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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821051/a-novel-self-assembly-lentinan-tetraphenylethylene%C3%A2-composite-with-strong-blue%C3%A2-fluorescence-in-water-and-its-properties
#1
Mengxia Li, Pan Chen, Min Xu, Xiaojuan Xu
We report a unique self-assembly of lentinan, a triple helical β-(1→3)-glucan (t-LNT), in water. By molecular dynamics simulation, it was found that t-LNT aggregated preferentially along the chain direction to form long chains, accompanied by side-direction linkage to form branches. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that t-LNT formed dendrite-like fibers, which further formed fishnet-like porous/mesoporous aggregates with increasing concentration. The meshes in the fishnet were ascribed to the intersection of branches...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820979/data-driven-analysis-of-nutrient-inputs-and-transfers-through-nested-catchments
#2
Lea Levi, Vladimir Cvetkovic, Georgia Destouni
A data-driven screening methodology is developed for estimating nutrient input and retention-delivery in catchments with measured water discharges and nutrient concentrations along the river network. The methodology is applied to the Sava River Catchment (SRC), a major transboundary catchment in southeast Europe, with seven monitoring stations along the main river, defining seven nested catchments and seven incremental subcatchments that are analysed and compared in this study. For the relatively large nested catchments (>40,000km(2)), characteristic regional values emerge for nutrient input per unit area of around 30T/yr/km(2) for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and 2T/yr/km(2) for total phosphorus (TP)...
August 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820911/phosphatidlyinositol-3-kinase-c2-beta-pi3kc2%C3%AE-is-a-potential-new-target-to-treat-ige-mediated-disease
#3
Shekhar Srivastava, Zhai Li, Edward Y Skolnik
Cross linking of the IgE receptor (FcεRI) on mast cells plays a critical role in IgE-dependent allergy including allergic rhinitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, and delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. The Ca2+ activated K+ channel, KCa3.1, plays a critical role in IgE-stimulated Ca2+ entry and degranulation in mast cells by helping to maintain a negative membrane potential, which provides an electrochemical gradient to drive Ca2+ influx. Of the 3 classes of PI3K, the class II PI3Ks are the least studied and little is known about the roles for class II PI3Ks in vivo in the context of the whole organism under normal and pathological conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820908/ribosomopathy-like-properties-of-murine-and-human-cancers
#4
Sucheta Kulkarni, James M Dolezal, Huabo Wang, Laura Jackson, Jie Lu, Brian P Frodey, Atinuke Dosunmu-Ogunbi, Youjun Li, Marc Fromherz, Audry Kang, Lucas Santana-Santos, Panayiotis V Benos, Edward V Prochownik
Ribosomopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of hematologic and developmental disorders, often characterized by bone marrow failure, skeletal and other developmental abnormalities and cancer predisposition. They are associated with mutations and/or haplo-insufficiencies of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and inefficient ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing. The resulting ribosomal stress induces the canonical p19ARF/Mdm2/p53 tumor suppressor pathway leading to proliferative arrest and/or apoptosis. It has been proposed that this pathway is then inactivated during subsequent neoplastic evolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820907/positive-regulatory-interactions-between-yap-and-hedgehog-signalling-in-skin-homeostasis-and-bcc-development-in-mouse-skin-in-vivo
#5
Bassem Akladios, Veronica Mendoza Reinoso, Jason E Cain, Taopeng Wang, Duncan L Lambie, D Neil Watkins, Annemiek Beverdam
Skin is a highly plastic tissue that undergoes tissue turnover throughout life, but also in response to injury. YAP and Hedgehog signalling play a central role in the control of epidermal stem/progenitor cells in the skin during embryonic development, in postnatal tissue homeostasis and in skin carcinogenesis. However, the genetic contexts in which they act to control tissue homeostasis remain mostly unresolved. We provide compelling evidence that epidermal YAP and Hedgehog/GLI2 signalling undergo positive regulatory interactions in the control of normal epidermal homeostasis and in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development, which in the large majority of cases is caused by aberrant Hedgehog signalling activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820660/driver-s-mental-workload-prediction-model-based-on-physiological-indices
#6
Shengyuan Yan, Cong Chi Tran, Yingying Wei, Jean Luc Habiyaremye
Developing an early warning model to predict the driver's mental workload (MWL) is critical and helpful, especially for new or less experienced drivers. The present study aims to investigate the correlation between new driver's MWL and their work performance, regarding the number of errors. Additionally, the Group method of data handling (GMDH) is used to establish the driver's MWL predictive model based on subjective rating (NASA task load index (NASA-TLX)) and six physiological indices. The results indicate that NASA-TLX and the number of errors are positively correlated, and the predictive model shows the validity of the proposed model with an R(2) value of 0...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820651/starting-and-stopping-kinetics-of-a-rear-mounted-power-assist-for-manual-wheelchairs
#7
Stephanie Wong, Ben Mortenson, Bonita Sawatzky
A rear mounted, powered, drive wheel has been developed to assist with mobility for manual wheelchairs in indoor and outdoor modes. To start the wheel, users must initiate handrim propulsion with sufficient force to trigger the motor. To stop the indoor mode, users must apply a braking force through the handrims exceeding the device's deceleration threshold. The objectives of this study were to compare 1) the minimum force required to start a wheelchair with and without the wheel, and 2) the distances and forces needed to stop a wheelchair at different treadmill speeds (3...
