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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922859/spatial-embryonic-origin-delineates-gabaergic-hub-neurons-driving-network-dynamics-in-the-developing-entorhinal-cortex
#1
Laura Mòdol, Vitor Hugo Sousa, Arnaud Malvache, Thomas Tressard, Agnes Baude, Rosa Cossart
Coordinated neuronal activity is essential for the development of cortical circuits. GABAergic hub neurons that function in orchestrating early neuronal activity through a widespread net of postsynaptic partners are therefore critical players in the establishment of functional networks. Evidence for hub neurons was previously found in the hippocampus, but their presence in other cortical regions remains unknown. We examined this issue in the entorhinal cortex, an initiation site for coordinated activity in the neocortex and for the activity-dependent maturation of the entire entorhinal-hippocampal network...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922835/rewards-and-cognitive-control-in-the-human-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Sandrine Duverne, Etienne Koechlin
The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves cognitive control, that is, the ability to form behavioral strategies that coordinate actions and thoughts in relation to internal goals. Cognitive control involves the medial and lateral PFC but we still poorly understand how these regions guide strategy selection according to expected rewards. We addressed this issue using neuroimaging, computational modeling and model-based analyses of information flows between medial and lateral PFC. We show here that the (dorsal) medial PFC encodes and conveys to lateral PFC reward expectations driving strategy selection, while strategy selection originates in lateral PFC and propagates backward to medial PFC...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922552/an-individualized-gene-expression-signature-for-prediction-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-metastases
#3
Lishuang Qi, Tianhao Li, Gengen Shi, Jiasheng Wang, Xin Li, Sainan Zhang, Libin Chen, Yuan Qin, Yunyan Gu, Wenyuan Zhao, Zheng Guo
Our laboratory previously reported an individual-level signature consisting of nine gene pairs, named 9-GPS. This signature was developed by training on microarray expression data and validated using three independent integrated microarray data sets, with samples of stage I non-small cell lung cancer after complete surgical resection. In this study, we first validated the cross-platform robustness of 9-GPS by demonstrating that 9-GPS could significantly stratify the overall survival of 213 stage I lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients detected with RNA-sequencing platform in The Cancer Genome Atlas (log-rank p = 0...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922540/ape1-ref-1-knockdown-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-characterizing-gene-expression-changes-and-identifying-novel-pathways-using-single-cell-rna-sequencing
#4
Fenil Shah, Emery Goossens, Nadia M Atallah, Michelle Grimard, Mark R Kelley, Melissa L Fishel
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1 or APE1) is a multifunctional protein that regulates numerous transcription factors associated with cancer-related pathways. Because APE1 is essential for cell viability, generation of APE1 knockout cell lines and determining a comprehensive list of genes regulated by APE1 has not been possible. To circumvent this challenge, we utilized single-cell RNA Sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes in relation to APE1 protein levels within the cell...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922494/magnetic-nanotransducers-in-biomedicine
#5
Agostina Grillone, Gianni Ciofani
Owing to their abilities to identify diseased conditions, to modulate biological process, and to control cellular activities, magnetic nanoparticles have become one of the most popular nanomaterials exploited in the biomedical field. Targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, hyperthermia treatments, imaging, and stimulation of several biological entities are just some of the several tasks that can be accomplished by taking advantage of magnetic nanoparticles in tandem with magnetic fields. The huge interest towards this class of nanomaterials rises from the possibility to physically drive their spatiotemporal localization inside the body, and to deliver an externally applied stimulation at a target site...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922377/c-reactive-protein-upregulates-the-whole-blood-expression-of-cd59-an-integrative-analysis
#6
Kaido Lepik, Tarmo Annilo, Viktorija Kukuškina, Kai Kisand, Zoltán Kutalik, Pärt Peterson, Hedi Peterson
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the blood are associated with acute and chronic infections and inflammation. Nevertheless, the functional role of increased CRP in multiple bacterial and viral infections as well as in chronic inflammatory diseases remains unclear. Here, we studied the relationship between CRP and gene expression levels in the blood in 491 individuals from the Estonian Biobank cohort, to elucidate the role of CRP in these inflammatory mechanisms. As a result, we identified a set of 1,614 genes associated with changes in CRP levels with a high proportion of interferon-stimulated genes...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922220/safe-driving-on-the-pharmacokinetic-highway
