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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098959/influence-of-electronic-and-molecular-structure-on-the-fragmentation-dynamic-of-even-electron-carbocationic-triangulenes-and-helicenes-in-the-gas-phase
#1
Jakob Felix Hitzenberger, Agnes Uhl, Jürgen Schatz, Thomas Drewello
Stable, long-lived organic cations are directly transferred by electrospray ionization (ESI) from solution into the gas phase where their collision-induced dissociations (CID) are studied by tandem mass spectrometry. Three related types of triphenyl carbenium ions are investigated, in which the meta positions are either substituted by methoxy groups or tertiary nitrogen bridges, including Tetramethoxyphenylacridinium (TMPA(+) ), dimethoxyquinacridinium (DMQA(+) ) and triazatriangulenium (TATA(+) ) cations. These ions are triangular in shape with increasing degrees of planarity...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098894/17%C3%AE-%C3%A2-estradiol-treatment-drives-sp1-to-upregulate-malat%C3%A2-1-expression-and-epigenetically-affects-physiological-processes-in-u2os-cells
#2
Qiongying Hu, Shuiqin Li, Changjin Chen, Menglin Zhu, Yiming Chen, Ziyi Zhao
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor characterized by high risk of metastasis, thus presents with an overall survival rate of 60%, despite the use of chemotherapy and surgery. Metastasis‑associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT‑1) has been reported to upregulated and epigenetically regulate the metastasis in osteosarcoma; however, the regulatory mechanisms of MALAT‑1 expression remain unclear. In the current study, significant upregulation of MALAT‑1 was observed subsequent to exposure to low concentrations of 17β‑estradiol (E2) in U2OS cells...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098876/bdnf-regulates-the-expression-and-secretion-of-vegf-from-osteoblasts-via-the-trkb-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-during-fracture-healing
#3
Zitao Zhang, Yan Zhang, Zhengnan Zhou, Hongfei Shi, Xusheng Qiu, Jin Xiong, Yixin Chen
Brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotropic family, is expressed in osteoblast‑like cells of a fracture callus, however, its role in fracture healing remains to be fully elucidated. Osteoblasts isolated from Sprague Dawley rats were stimulated by BDNF in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression and distribution of targeted proteins. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released in medium was determined using an ELISA...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098844/modeling-and-calibration-of-a-novel-one-mirror-galvanometric-laser-scanner
#4
Chengyi Yu, Xiaobo Chen, Juntong Xi
A laser stripe sensor has limited application when a point cloud of geometric samples on the surface of the object needs to be collected, so a galvanometric laser scanner is designed by using a one-mirror galvanometer element as its mechanical device to drive the laser stripe to sweep along the object. A novel mathematical model is derived for the proposed galvanometer laser scanner without any position assumptions and then a model-driven calibration procedure is proposed. Compared with available model-driven approaches, the influence of machining and assembly errors is considered in the proposed model...
January 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098630/collapse-of-the-microbiome-emergence-of-the-pathobiome-and-the-immunopathology-of-sepsis
#5
John C Alverdy, Monika A Krezalek
The definition of sepsis has been recently modified to accommodate emerging knowledge in the field, while at the same time being recognized as challenging, if not impossible, to define. Here, we seek to clarify the current understanding of sepsis as one that has been typically framed as a disorder of inflammation to one in which the competing interests of the microbiota, pathobiota, and host immune cells lead to loss of resilience and nonresolving organ dysfunction. Here, we challenge the existence of the idea of noninfectious sepsis given that critically ill humans never exist in a germ-free state...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098559/lattice-boltzmann-simulations-of-the-bead-spring-microswimmer-with-a-responsive-stroke-from-an-individual-to-swarms
#6
Kristina Pickl, Jayant Pande, Harald Köstler, Ulrich Rüde, Ana-Suncana Smith
Propulsion at low Reynolds numbers is often studied by defining artificial microswimmers which exhibit a particular stroke. The disadvantage of such an approach is that the stroke does not adjust to the environment, in particular the fluid flow, which can diminish the effect of hydrodynamic interactions. To overcome this limitation, we simulate a microswimmer consisting of three beads connected by springs and dampers, using the self-developed waLBerla and <i>pe</i> framework based on the lattice Boltzmann method and the discrete element method...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098557/length-dependent-flagellar-growth-of-vibrio-alginolyticus-revealed-by-real-time-fluorescent-imaging
#7