August 18, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820588/exploiting-and-understanding-the-selectivity-in-nhc-based-ru-metathesis-catalysts-for-the-ethenolysis-of-cyclic-olefins-to-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-dienes
#8
Pascal S Engl, Celine B Santiago, Christopher P Gordon, Wei-Chih Liao, Alexey Fedorov, Christophe Copéret, Matthew S Sigman, Antonio Togni
A library of 29 homologous Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts has been tested for ethenolysis of cyclic olefins towards the goal of selectively forming α,ω-diene using cis-cyclooctene as a prototypical substrate. Dissymmetry at the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was identified as a key parameter for controlling the selectivity. The best-performing catalyst bearing an N-CF3 group significantly outperformed the benchmark second-generation Grubbs catalyst in the ethenolysis of cis-cycloctene. Application of this optimal catalyst to the ethenolysis of various norbornenes allows the efficient synthesis of valuable diene intermediates in good yields...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820392/orally-administered-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-captopril-and-isoleucine-proline-proline-have-distinct-effects-on-local-renin-angiotensin-system-and-corticosterone-synthesis-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice
#9
H Salmenkari, M Holappa, R A Forsgard, R Korpela, H Vapaatalo
The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by an antihypertensive drug, captopril, and milk casein-derived ACE-inhibiting bioactive tripeptide isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro), on local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and glucocorticoid production in the intestine were studied in the dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis in mice. Mice received water or 3% dextran sodium sulfate with or without either 15.7 mg/l captopril or 833 mg/l Ile-Pro-Pro for 7 days. Captopril and Ile-Pro-Pro were found to have distinct effects on local renin-angiotensin system and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid synthesis components in colon in vitro...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820316/cell-cycle-related-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-replication-competent-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#10
Chiara Montemurro, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Tatyana Gurlo, Alexandra E Butler, Kenny E Vongbunyong, Anton Petcherski, Orian S Shirihai, Leslie S Satin, Daniel Braas, Peter C Butler, Slavica Tudzarova
Cell replication is a fundamental attribute of growth and repair in multicellular organisms. Pancreatic beta-cells in adults rarely enter cell cycle, hindering the capacity for regeneration in diabetes. Efforts to drive beta-cells into cell cycle have so far largely focused on regulatory molecules such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Investigations in cancer biology have uncovered that adaptive changes in metabolism, the mitochondrial network, and cellular Ca(2+) are critical for permitting cells to progress through the cell cycle...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820267/causes-and-significance-of-increased-compound-potency-in-cellular-or-physiological-contexts
#11
Adam G Schwaid, Ivan Cornella-Taracido
Compound potency is a key metric that is often used to drive medicinal chemistry programs. Compound potency is also taken into account when identifying the mechanism of action of compounds whose pharmacological target is unknown, particularly when these compounds are identified in phenotypic screens. Often compound potency is determined from assays using recombinantly generated, purified protein. It is well understood in the medicinal chemistry community that potency measured with recombinant enzyme and potency measured in cell may not entirely coincide...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820236/regulatory-mechanism-of-mycotoxin-tenuazonic-acid-production-in-pyricularia-oryzae
#12
Choong-Soo Yun, Takayuki Motoyama, Hiroyuki Osada
Tenuazonic acid (TeA) is a mycotoxin produced by the rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae and some plant pathogenic fungi. We previously demonstrated that TeA is biosynthesized in P. oryzae by TeA synthetase 1 (TAS1), and that its production is induced by osmo-sensory MAPK-encoding gene (OSM1) deletion or the addition of 1% DMSO to cultures; however, the regulatory mechanisms of TeA production were unknown. Here, we identified a Zn(II)2-Cys6-type transcription factor in the upstream region of TAS1, which is encoded by TAS2 and regulates TeA production...
August 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820200/statistical-thermodynamics-unveils-the-dissolution-mechanism-of-cellobiose
#13
Thomas W J Nicol, Noriyuki Isobe, James H Clark, Seishi Shimizu
In the study of the cellulose dissolution mechanism opinion is still divided. Here, the solution interaction components of the most prominent hypotheses for the driving force of cellulose dissolution were evaluated quantitatively. Combining a rigorous statistical thermodynamic theory and cellobiose solubility data in the presence of chloride salts, whose cations progress in the Hofmeister series (KCl, NaCl, LiCl and ZnCl2), we have shown that cellobiose solubilization is driven by the preferential accumulation of salts around the solutes which is stronger than cellobiose hydration...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820018/evidence-based-creativity-working-between-art-and-science-in-the-field-of-fine-dining
#14
Chad Borkenhagen
This article examines how scientific knowledge drives creativity in the small but influential culinary movement of 'modernist cuisine'. Originating in the mid-1990s, modernist cuisine began with a small group of avant-garde chefs using science to produce wildly innovative culinary creations. Since then, many of the movement's innovations, as well as its more general 'science-based' approach to cooking, have gained adoption among a diverse range of culinary professionals. But while science has enabled modernist chefs to produce a wide array of innovations and refinements, the group's embrace of scientific values poses a potential threat to the subjective, intuition-driven logic of culinary creativity...
