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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437905/amplitude-modulation-of-femtosecond-laser-pulses-in-the-megahertz-range-for-frequency-multiplexed-two-photon-imaging
#1
Dmitri Tsyboulski, Natalia Orlova, Peter Saggau
We present a frequency-multiplexed multi-site two-photon imaging method utilizing amplitude modulation of femtosecond laser pulses in the MHz range to tag each excitation beam and the corresponding fluorescence signals with specific frequencies. The frequency tags are generated with an interferometric scheme employing acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) to achieve precise spatial overlap of femtosecond laser pulses with periodically varying phase shift. Creating matching excitation beam patterns in each interferometer arm using multiple AOD driving frequencies, and subsequently overlapping these matching patterns, results in multiple encoded excitation beams with unique beat frequencies available for scanning...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437896/variability-of-apparent-and-inherent-optical-properties-of-sediment-laden-waters-in-large-river-basins-lessons-from-in-situ-measurements-and-bio-optical-modeling
#2
Sylvain Pinet, Jean-Michel Martinez, Sylvain Ouillon, Bruno Lartiges, Raul Espinoza Villar
We investigated the relationships between inherent and apparent optical properties (IOP and AOP, respectively) and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in the main Amazonian river waters. In situ measurements of SSC, remote sensing reflectance (R<sub>rs</sub>), the diffuse light attenuation coefficient (K<sub>d</sub>) and the total and non-algal particle (NAP) absorption coefficients (a<sub>TOT</sub> and a<sub>NAP</sub>, respectively) were conducted during three sampling trips along different streams of the Amazon River catchment (104 stations)...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437774/bacterial-community-dynamics-and-functional-variation-during-the-long-term-decomposition-of-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-vitro
#3
Limei Shi, Yaxin Huang, Min Zhang, Yang Yu, Yaping Lu, Fanxiang Kong
Cyanobacterial blooms drastically influence carbon and nutrient cycling in eutrophic freshwater lakes. To understand the mineralization process of cyanobacteria-derived particulate organic matter (CyanPOM), the aerobic degradation of cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. was investigated over a 95-day microcosm experiment. Approximately 91%, 95% and 83% of the initial particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), and particulate organic phosphorus (POP) were decomposed, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437617/electrostatic-origin-of-red-solvatochromic-shift-of-dfhbdi-in-rna-spinach
#4
Samik Bose, Suman Chakrabarty, Debashree Ghosh
Interactions with environment tune the spectral properties of biological chromophores, e.g. fluorescent proteins. Understanding of the relative contribution of the various types of non-covalent interactions in the spectral shifts can provide rational design principles towards developing new fluorescent probes. In this work, we investigate the origin of the red-shift in the absorption spectra of difluoro hydroxybenzylidene dimethyl imidazolinone (DFHBDI) chromophore in RNA Spinach as compared to the aqueous solution...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437583/natural-selection-on-mhc-ii%C3%AE-in-parapatric-lake-and-stream-stickleback-balancing-divergent-both-or-neither
#5
William E Stutz, Daniel I Bolnick
Major histocompatibility (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a central role in vertebrates' adaptive immunity to parasites. MHC loci are among the most polymorphic in vertebrates' genomes, inspiring many studies to identify evolutionary processes driving MHC polymorphism within populations, and divergence between populations. Leading hypotheses include balancing selection favoring rare alleles within populations, and spatially divergent selection. These hypotheses do not always produce diagnosably distinct predictions, causing many studies of MHC to yield inconsistent or ambiguous results...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437572/nearly-a-decade-long-repeatable-seasonal-diversity-patterns-of-bacterioplankton-communities-in-the-eutrophic-lake-donghu-wuhan-china
#6
Qingyun Yan, James C Stegen, Yuhe Yu, Ye Deng, Xinghao Li, Shu Wu, LilI Dai, Xiang Zhang, Jinjin Li, Chun Wang, Jiajia Ni, Xuemei Li, Hongjuan Hu, Fanshu Xiao, Weisong Feng, Daliang Ning, Zhili H E, Joy D Van Nostrand, Liyou Wu, Jizhong Zhou
Uncovering which environmental factors govern community diversity patterns and how ecological processes drive community turnover are key questions related to understand the community assembly. However, the ecological mechanisms regulating long-term variations of bacterioplankton communities in lake ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we present nearly a decade-long study of bacterioplankton communities from the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with MiSeq platform...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437543/association-of-donor-age-and-sex-with-survival-of-patients-receiving-transfusions
#7
Gustaf Edgren, Henrik Ullum, Klaus Rostgaard, Christian Erikstrup, Ulrik Sartipy, Martin J Holzmann, Olof Nyrén, Henrik Hjalgrim