Meiting Chen, Ziyi Zhao, Jin Yang, Kai Peng, Matthew A B Baker, Fan Bai, Chien-Jung Lo
Bacterial flagella are extracellular filaments that drive swimming in bacteria. During its assembly, flagellins are transported unfolded through the central channel in the flagellum to the growing tip. Here we applied in vivo fluorescent imaging to monitor in real time the Vibrio alginolyticus polar flagella growth. The flagellar growth rate is found to be highly length-dependent. Initially, the flagellum grows at a constant rate (50nm/min) when shorter than 1500nm. The growth rate decays sharply when the flagellum grows longer...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098415/intracranial-aav-ifn-%C3%AE-gene-therapy-eliminates-invasive-xenograft-glioblastoma-and-improves-survival-in-orthotopic-syngeneic-murine-model
#8
Dwijit GuhaSarkar, James Neiswender, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Miguel Sena-Esteves
The highly invasive property of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and genetic heterogeneity are largely responsible for tumor recurrence after the current standard-of-care treatment and thus a direct cause of death. Previously, we have shown that intracranial interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene therapy by locally administered adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) successfully treats noninvasive orthotopic glioblastoma models. Here, we extend these findings by testing this approach in invasive human GBM xenograft and syngeneic mouse models...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098277/tuning-of-intrinsic-antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic-ordering-in-microporous-%C3%AE-mno2-by-inducing-tensile-strain
#9
G Kruthika, J Karthikeyan, P Murugan
By employing first principles density functional calculations, we investigated an α-MnO2 compound with a tunnel framework, which provides an eminent platform to alter the intrinsic antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) ordering, through the introduction of chemical or mechanical tensile strain. Our calculations further showed that the strength of FM ordering increases until 10% triaxial tensile strain. Since long range FM ordering is induced, it is realized to be superior as compared to the experimentally observed short-range FM ordering in oxygen-deficient compound...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098159/fluid-shear-stress-activates-yap1-to-promote-cancer-cell-motility
#10
Hyun Jung Lee, Miguel F Diaz, Katherine M Price, Joyce A Ozuna, Songlin Zhang, Eva M Sevick-Muraca, John P Hagan, Pamela L Wenzel
Mechanical stress is pervasive in egress routes of malignancy, yet the intrinsic effects of force on tumour cells remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that frictional force characteristic of flow in the lymphatics stimulates YAP1 to drive cancer cell migration; whereas intensities of fluid wall shear stress (WSS) typical of venous or arterial flow inhibit taxis. YAP1, but not TAZ, is strictly required for WSS-enhanced cell movement, as blockade of YAP1, TEAD1-4 or the YAP1-TEAD interaction reduces cellular velocity to levels observed without flow...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098154/structural-basis-of-ligand-interaction-with-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3
#11
Martin Gustavsson, Liwen Wang, Noortje van Gils, Bryan S Stephens, Penglie Zhang, Thomas J Schall, Sichun Yang, Ruben Abagyan, Mark R Chance, Irina Kufareva, Tracy M Handel
Chemokines drive cell migration through their interactions with seven-transmembrane (7TM) chemokine receptors on cell surfaces. The atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) binds chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12 and signals exclusively through β-arrestin-mediated pathways, without activating canonical G-protein signalling. This receptor is upregulated in numerous cancers making it a potential drug target. Here we collected over 100 distinct structural probes from radiolytic footprinting, disulfide trapping, and mutagenesis to map the structures of ACKR3:CXCL12 and ACKR3:small-molecule complexes, including dynamic regions that proved unresolvable by X-ray crystallography in homologous receptors...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097937/an-assembly-type-master-slave-catheter-and-guidewire-driving-system-for-vascular-intervention
#12
Hyo-Jeong Cha, Byung-Ju Yi, Jong Yun Won
Current vascular intervention inevitably exposes a large amount of X-ray to both an operator and a patient during the procedure. The purpose of this study is to propose a new catheter driving system which assists the operator in aspects of less X-ray exposure and convenient user interface. For this, an assembly-type 4-degree-of-freedom master-slave system was designed and tested to verify the efficiency. First, current vascular intervention procedures are analyzed to develop a new robotic procedure that enables us to use conventional vascular intervention devices such as catheter and guidewire which are commercially available in the market...
