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Thomas Tischer, Melina Schuh
Mammalian oocytes are stored in the ovary, where they are arrested in prophase for prolonged periods. The mechanisms that abrogate the prophase arrest in mammalian oocytes and reinitiate meiosis are not well understood. Here, we identify and characterize an essential pathway for the resumption of meiosis that relies on the protein phosphatase DUSP7. DUSP7-depleted oocytes either fail to resume meiosis or resume meiosis with a significant delay. In the absence of DUSP7, Cdk1/CycB activity drops below the critical level required to reinitiate meiosis, precluding or delaying nuclear envelope breakdown...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Jie Liang, Hsin-I Huang, Fernanda P Benzatti, Amelia B Karlsson, Junyi J Zhang, Nourhan Youssef, Averil Ma, Laura P Hale, Gianna E Hammer
Normal dynamics between microbiota and dendritic cells (DCs) support modest numbers of T cells, yet these do not cause inflammation. The DCs that induce inflammatory T cells and the signals that drive this process remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that small intestine DCs lacking the signaling attenuator A20 induce inflammatory T cells and that the signals perceived and antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions are unique for different DC subsets. Thus, although CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs exclusively instruct IFNγ(+) T cells, CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs exclusively instruct IL-17(+) T cells...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Jeremy A Goettel, Roopali Gandhi, Jessica E Kenison, Ada Yeste, Gopal Murugaiyan, Sharmila Sambanthamoorthy, Alexandra E Griffith, Bonny Patel, Dror S Shouval, Howard L Weiner, Scott B Snapper, Francisco J Quintana
Existing therapies for inflammatory bowel disease that are based on broad suppression of inflammation result in variable clinical benefit and unwanted side effects. A potential therapeutic approach for promoting immune tolerance is the in vivo induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we report that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor using the non-toxic agonist 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) induces human Tregs in vitro that suppress effector T cells through a mechanism mediated by CD39 and Granzyme B...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Eduardo A Bignon, Eva Stettner, Scott Allen Jeffers, Jimena Pérez-Vargas, Gerard Pehau-Arnaudet, M Alejandra Tortorici, Jean-Luc Jestin, Patrick England, Nicole D Tischler, Félix A Rey
Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Simone Farina, Ivan Guala, Silvia Oliva, Luigi Piazzi, Rodrigo Pires da Silva, Giulia Ceccherelli
Habitat structure plays an important mediating role in predator-prey interactions. However the effects are strongly dependent on regional predator pools, which can drive predation risk in habitats with very similar structure in opposite directions. In the Mediterranean Sea predation on juvenile sea urchins is commonly known to be regulated by seagrass structure. In this study we test whether the possibility for juvenile Paracentrotus lividus to be predated changes in relation to the fragmentation of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (four habitat classes: continuous, low-fragmentation, high-fragmentation and rocks), and to the spatial arrangement of such habitat classes at a landscape scale...
2016: PloS One
Satyanarayana Swamy Cheekatla, Deepak Tripathi, Sambasivan Venkatasubramanian, Pavan Kumar Nathella, Padmaja Paidipally, Munenori Ishibashi, Elwyn Welch, Amy R Tvinnereim, Mitsuo Ikebe, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri, Subash Babu, Hardy Kornfeld, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
In this study, we developed a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using streptozotocin and nicotinamide and identified factors that increase susceptibility of T2DM mice to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). All Mtb-infected T2DM mice and 40% of uninfected T2DM mice died within 10 months, whereas all control mice survived. In Mtb-infected mice, T2DM increased the bacterial burden and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs relative to those in uninfected T2DM mice and infected control mice...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Bruno C L Macena, Fábio H V Hazin
Whale sharks are generally associated with environmental factors that drive their movements to specific locations where food availability is high. Consequently, foraging is believed to be the main reason for the formation of whale shark aggregations. Feeding aggregations occur mainly in nearshore areas and are composed primarily of immature individuals. Conversely, aggregations of mature adults are rarely observed, and their occurrence is correlated with oceanic environments. Despite an increase in the number of whale shark studies, information on mating and parturition grounds is still lacking...
2016: PloS One
Henk J van Lingen, Caroline M Plugge, James G Fadel, Ermias Kebreab, André Bannink, Jan Dijkstra
Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA). Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2), has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes...
2016: PloS One
Michael Pieroni, Clara Lagomarsini, Danilo De Rossi, Federico Carpi
Electrically tunable lenses are conceived as deformable adaptive optical components able to change focus without motor-controlled translations of stiff lenses. In order to achieve large tuning ranges, large deformations are needed. This requires new technologies for the actuation of highly stretchable lenses. This paper presents a configuration to obtain compact tunable lenses entirely made of soft solid matter (elastomers). This was achieved by combining the advantages of dielectric elastomer actuation (DEA) with a design inspired by the accommodation of reptiles and birds...
October 26, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Pavlo Kyryakov, Alejandra Gomez-Perez, Anastasia Glebov, Nimara Asbah, Luigi Bruno, Carolynne Meunier, Tatiana Iouk, Vladimir I Titorenko
We recently selected 3 long-lived mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a lasting exposure to exogenous lithocholic acid. Each mutant strain can maintain the extended chronological lifespan after numerous passages in medium without lithocholic acid. In this study, we used these long-lived yeast mutants for empirical verification of evolutionary theories of aging. We provide evidence that the dominant polygenic trait extending longevity of each of these mutants 1) does not affect such key features of early-life fitness as the exponential growth rate, efficacy of post-exponential growth and fecundity; and 2) enhances such features of early-life fitness as susceptibility to chronic exogenous stresses, and the resistance to apoptotic and liponecrotic forms of programmed cell death...