#7
Jeff E Mandel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922165/the-gastrointestinal-brain-axis-in-humans-as-an-evolutionary-advance-of-the-root-leaf-axis-in-plants-a-hypothesis-linking-quantum-effects-of-light-on-serotonin-and-auxin
#8
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922091/how-cancer-patients-use-and-benefit-from-an-interactive-cancer-communication-system
#9
Jeong Yeob Han, Robert Hawkins, Timothy Baker, Dhavan V Shah, Suzanne Pingree, David H Gustafson
Despite the mounting evidence of efficacy of eHealth interventions, their mechanisms of action remain unknown. The current study analyzed patient log data as each patient engaged in an eHealth system called the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) and reports on how patients engage with different combinations of eHealth services over time. Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (N = 443) were given access for 6 months to one of four different configurations of CHESS: (1) Information, (2) Information and Support, (3) Information, Support, and Coaching (Full CHESS), and (4) Full CHESS and Mentor...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922090/microsaccades-and-interest-areas-during-free-viewing-sport-task
#10
Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi, Monica Perazzolo, Ivan Malagoli Lanzoni, Salvatore Squatrito
Microsaccades are important fixation eye movements for visual scene perception. Compared to novices, athletes make fewer fixations of longer duration toward limited interest areas crucial for action prediction. Thus, our aim was to study the microsaccade features during those fixations. Gaze behaviour of expert and novice table tennis players was recorder during a task in which subjects were instructed to predict the direction of the ball after the opponent's throw. Three interest areas from the opponent's body and one from the ball trajectory were identified...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921977/photoinduced-bimolecular-electron-transfer-in-ionic-liquids
#11
Boning Wu, Mark Maroncelli, Edward W Castner
The present work seeks to better understand the role of solute diffusion and solvation dynamics on bimolecular electron transfer in ionic liquids (ILs). Steady-state and time-resolved measurements of the reductive fluorescence quenching of five fluorophores ("F") by six quenchers ("Q"; electron donors) are reported in acetonitrile and two ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. Data were collected on 66 different F-Q-solvent systems, which span a 2...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921943/self-assembly-of-mesoscale-artificial-clathrin-mimics
#12
Yifan Kong, Mina-Elraheb S Hanna, Denys Zhuo, Katherine G Chang, Tara Bozorg-Grayeli, Nicholas A Melosh
Fluidic control and sampling in complex environments is an important process in biotechnology, materials synthesis, and microfluidics. An elegant solution to this problem has evolved in nature through cellular endocytosis, where the dynamic recruitment, self-assembly, and spherical budding of clathrin proteins allows cells to sample their external environment. Yet despite the importance and utility of endocytosis, artificial systems which can replicate this dynamic behavior have not been developed. Guided by clathrin's unusual structure, we created simplified metallic microparticles that capture the three-legged shape, particle curvature, and interfacial attachment characteristics of clathrin...
September 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921907/dual-mapk-pi3k-pathway-inhibition-with-trametinib-and-gsk2141795-does-not-yield-clinical-benefit-in-metastatic-nras-mutant-and-wild-type-melanoma
#13
Alain P Algazi, Rosaura Esteve-Puig, Adi Nosrati, Brian Hinds, Adele Hobbs-Muthukumar, Prachi Nandoskar, Susana Ortiz-Urda, Paul B Chapman, Adil Daud
Aberrant MAPK and PI3K pathway signaling may drive the malignant phenotype in NRAS mutant and BRAF(WT) NRAS(WT) metastatic melanoma. To target these pathways NRAS mutant and BRAF(WT) NRAS(WT) patients received oral trametinib at 1.5 mg daily and GSK2141795 at 50 mg daily in a 2-cohort Simon 2-stage design. Participants had adequate end organ function and no more than 2 prior treatment regimens. Imaging assessments were performed at 8-week intervals. 10 NRAS mutant and 10 BRAF(WT) NRAS(WT) patients were enrolled...
September 16, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921859/trophic-interaction-modifications-an-empirical-and-theoretical-framework
#14
J Christopher D Terry, Rebecca J Morris, Michael B Bonsall
Consumer-resource interactions are often influenced by other species in the community. At present these 'trophic interaction modifications' are rarely included in ecological models despite demonstrations that they can drive system dynamics. Here, we advocate and extend an approach that has the potential to unite and represent this key group of non-trophic interactions by emphasising the change to trophic interactions induced by modifying species. We highlight the opportunities this approach brings in comparison to frameworks that coerce trophic interaction modifications into pairwise relationships...
