (CPT-11), which is the front-line drug used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of latex proteins (LP) from Calotropis procera to prevent IM and diarrhea in animals. Swiss mice were treated daily with saline or LP (1, 5, or 50 mg/kg, i.v.) 24 h prior to CTP-11 (75 mg/kg/4 days, i.p) and for additional 6 days. Animal survival, body weight variation, and diarrhea were registered. After animal sacrifice (day 7 post first injection of CPT-11), intestinal samples were collected to study morphology and inflammatory parameters...
December 2, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909950/hatt-a-phase-iv-single-arm-open-label-study-of-sorafenib-in-taiwanese-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Shi-Ming Lin, Sheng-Nan Lu, Ping-Tsung Chen, Long-Bin Jeng, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Chi-Tan Hu, Sien-Sing Yang, Marie-Aude Le Berre, Xuan Liu, David Y Mitchell, Klaas Prins, Joachim Grevel, Carol A E Peña, Gerold Meinhardt
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib significantly improves survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This phase IV study assessed sorafenib efficacy/safety in Taiwanese patients with advanced HCC and Child-Pugh A status. METHODS: All patients received 400 mg sorafenib BID. Safety, efficacy, sorafenib pharmacokinetics, and Child-Pugh progression were evaluated. A hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) prevention substudy assessed HFSR incidence and grade/severity and time to HFSR in 29 and 34 patients randomized to corticosteroid and noncorticosteroid ointments, respectively, and in 88 nonrandomized patients...
December 1, 2016: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908520/diagnosis-and-updates-in-celiac-disease
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Shannahan, Daniel A Leffler
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder induced by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. It can result in intraintestinal and extraintestinal manifestations of disease including diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, osteoporosis, or lymphoma. Diagnosis of celiac disease is made through initial serologic testing and then confirmed by histopathologic examination of duodenal biopsies. Generally celiac disease is a benign disorder with a good prognosis in those who adhere to a gluten-free diet. However, in refractory disease, complications may develop that warrant additional testing with more advanced radiologic and endoscopic methods...
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907206/intestinal-fluid-permeability-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-is-affected-by-dietary-protein-source
#11
Haibin Hu, Trond M Kortner, Karina Gajardo, Elvis Chikwati, John Tinsley, Åshild Krogdahl
In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907192/adaptive-test-schemes-for-control-of-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cows
#12
Carsten Kirkeby, Kaare Græsbøll, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Lasse Engbo Christiansen, Nils Toft, Tariq Halasa
Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection that in dairy cattle causes reduced milk yield, weight loss, and ultimately fatal diarrhea. Subclinical animals can excrete bacteria (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, MAP) in feces and infect other animals. Farmers identify the infectious animals through a variety of test-strategies, but are challenged by the lack of perfect tests. Frequent testing increases the sensitivity but the costs of testing are a cause of concern for farmers. Here, we used a herd simulation model using milk ELISA tests to evaluate the epidemiological and economic consequences of continuously adapting the sampling interval in response to the estimated true prevalence in the herd...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907002/chemical-composition-an-antioxidant-cytotoxic-and-microbiological-activity-of-the-essential-oil-from-the-leaves-of-aeollanthus-suaveolens-mart-ex-spreng
#13
Rosany Lopes Martins, Ranggel Carvalho Simões, Érica de Menezes Rabelo, Ana Luzia Ferreira Farias, Alex Bruno Lobato Rodrigues, Ryan da Silva Ramos, João Batista Fernandes, Lourivaldo da Silva Santos, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de Almeida
Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906964/undernutrition-vitamin-a-and-iron-deficiency-are-associated-with-impaired-intestinal-mucosal-permeability-in-young-bangladeshi-children-assessed-by-lactulose-mannitol-test
#14
Md Iqbal Hossain, Rashidul Haque, Dinesh Mondal, Mustafa Mahfuz, Am Shamsir Ahmed, M Munirul Islam, Richard L Guerrant, William A Petri, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Lactulose/mannitol (L:M) test has been used as a non-invasive marker of intestinal mucosal -integrity and -permeability (enteropathy). We investigated the association of enteropathy with anthropometrics, micronutrient- status, and morbidity in children. METHODS: The urine and blood samples were collected from 925 children aged 6-24 months residing in Mirpur slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh during November 2009 to April 2013. L:M test and micronutrient status were assessed in the laboratory of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) following standard procedure...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906684/phase-i-study-of-the-gamma-secretase-inhibitor-pf-03084014-in-combination-with-docetaxel-in-patients-with-advanced-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#15
Marzia A Locatelli, Philippe Aftimos, E Claire Dees, Patricia M LoRusso, Mark D Pegram, Ahmad Awada, Bo Huang, Rossano Cesari, Yuqiu Jiang, M Naveed Shaik, Kenneth A Kern, Giuseppe Curigliano
BACKGROUND: The NOTCH signaling pathway may be involved in the survival of stem cell-like tumor-initiating cells and contribute to tumor growth. In this phase Ib, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01876251), we evaluated PF-03084014, a selective gamma-secretase inhibitor in patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer. METHODS: The dose-finding part was based on a 2×3 matrix design using the modified toxicity probability interval method. Oral PF-03084014 was administered twice daily continuously in combination with intravenous docetaxel given on day 1 of each 21-day cycle...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#16
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905939/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#17
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
March 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905658/-lymphocytic-colitis-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis-report-of-one-case
#18
Camila Estay, Daniela Simian, Lilian Flores, Antonio Piottante, Rodrigo Quera
The relationship between Microscopic Colitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease is unclear. However, when both are diagnosed they seem to be part of a broader spectrum of the same disease, more than just a coincidence. We report a 55 years old woman with Ulcerative Colitis limited to the rectum with complete clinical and endoscopic response to standard treatment and adequate surveillance for 13 years, who abandoned treatment and control. After eight years, she consulted for mild-to-moderate non-bloody diarrhea lasting several months...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905620/-the-water-supply-of-a-pediatric-hospital-as-a-possible-source-of-an-outbreak-of-diarrhea-due-to-microsporidium-spp-in-immunocompromised-patients
#19
Paulina Coria, Claudia Urízar, Andrea Alba, Isabel Noemí, Anita Pino, José Luis Cerva
INTRODUCTION: The hospital water supply is a reservoir of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms that can particularly affect children and immunocompromised patients. Potentially pathogenic Microsporidium spp. have been identified in water. Microsporidiosis is an emerging parasitic and opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: to describe an outbreak of nosocomial diarrhea due to Microsporidium, species Encephalitozoon intestinalis...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905288/cyclospora-cayetanensis-opportunistic-protozoan-parasite-in-van-province-turkey-a-report-of-seven-cases
#20
Zeynep Taş Cengiz, Yunus Emre Beyhan, Hasan Yılmaz
The aim of this study is to report seven Cyclospora cayetanensis (C.cayetanensis) cases determined in Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory, Van province, Turkey. In the study native-Lugol, formalin-ethyl acetate and modified acid-fast staining methods were performed to stool samples of the patients sent from outpatient clinics of the hospital. All of the patients infected with C. cayetanensis were older than 15 years. In our cases there were not a history of international travel. Only one of our seven cases was immunosuppressed...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
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