Importance: Following animal model data indicating the possible rejuvenating effects of blood from young donors, there have been at least 2 observational studies conducted with humans that have investigated whether donor age affects patient outcomes. Results, however, have been conflicting. Objective: To study the association of donor age and sex with survival of patients receiving transfusions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database, with nationwide data, was conducted for all patients from Sweden and Denmark who received at least 1 red blood cell transfusion of autologous blood or blood from unknown donors between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437480/variation-of-bacterial-communities-in-water-and-sediments-during-the-decomposition-of-microcystis-biomass
#8
Dayong Zhao, Xinyi Cao, Rui Huang, Jin Zeng, Qinglong L Wu
The bacterial community composition in water and sediment samples during the decomposition of Microcystis biomass were analyzed using the 454 pyrosequencing technique. We found dramatic shifts in the bacterial community composition of water and sediments after the addition of Microcystis biomass. Among all the detected phyla, only Firmicutes was found to be dominant in both water and sediment samples. The genus Clostridium sensu stricto was the absolutely dominant group in Firmicutes and showed drastic variations with incubation time during the decomposition process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437174/more-than-fever-thermoregulatory-responses-to-immunological-stimulation-and-consequences-of-thermoregulatory-strategy-on-innate-immunity-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#9
Jeffrey M Goessling, Craig Guyer, Mary T Mendonça
Organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. Because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. Here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437126/how-winning-changes-motivation-in-multiphase-competitions
#10
Szu-Chi Huang, Jordan Etkin, Liyin Jin
What drives motivation in multiphase competitions? Adopting a dynamic approach, this research examines how temporary standing-being ahead of (vs. behind) one's opponent-in a multiphase competition shapes subsequent motivation. Six competitions conducted in the lab and in the field demonstrate that the impact of being ahead on contestants' motivation depends on when (i.e., in which phase of the competition) contestants learn they are in the lead. In the early phase, contestants are concerned about whether they can win; being ahead increases motivation by making winning seem more attainable...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436978/association-of-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-specific-comorbidity-index-with-resource-utilization-after-allogeneic-transplantation
#11
L Decook, Y-H Chang, J Slack, D Gastineau, J Leis, P Noel, J Palmer, L Sproat, M Sorror, N Khera
Comorbidities affect clinical outcomes and costs in medicine. The hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) predicts mortality risk after HCT. Its association with resource utilization (RU) is unknown. In this single-center, retrospective study, we examined the association of HCT-CI with RU (readmissions, length of hospital stay (LOS) and days out of hospital alive (DOHA)) in first 100 days (n=328) and 1 year (n=226) in allogeneic HCT patients from January 2010 to June 2014...
April 24, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436958/local-clearance-of-senescent-cells-attenuates-the-development-of-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis-and-creates-a-pro-regenerative-environment
#12
Ok Hee Jeon, Chaekyu Kim, Remi-Martin Laberge, Marco Demaria, Sona Rathod, Alain P Vasserot, Jae Wook Chung, Do Hun Kim, Yan Poon, Nathaniel David, Darren J Baker, Jan M van Deursen, Judith Campisi, Jennifer H Elisseeff
Senescent cells (SnCs) accumulate in many vertebrate tissues with age and contribute to age-related pathologies, presumably through their secretion of factors contributing to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Removal of SnCs delays several pathologies and increases healthy lifespan. Aging and trauma are risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic disease characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage leading to pain and physical disability. Senescent chondrocytes are found in cartilage tissue isolated from patients undergoing joint replacement surgery, yet their role in disease pathogenesis is unknown...
April 24, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436944/active-and-poised-promoter-states-drive-folding-of-the-extended-hoxb-locus-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Mariano Barbieri, Sheila Q Xie, Elena Torlai Triglia, Andrea M Chiariello, Simona Bianco, Inês de Santiago, Miguel R Branco, David Rueda, Mario Nicodemi, Ana Pombo
Gene expression states influence the 3D conformation of the genome through poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we investigate the conformation of the murine HoxB locus, a gene-dense genomic region containing closely spaced genes with distinct activation states in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. To predict possible folding scenarios, we performed computer simulations of polymer models informed with different chromatin occupancy features that define promoter activation states or binding sites for the transcription factor CTCF...