October 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921762/inhibition-shapes-the-organization-of-hippocampal-representations
#15
Sam McKenzie
Hippocampal neurons become tuned to stimuli that predict behaviorally salient outcomes. This plasticity suggests that memory formation depends upon shifts in how different anatomical inputs can drive hippocampal activity. Here, I present evidence that inhibitory neurons can provide such a mechanism for learning-related changes in the tuning of pyramidal cells. Inhibitory currents arriving on the dendrites of pyramidal cells determine whether an excitatory input can drive action potential output. Specificity and plasticity of this dendritic modulation allows for precise, modifiable changes in how afferent inputs are integrated, a process that defines a neuron's receptive field...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921757/the-neurobiological-bases-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-the-r451c-neuroligin-3-mutation-hampers-the-expression-of-long-term-synaptic-depression-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#16
Giuseppina Martella, Maria Meringolo, Laura Trobiani, Antonella De Jaco, Antonio Pisani, Paola Bonsi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders with a complex genetic etiology. Current theories on the pathogenesis of ASDs suggest that they might arise from an aberrant synaptic transmission affecting specific brain circuits and synapses. The striatum, which is part of the basal ganglia circuit, is one of the brain regions involved in ASDs. Mouse models of ASDs have provided evidence for an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Here we investigated the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal striatum of the R451C-NL3 phenotypic mouse model of autism...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921742/processing-of-temporally-patterned-sounds-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-seba-s-short-tailed-bat-carollia-perspicillata
#17
Lisa M Martin, Francisco García-Rosales, M Jerome Beetz, Julio C Hechavarría
This article presents a characterization of cortical responses to artificial and natural temporally-patterned sounds in the bat species Carollia perspicillata, a species that produces vocalizations at rates above 50 Hz. Multi-unit activity was recorded in three different experiments. In the first experiment, amplitude modulated (AM) pure tones were used as stimuli to drive auditory cortex (AC) units. AC units of both ketamine-anesthetized and awake bats could lock their spikes to every cycle of the stimulus modulation envelope, but only if the modulation frequency was below 22 Hz...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921643/bridging-adult-experience-to-pediatrics-in-oncology-drug-development
#18
Ruby Leong, Hong Zhao, Gregory Reaman, Qi Liu, Yaning Wang, Clinton F Stewart, Gilbert Burckart
Pediatric drug development in the United States has grown under the current regulations made permanent by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012. Over 1200 pediatric studies have now been submitted to the US FDA, but there is still a high rate of failure to obtain pediatric labeling for the indication pursued. Pediatric oncology represents special problems in that the disease is most often dissimilar to any cancer found in the adult population. Therefore, the development of drug dosing in pediatric oncology patients represents a special challenge...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921568/neuronal-activity-dependent-local-activation-of-dendritic-unfolded-protein-response-promotes-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-cell-soma
#19
Atsushi Saito, Longjie Cai, Koji Matsuhisa, Yosuke Ohtake, Masayuki Kaneko, Soshi Kanemoto, Rie Asada, Kazunori Imaizumi
Unfolded protein response (UPR) has roles not only in resolving the accumulation of unfolded proteins owing to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but also in regulation of cellular physiological functions. ER stress transducers providing the branches of UPR signaling are known to localize in distal dendritic ER of neurons. These reports suggest that local activation of UPR branches may produce integrated outputs for distant communication, and allow regulation of local events in highly polarized neurons. Here, we demonstrated that synaptic activity- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent local activation of UPR signaling could be associated with dendritic functions through retrograde signal propagation by using murine neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2A and primary cultured hippocampal neurons derived from postnatal day 0 litter C57BL/6 mice...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921504/g%C3%AE-12-facilitates-carbachol-induced-shortening-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-by-modulating-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated-activation-in-a-rhoa-dependent-manner
#20
Edwin J Yoo, Gaoyuan Cao, Cynthia J Koziol-White, Christie A Ojiaku, Krishna Sunder, Joseph A Jude, James V Michael, Hong Lam, Ivan Pushkarsky, Robert Damoiseaux, Dino Di Carlo, Kwangmi Ahn, Steven S An, Raymond B Penn, Reynold A Panettieri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of Rho kinase (ROCK) is necessary for agonist-induced human airway smooth muscle cell (HASMC) contraction, and inhibition of PI3K promotes bronchodilation of human small airways. The upstream mechanisms driving agonist-mediated PI3K/ROCK axis activation, however, remain unclear. Given the capacity of G12 family proteins to activate ROCK pathways in other cell types (Riobo and Manning, 2005), the role of G12 proteins in modulating M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R)-stimulated PI3K/ROCK activation and HASMC contraction was examined...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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