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Lang Yang, Peihan Li, Beibei Liang, Xiaofeng Hu, Jinhui Li, Jing Xie, Chaojie Yang, Rongzhang Hao, Ligui Wang, Leili Jia, Peng Li, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song
The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Citrobacter freundii poses a significant threat to public health worldwide. Here, we reported a C. freundii strain CWH001 which was resistant to all tested antimicrobials except tetracycline. Whole genome sequencing and analysis were performed. The strain, which belonged to a new sequence type ST139, showed close relationship with other foreign C. freundii strains through phylogenetic analysis. A novel variant of the intrinsic blaCMY gene located on the chromosome was identified and designated as blaCMY-152 ...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Best E, Parnell P, Couturier J, Barbut F, Le Bozec A, Arnoldo L, Madia A, Brusaferro S, Wilcox Mh
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is a fundamental component of infection prevention, but few studies have examined whether hand-drying method affects the risk of dissemination of potential pathogens. MATERIALS/METHODS: We performed a multicentre, internal-crossover study comparing bacterial contamination levels in washrooms with hand-drying by either paper towels (PT) or jet air dryer (JAD, Dyson). 120 sampling sessions occurred over 12 weeks in each of 3 hospitals (UK/France/Italy)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Dissinviel S Kpoda, Abraham Ajayi, Marius Somda, Oumar Traore, Nathalie Guessennd, Aboubakar S Ouattara, Lassana Sangare, Alfred S Traore, Mireille Dosso
OBJECTIVE: Resistance to antibiotics most especially third generation cephalosporins has assumed a worrisome dimension globally. Genes conferring these resistance which are mediated by enzymes known as extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are now wide spread among several Enterobacteriaceae species. However there is paucity of data regarding the distribution of these genes in Burkina Faso. Hence this prospective study aims to determine the prevalence and distribution of ESBL encoding genes in ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from clinical samples of patients attending the three major hospitals in Ouagadougou Burkina Faso...
July 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Dimitria A Mathys, Dixie F Mollenkopf, Joany C Van Balen, Thomas E Wittum
The dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae expressing resistance to clinically important antibiotics such as extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones is of critical concern to both human and veterinary medicine. In healthcare facilities, the movement of patients, personnel, and equipment provides an opportunity for Enterobacteriaceae carrying antibiotic resistance genes to disseminate in the hospital environment where they pose a threat to patients, staff, and hospital visitors...
July 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Somi Patro, Gitanjali Sarangi, Padma Das, Ashoka Mahapatra, Dharitri Mohapatra, Bimoch Projna Paty, Nirupama Chayani
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infection. The etiology of VAP and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern varies with different patient populations and types of ICUs. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was performed over a period of 2 years in a tertiary care hospital to determine the various etiological agents causing VAP and to detect the presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in these VAP patients...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Somayeh Kiaei, Mohammad Moradi, Hossein Hosseini Nave, Zahra Hashemizadeh, Majid Taati-Moghadam, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
Dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae along with 16S rRNA methyltransferase (16S-RMTase) has been caused as a great concern for healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of resistance genes among K. pneumoniae isolates. During October 2015 to February 2016, 30 non-duplicative K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from clinical specimens in a burn center in Kerman, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests of isolates, carbapenemase, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC beta-lactamase-producing isolates were determined by phenotypic methods...