August 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819996/commercial-golf-glove-effects-on-golf-performance-and-forearm-muscle-activity
#15
Graeme G Sorbie, Paul Darroch, Fergal M Grace, Yaodong Gu, Julien S Baker, Ukadike C Ugbolue
The study aimed to determine whether or not commercial golf gloves influence performance variables and forearm muscle activity during golf play. Fifteen golfers participated in the laboratory based study, each performing 8 golf swings with a Driver and 7-iron whilst wearing a glove and 8 without wearing the glove. Club head speed, ball speed and absolute carry distance performance variables were calculated. Surface electromyography was recorded from the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor carpi radialis brevis on both forearm muscles...
August 18, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819643/membrane-localization-of-acetylated-cnk1-mediates-a-positive-feedback-on-raf-erk-signaling
#16
Adrian Fischer, Wignand W D Mühlhäuser, Bettina Warscheid, Gerald Radziwill
Spatiotemporal control is a common mechanism that modulates activity and function of signal transducers in the signaling network. We identified acetylation of CNK1 (connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras-1) as a late step in the activation of CNK1 signaling, accompanied with prolonged stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We identified the acetyltransferase CREB (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein)-binding protein and the deacetylase SIRT2 (sirtuin type 2) as novel binding partners of CNK1, modulating the acetylation state of CNK1...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819639/antioxidant-treatment-in-male-mice-prevents-mitochondrial-and-synaptic-changes-in-an-nmda-receptor-dysfunction-model-of-schizophrenia
#17
Aarron Phensy, Christopher Driskill, Karen Lindquist, Lan Guo, Vivek Jeevakumar, Bryan Fowler, Heng Du, Sven Kroener
Glutamate theories of schizophrenia suggest that the disease is associated with a loss of NMDA receptors, specifically on GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PVIs), leading to changes in the excitation-inhibition balance in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Oxidative stress contributes to the loss of PVI and the development of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether the glutathione precursor N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can prevent changes in synaptic transmission at pyramidal cells and PVIs that result from developmental NMDAR blockade and how these changes are related to mitochondrial dysfunction in the PFCs of mice...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819314/a-symbiotic-like-biologically-driven-regenerating-fabric
#18
Neta Raab, Joe Davis, Rachel Spokoini-Stern, Moran Kopel, Ehud Banin, Ido Bachelet
Living organisms constantly maintain their structural and biochemical integrity by the critical means of response, healing, and regeneration. Inanimate objects, on the other hand, are axiomatically considered incapable of responding to damage and healing it, leading to the profound negative environmental impact of their continuous manufacturing and trashing. Objects with such biological properties would be a significant step towards sustainable technology. In this work we present a feasible strategy for driving regeneration in fabric by means of integration with a bacterial biofilm to obtain a symbiotic-like hybrid - the fabric provides structural framework to the biofilm and supports its growth, whereas the biofilm responds to mechanical tear by synthesizing a silk protein engineered to self-assemble upon secretion from the cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819208/extrinsic-mechanical-forces-mediate-retrograde-axon-extension-in-a-developing-neuronal-circuit
#19
M A Breau, I Bonnet, J Stoufflet, J Xie, S De Castro, S Schneider-Maunoury
To form functional neural circuits, neurons migrate to their final destination and extend axons towards their targets. Whether and how these two processes are coordinated in vivo remains elusive. We use the zebrafish olfactory placode as a system to address the underlying mechanisms. Quantitative live imaging uncovers a choreography of directed cell movements that shapes the placode neuronal cluster: convergence of cells towards the centre of the placodal domain and lateral cell movements away from the brain...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819146/liquid-liquid-phase-separation-of-the-microtubule-binding-repeats-of-the-alzheimer-related-protein-tau
#20
Susmitha Ambadipudi, Jacek Biernat, Dietmar Riedel, Eckhard Mandelkow, Markus Zweckstetter
The protein Tau aggregates into tangles in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In solution, however, Tau is intrinsically disordered, highly soluble, and binds to microtubules. It is still unclear what initiates the conversion from an innocuous phase of high solubility and functionality to solid-like neurotoxic deposits. Here, we show that the microtubule-binding repeats of Tau, which are lysine-rich, undergo liquid-liquid phase separation in solution. Liquid-liquid demixing causes molecular crowding of amyloid-promoting elements of Tau and drives electrostatic coacervation...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
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