January 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097822/synthetic-lethality-emerging-targets-and-opportunities-in-melanoma
#13
REVIEW
Nicola Thompson, David Adams, Marco Ranzani
Great progress has been made in the treatment of melanoma through use of targeted therapies and immunotherapy. One approach that has not been fully explored is synthetic lethality, which exploits somatically acquired changes, usually driver mutations, to specifically kill tumour cells. We outline the various approaches that may be applied to identify synthetic lethal interactions and define how these interactions may drive drug discovery efforts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097775/breaking-the-tetra-coordinated-framework-rule-new-clathrate-ba8-m24-p28-%C3%AE-m-cu-zn
#14
Juli-Anna Dolyniuk, Julia V Zaikina, Derrick C Kaseman, Sabyasachi Sen, Kirill Kovnir
A new clathrate type has been discovered in the Ba/Cu/Zn/P system. The crystal structure of the Ba8 M24 P28+δ (M=Cu/Zn) clathrate is composed of the pentagonal dodecahedra common to clathrates along with a unique 22-vertex polyhedron with two hexagonal faces capped by additional partially occupied phosphorus sites. This is the first example of a clathrate compound where the framework atoms are not in tetrahedral or trigonal-pyramidal coordination. In Ba8 M24 P28+δ a majority of the framework atoms are five- and six-coordinated, a feature more common to electron-rich intermetallics...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097765/a-false-positive-screening-hit-in-fragment-based-lead-discovery-watch-out-for-the-red-herring
#15
Jonathan Cramer, Johannes Schiebel, Tobias Wulsdorf, Kristof Grohe, Eszter Eva Najbauer, Frederik R Ehrmann, Nedyalka Radeva, Nina Zitzer, Uwe Linne, Rasmus Linser, Andreas Heine, Gerhard Klebe
With the rising popularity of fragment-based approaches in drug development, more and more attention has to be devoted to the detection of false-positive screening results. In particular, the small size and low affinity of fragments drives screening techniques to their limit. The pursuit of a false-positive hit can cause significant loss of time and resources. Here, we present an instructive and intriguing investigation into the origin of misleading assay results for a fragment that emerged as the most potent binder for the aspartic protease endothiapepsin (EP) across multiple screening assays...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097727/energetics-kinetics-and-pathway-of-snare-folding-and-assembly-revealed-by-optical-tweezers
#16
REVIEW
Yongli Zhang
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are universal molecular engines that drive membrane fusion. Particularly, synaptic SNAREs mediate fast calcium-triggered fusion of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles with plasma membranes for synaptic transmission, the basis of all thought and action. During membrane fusion, complementary SNAREs located on two apposed membranes (often called t- and v-SNAREs) join together to assemble into a parallel four-helix bundle, releasing the energy to overcome the energy barrier for fusion...
January 18, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097513/stable-control-of-firing-rate-mean-and-variance-by-dual-homeostatic-mechanisms
#17
Jonathan Cannon, Paul Miller
Homeostatic processes that provide negative feedback to regulate neuronal firing rates are essential for normal brain function. Indeed, multiple parameters of individual neurons, including the scale of afferent synapse strengths and the densities of specific ion channels, have been observed to change on homeostatic time scales to oppose the effects of chronic changes in synaptic input. This raises the question of whether these processes are controlled by a single slow feedback variable or multiple slow variables...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097504/estimating-the-relative-weights-of-visual-and-auditory-tau-versus-heuristic-based-cues-for-time-to-contact-judgments-in-realistic-familiar-scenes-by-older-and-younger-adults
#18
Behrang Keshavarz, Jennifer L Campos, Patricia R DeLucia, Daniel Oberfeld
Estimating time to contact (TTC) involves multiple sensory systems, including vision and audition. Previous findings suggested that the ratio of an object's instantaneous optical size/sound intensity to its instantaneous rate of change in optical size/sound intensity (τ) drives TTC judgments. Other evidence has shown that heuristic-based cues are used, including final optical size or final sound pressure level. Most previous studies have used decontextualized and unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., geometric shapes on a blank background)...
January 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097486/the-therapeutic-effectiveness-of-delayed-fetal-spinal-cord-tissue-transplantation-on-respiratory-function-following-mid-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Chia-Ching Lin, Sih-Rong Lai, Yu-Han Shao, Chun-Lin Chen, Kun-Ze Lee
Respiratory impairment due to damage of the spinal respiratory motoneurons and interruption of the descending drives from brainstem premotor neurons to spinal respiratory motoneurons is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical spinal cord injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of delayed transplantation of fetal spinal cord (FSC) tissue on respiratory function in rats with mid-cervical spinal cord injury. Embryonic day-14 rat FSC tissue was transplanted into a C4 spinal cord hemilesion cavity in adult male rats at 1 week postinjury...
January 17, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097447/mannose-binding-lectin-mbl-codon-54-rs1800450-polymorphism-predisposes-towards-medium-vessel-vasculitis-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#20
Vir Singh Negi, Panneer Devaraju, Durga Prasanna Misra, Vikramraj K Jain, Jignesh Babulal Usdadiya, Paul T Antony, Reena Gulati
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multiple etiological factors. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in innate immunity by activating antibody-independent lectin complement pathway, opsonisation, phagocytosis, and immune complex (IC) clearance. Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter and coding regions of MBL gene affect the circulatory levels and biological activity of MBL. Defects in MBL can lead to defective opsonisation and, hence, hamper clearance of apoptotic debris, the persistence of which can drive autoantibody formation in lupus...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
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