October 25, 2016: Aging
Leonardo Miziara Barboza Ferreira, Suzy Sayuri Sassamoto Kurokawa, Jovan Duran Alonso, Douglas Lopes Cassimiro, Ana Luiza Ribeiro de Souza, Mariana Fonseca, Victor Hugo Vitorino Sarmento, Luis Octavio Regasini, Clóvis Augusto Ribeiro
Supra-amphiphiles are a new class of building blocks that are fabricated by means of non-covalent forces. In this work, we studied the formation of supra-amphiphiles by combining hydrophilic meglumine (MEG) with hydrophobic maleated castor oils (MACO). Spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that ionic interactions are the main driving force in the fabrication of these materials. Subsequently, supra-amphiphile/water systems were examined for their structure and water behavior by polarized optical microscopy (POM), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
October 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Heitor F N de Oliveira, Matthew T Clough, Roberto Rinaldi
Organic electrolyte solutions (OES)-binary mixtures of an ionic liquid (IL) with a neutral polar aprotic co-solvent-are being recognized as excellent candidate solvents for the dissolution, derivatization, and sustainable processing of cellulose. These solutions exhibit the beneficially combined properties of rapid-to-instantaneous cellulose dissolution, raised thermal stability, and reduced viscosity, compared to cellulose solutions in the parent ILs. Herein, we report the reversible, thermally triggered phase separation of cellulose solutions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate with 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone...
October 26, 2016: ChemSusChem
Evan C Palmer-Young, Ben M Sadd, Lynn S Adler
Repeated exposure to inhibitory compounds can drive the evolution of resistance, which weakens chemical defense against antagonists. Floral phytochemicals in nectar and pollen have antimicrobial properties that can ameliorate infection in pollinators, but evolved resistance among parasites could diminish the medicinal efficacy of phytochemicals. However, multi-compound blends, which occur in nectar and pollen, present simultaneous chemical challenges that may slow resistance evolution. We assessed evolution of resistance by the common bumble bee gut parasite Crithidia bombi to two floral phytochemicals, singly and combined, over six weeks (~100 generations) of chronic exposure...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Laurel Fogarty, Joe Yuichiro Wakano, Marcus W Feldman, Kenichi Aoki
The forces driving cultural accumulation in human populations, both modern and ancient, are hotly debated. Did genetic, demographic, or cognitive features of behaviorally modern humans (as opposed to, say, early modern humans or Neanderthals) allow culture to accumulate to its current, unprecedented levels of complexity? Theoretical explanations for patterns of accumulation often invoke demographic factors such as population size or density, whereas statistical analyses of variation in cultural complexity often point to the importance of environmental factors such as food stability, in determining cultural complexity...
October 25, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Ping Zhan, Weida Liu
Dermatophytes evolve along with the geography and socioeconomic conditions. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton schoenleinii acted as the major pathogens of superficial fungal diseases 100 years ago, but their frequency decreased dramatically since the middle of the twentieth century and they are limited to some less-developed countries nowadays; meanwhile, frequency of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis increased gradually, and these fungi have become the major species globally...
October 25, 2016: Mycopathologia
Yannis M Paulus, Akrit Sodhi
Recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of retinal vascular disease have allowed us to specifically target pathological angiogenesis while minimizing damage to the neurosensory retina. This is perhaps best exemplified by the development of therapies targeting the potent angiogenic growth factor and vascular permeability mediator, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-VEGF therapies, initially introduced for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in patients with age-related macular degeneration, have also had a dramatic impact on the management of retinal vascular disease and are currently an indispensable component for the treatment of macular edema in patients with diabetic eye disease and retinal vein occlusions...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Devasena Ponnalagu, Harpreet Singh
Mitochondria are the "power house" of a cell continuously generating ATP to ensure its proper functioning. The constant production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation demands a large electrochemical force that drives protons across the highly selective and low-permeable mitochondrial inner membrane. Besides the conventional role of generating ATP, mitochondria also play an active role in calcium signaling, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), stress responses, and regulation of cell-death pathways...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Julia C Radosa, Anne Eaton, Michelle Stempel, Amrin Khander, Cornelia Liedtke, Erich-Franz Solomayer, Maria Karsten, Melissa Pilewskie, Monica Morrow, Tari A King
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype and young patient age are both associated with an increased risk of local recurrence (LR) and distant recurrence (DR). In young women with TNBC, it is unclear whether subtype or patient age is driving prognosis. METHODS: Patients treated for primary TNBC from 1998 to 2011 were identified from the breast surgery database. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were compared between patients <40 and ≥40 years of age at diagnosis...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Feng Q He, Markus Ollert
Identification of key genes for a given physiological or pathological process is an essential but still very challenging task for the entire biomedical research community. Statistics-based approaches, such as genome-wide association study (GWAS)- or quantitative trait locus (QTL)-related analysis have already made enormous contributions to identifying key genes associated with a given disease or phenotype, the success of which is however very much dependent on a huge number of samples. Recent advances in network biology, especially network inference directly from genome-scale data and the following-up network analysis, opens up new avenues to predict key genes driving a given biological process or cellular function...
October 26, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Saowalak Kalapanulak, Treenut Saithong, Chinae Thammarongtham
To understand how biological processes work, it is necessary to explore the systematic regulation governing the behaviour of the processes. Not only driving the normal behavior of organisms, the systematic regulation evidently underlies the temporal responses to surrounding environments (dynamics) and long-term phenotypic adaptation (evolution). The systematic regulation is, in effect, formulated from the regulatory components which collaboratively work together as a network. In the drive to decipher such a code of lives, a spectrum of technologies has continuously been developed in the post-genomic era...
October 26, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
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