April 24, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436850/pulmonary-lobe-segmentation-with-probabilistic-segmentation-of-the-fissures-and-a-groupwise-fissure-prior
#14
Felix Bragman, Jamie McClelland, Joseph Jacob, John Hurst, David Hawkes
A fully automated, unsupervised lobe segmentation algorithm is presented based on a probabilistic segmentation of the fissures and the simultaneous construction of a population model of the fissures. A two-class probabilistic segmentation segments the lung into candidate fissure voxels and the surrounding parenchyma. This was combined with anatomical information and a groupwise fissure prior to drive non-parametric surface fitting to obtain the final segmentation. The performance of our fissure segmentation was validated on 30 patients from the COPDGene cohort, achieving a high median F1-score of 0:90 and showed general insensitivity to filter parameters...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436736/are-you-okay-to-drive-commuting-behavior-and-blood-alcohol-concentrations-amongst-restaurant-diners
#15
B Scott-Parker, L Stokes, S Panaho, M Cawkwell, J Caldwell
Objective Drink driving is widely recognised as a major road safety problem. In Australia, health promotion messages encourage monitoring the number of standard drinks consumed prior to driving. The pilot research aimed to investigate commuting behaviour and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of diners, including intended-drivers, at Sunshine Coast restaurants. Methods Five hundred and forty-four diners (n = 260 males) consented to participate in a brief interview and to use a breathalyser device to measure their BAC...
February 25, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436735/risk-and-safety-perception-on-urban-and-rural-roads-effects-of-environmental-features-driver-age-and-risk-sensitivity
#16
Jolene A Cox, Vanessa Beanland, Ashleigh J Filtness
OBJECTIVE: The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of the present study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment...
February 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436715/controlled-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-strategies-in-obese-patients-undergoing-surgery
#17
Lígia de Albuquerque Maia, Pedro Leme Silva, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
The obesity prevalence is increasing in surgical population. As the number of obese surgical patients increases, so does the demand for mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, ventilatory strategies in this population are challenging, since obesity results in pathophysiological changes in respiratory function. Areas covered: We reviewed the impact of obesity on respiratory system and the effects of controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery. To date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal invasive mechanical ventilation strategy for obese surgical patients, and no evidence that possible intraoperative beneficial effects on oxygenation and mechanics translate into better postoperative pulmonary function or improved outcomes...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436703/in-the-driver-s-seat-development-and-implementation-of-an-e-learning-module-on-return-to-driving-after-stroke
#18
Janet Frith, Isobel Hubbard, Carole James, Helen Warren-Forward
Gaps exist in the knowledge of return-to-driving guidelines, and education is needed for Australian health professionals working in the field of stroke. In this paper, authors evaluate the implementation of an e-learning module. A pre- and post-module knowledge test and survey were used to assess the e-module's success in achieving its learning objectives. Initially, 204 learners completed the module, with 68% of learners scoring 100% in the post-module knowledge test. Only 12 learners completed the survey...
April 24, 2017: Occupational Therapy in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436513/self-inverted-reciprocation-of-an-oil-droplet-on-a-surfactant-solution
#19
Yusuke Satoh, Yoshimi Sogabe, Katsuhiko Kayahara, Shinpei Tanaka, Masaharu Nagayama, Satoshi Nakata
Self-motion of an oil droplet was investigated on a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous phase. With an increase in the concentration of SDS, the nature of self-motion of a butyl salicylate (BS) droplet as the oil droplet was changed, i.e., no motion, reciprocation with a small amplitude, and reciprocation with a large amplitude, which was a value close to the half-length of the chamber. The interfacial tension, contact angle, and convective flow around the droplet were measured to clarify the driving force of reciprocation...
April 24, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436476/multiplex-lexical-networks-reveal-patterns-in-early-word-acquisition-in-children
#20
Massimo Stella, Nicole M Beckage, Markus Brede
Network models of language have provided a way of linking cognitive processes to language structure. However, current approaches focus only on one linguistic relationship at a time, missing the complex multi-relational nature of language. In this work, we overcome this limitation by modelling the mental lexicon of English-speaking toddlers as a multiplex lexical network, i.e. a multi-layered network where N = 529 words/nodes are connected according to four relationship: (i) free association, (ii) feature sharing, (iii) co-occurrence, and (iv) phonological similarity...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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