July 12, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Danielle Vuichard Gysin, Barry Cookson, Henri Saenz, Markus Dettenkofer, Andreas F Widmer
Background: Definitions and practices regarding use of contact precautions and isolation to prevent the spread of gram-positive and gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are not uniform. Methods: We conducted an on-site survey during the European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2014 to assess specific details on contact precaution and implementation barriers. Results: Attendants from 32 European (EU) and 24 non-EU countries participated ( n  = 213)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Xiang Tang, Meng Xiao, Chao Zhuo, Yingchun Xu, Nanshan Zhong
Background: With the different situation for clinical antibiotic usage and its management in different regions and medical institutions, the antimicrobial resistance varied in different level. However, the epidemiological data of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains from the department of respiration is limited. Thus, this study aims to investigate the epidemiology of bacteria isolated from inpatients of respiratory departments, and analyze the distribution variation of major multi-drug resistant bacteria in China...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Pranita D Tamma, Virginia M Pierce, Sara E Cosgrove, Ebbing Lautenbach, Anthony Harris, Divya Rayapati, Jennifer H Han
Background: In 2010, the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute recommended a 3-fold lowering of ceftriaxone breakpoints to 1 mcg/mL for Enterobacteriaceae . Supportive clinical data at the time were from fewer than 50 patients. We compared the clinical outcomes of adults with Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections treated with ceftriaxone compared with matched patients (with exact matching on ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs]) treated with extended-spectrum agents to determine if ceftriaxone breakpoints could be increased without negatively impacting patient outcomes...
June 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Karryl Mendes, Harmanjeet Harmanjeet, Mohammed Sedeeq, Ankit Modi, Troy Wanandy, Syed Tabish R Zaidi, Long Ming, Ronald Castelino, Kamal Sud, Gregory Peterson, Rahul P Patel
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria are increasing worldwide. Meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TZB) are recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) caused by ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas and other resistant gram-negative bacteria. Patients may also receive intraperitoneal heparin to prevent occlusion of their catheters. However, the stability of meropenem or PIP/TZB, in combination with heparin, in different types of peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions used in clinical practice is currently unknown...
July 10, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Thomas Grönthal, Monica Österblad, Marjut Eklund, Jari Jalava, Suvi Nykäsenoja, Katariina Pekkanen, Merja Rantala
IntroductionCarbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have rarely been reported in dogs, and never in animals in Finland. However, in April 2015, two meropenem-resistant Escherichia coli were identified from two dogs in one family. Both dogs suffered from chronic otitis externa . Methods: Epidemiological and molecular investigations (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing) were conducted to investigate the source of infection and transmission routes. Results: In both dogs and one family member New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-5)-producing multidrug-resistant ST167 E...
July 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Brian D Johnston, Paul Thuras, James R Johnson
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131), with its multidrug-resistance-associated H30R1 and H30Rx clonal subsets, causes most antimicrobial-resistant E. coli infections in the U.S., especially among veterans. The activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T), a new beta-lactamase inhibitor agent, against ST131 strains, and E. coli isolates from veterans, is undefined. METHODS: We determined broth microdilution MICs for C/T and five comparators-piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) levofloxacin (LVX), gentamicin (GEN), ceftazidime (CAZ), and meropenem (MEM)-for 595 clinical E...
2018: PloS One
Emilie Racine, Patrice Nordmann, Lucile Pantel, Matthieu Sarciaux, Marine Serri, Jessica Houard, Philippe Villain-Guillot, Anthony Demords, Carina Vingsbo Lundberg, Maxime Gualtieri
Antibacterial activity screening of a collection of Xenorhabdus strains led to the discovery of the Odilorhabdins, a new antibiotic class with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Odilorhabdins inhibit bacterial translation by a new mechanism of action on ribosomes. A lead-optimization program identified NOSO-502 as a promising candidate. NOSO-502 has MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/ml against standard Enterobacteriaceae strains and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates that produce KPC, AmpC, or OXA enzymes and metallo-β-lactamases...
July 9, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nahla O Eltai, Hadi M Yassine, Asmaa A Al Thani, Marwan A Abu Madi, Ahmed Ismail, Emad Ibrahim, Walid Q Alali
Background: It is well documented that food handlers harbor and shed enteric foodborne pathogens causing foodborne disease outbreaks. However, little known on enteric antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria carriage in food handlers. The objective of this study was to establish a baseline prevalence of fecal AR E. coli among food handlers in Qatar. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from 456 migrant food handlers of different nationalities arriving in Qatar on a work permit between January 2015 and December 2016...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Amit Ranjan, Julia Scholz, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Christa Ewers, Stefanie Müller, Derek J Pickard, Peter Schierack, Karsten Tedin, Niyaz Ahmed, Katharina Schaufler, Sebastian Guenther
Background: Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli infections are of global interest because of their clinical and economic impact. The ESBL resistance genes disseminate through plasmids, and are found in successful global lineages such as ST131 and ST648. The carriage of plasmids has been suggested to result in a fitness burden, but recently it was shown that ESBL-plasmids enhanced virulence in pandemic ST131 and ST648 lineages without affecting their fitness...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Delphine Girlich, Sandrine Bernabeu, Nicolas Fortineau, Laurent Dortet, Thierry Naas
As carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are becoming a major public health issue, there is an urgent need for accurate and fast diagnostic tests. The ELITe InGenius is a fully automated sample-to-result system designed for the extraction and detection by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction of carbapenemases KPC, NDM, VIM, IMP, and OXA-48-like variants and CTX-M group 1 and 9-producers from diverse sample matrices such as colonies, positive blood cultures, and rectal swabs...
February 9, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Wouter van den Bijllaardt, Maarten J Schijffelen, Ron W Bosboom, James Cohen Stuart, Bram Diederen, Greetje Kampinga, Thuy-Nga Le, Ilse Overdevest, Frans Stals, Paul Voorn, Karola Waar, Johan W Mouton, Anouk E Muller
Objectives: Fosfomycin susceptibility testing is complicated and prone to error. Before using fosfomycin widely in patients with serious infections, acquisition of WT distribution data and reliable susceptibility testing methods are crucial. In this study, the performance of five methods for fosfomycin testing in the routine laboratory against the reference method was evaluated. Methods: Ten laboratories collected up to 100 ESBL-producing isolates each (80 Escherichia coli and 20 Klebsiella pneumoniae)...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Marianne Bollestad, Nils Grude, Sigrid Solhaug, Niclas Raffelsberger, Nina Handal, Hans-Johnny Schjelderup Nilsen, Monica Regine Romstad, Andreas Emmert, Yngvar Tveten, Arne Søraas, Pål A Jenum, Synne Jenum, Janne Møller-Stray, Einar Tollaksen Weme, Morten Lindbaek, Gunnar Skov Simonsen
Objectives: To compare the clinical and bacteriological outcomes of pivmecillinam treatment for community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli versus non-ESBL-producing E. coli in an outpatient setting. Methods: A prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study of women aged ≥16 years, with pivmecillinam-treated community-acquired UTIs caused by E. coli with or without ESBL production, recruited from primary care, was conducted in the period from April 2013 to August 2016...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Marie Pouletty, Loïc De Pontual, Moreen Lopez, Laurence Morin, Isabelle Poilane, Luu Ly Pham, Etienne Carbonnelle, Luigi Titomanlio, Albert Faye, Stéphane Bonacorsi
OBJECTIVE: Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is one of the most frequent illnesses affecting children returning from tropical countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of pathogens associated with TD in children using a multiplex PCR assay on stool samples. DESIGN: All the children admitted for TD in two university hospitals from 1 August to 15October during 2014 and 2015 were included in a prospective study. Stool samples were tested by a multiplex PCR FilmArray GI panel detecting 22 pathogens...
July 7, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Alexandra Irrgang, Jens A Hammerl, Linda Falgenhauer, Elisabet Guiral, Silvia Schmoger, Can Imirzalioglu, Jennie Fischer, Beatriz Guerra, Trinad Chakraborty, Annemarie Käsbohrer
Antimicrobial resistance to cephalosporins is commonly mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) or plasmidic AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC). In livestock blaCTX-M-1 is the most frequently detected ESBL-encoding gene. As transmission to consumers through contaminated food is often proposed, this study characterized ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli collected from food samples. Therefore, samples from food products of animal origin and vegetables were screened for phenotypically resistant E. coli by selective cultivation...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
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