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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#1
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325650/the-potential-role-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-in-the-cardiovascular-metabolic-skeletal-and-cognitive-effects-associated-with-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#2
REVIEW
E David Crawford, Andrew V Schally, Jehonathan H Pinthus, Norman L Block, Ferenc G Rick, Marc B Garnick, Robert H Eckel, Thomas E Keane, Neal D Shore, David N Dahdal, Thomas J R Beveridge, Dennis C Marshall
PURPOSE: To explore how follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) may contribute to cardiovascular, metabolic, skeletal, and cognitive events in men treated for prostate cancer, with various forms of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A colloquium of prostate cancer experts was convened in May 2015, to discuss the role of FSH in the development of unwanted effects associated with ADT. Subsequently, a literature review (Medline, PubMed, and relevant congress abstract databases) was performed to further explore and evaluate the collected evidence...
March 18, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322427/the-neuronal-correlates-of-mirror-illusion-in-children-with-spastic-hemiparesis-a-study-with-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Christian Weisstanner, Stefanie Saxer, Roland Wiest, Alain Kaelin-Lang, Christopher J Newman, Maja Steinlin, Sebastian Grunt
AIM: To investigate the neuronal activation pattern underlying the effects of mirror illusion in children/adolescents with normal motor development and in children/adolescents with hemiparesis and preserved contralateral corticospinal organisation. METHOD: The type of cortical reorganisation was classified according to results of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Only subjects with congenital lesions and physiological contralateral cortical reorganisation were included...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304290/the-efficacy-of-emotion-recognition-rehabilitation-for-people-with-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease
#4
J Antonio García-Casal, Miguel Goñi-Imizcoz, M Victoria Perea-Bartolomé, Felipe Soto-Pérez, Sarah Jane Smith, Sara Calvo-Simal, Manuel Franco-Martín
BACKGROUND: The ability to recognize emotional expression is essential for social interactions, adapting to the environment and quality of life. Emotion recognition is impaired in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus rehabilitation of these skills has the potential to elicit significant benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to establish whether emotion recognition capacity could be rehabilitated in people with AD. METHODS: Thirty-six participants with AD were assigned to one of three conditions: an experimental group (EG) that received 20 sessions of rehabilitation of emotion recognition and 20 sessions of cognitive stimulation therapy (CST), a control group (CG) that received 40 sessions of CST, and a treatment as usual group (TAU)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302633/systematic-review-of-systematic-reviews-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-to-treat-behavioural-disturbances-in-older-patients-with-dementia-the-senator-ontop-series
#5
Iosief Abraha, Joseph M Rimland, Fabiana Mirella Trotta, Giuseppina Dell'Aquila, Alfonso Cruz-Jentoft, Mirko Petrovic, Adalsteinn Gudmundsson, Roy Soiza, Denis O'Mahony, Antonio Guaita, Antonio Cherubini
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD). DESIGN: Systematic overview of reviews. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL and PsycINFO (2009-March 2015). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Systematic reviews (SRs) that included at least one comparative study evaluating any non-pharmacological intervention, to treat BPSD...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299642/cerebromicrovascular-dysfunction-predicts-cognitive-decline-and-gait-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-whole-brain-irradiation-induced-accelerated-brain-senescence
#6
Zoltan Ungvari, Stefano Tarantini, Peter Hertelendy, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Gabor A Fülöp, Sreemathi Logan, Tamas Kiss, Eszter Farkas, Anna Csiszar, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Whole brain irradiation (WBI) is a mainstream therapy for patients with both identifiable brain metastases and prophylaxis for microscopic malignancies. However, it also promotes accelerated senescence in healthy tissues and leads to progressive cognitive dysfunction in up to 50% of tumor patients surviving long term after treatment, due to γ-irradiation-induced cerebromicrovascular injury. Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neuronal activity-dependent cerebromicrovascular dilation (functional hyperemia) has a critical role in maintenance of healthy cognitive function...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298263/a-proof-of-principle-simulation-for-closed-loop-control-based-on-preexisting-experimental-thalamic-dbs-enhanced-instrumental-learning
#7
Ching-Fu Wang, Shih-Hung Yang, Sheng-Huang Lin, Po-Chuan Chen, Yu-Chun Lo, Han-Chi Pan, Hsin-Yi Lai, Lun-De Liao, Hui-Ching Lin, Hsu-Yan Chen, Wei-Chen Huang, Wun-Jhu Huang, You-Yin Chen
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption...
February 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294066/mechanisms-of-melatonin-in-alleviating-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Mayuri Shukla, Parichart Boontem, Russel J Reiter, Jutamaad Satayavivad, Piyarat Govitrapong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive and prevalent neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of higher cognitive functions and an associated loss of memory. The thus far "incurable" stigma for AD prevails because of variations in the success rates of different treatment protocols in animal and human studies. Among the classical hypotheses explaining AD pathogenesis, the amyloid hypothesis is currently being targeted for drug development. The underlying concept is to prevent the formation of these neurotoxic peptides which play a central role in AD pathology and trigger a multispectral cascade of neurodegenerative processes post-aggregation...
March 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288306/challenges-in-comparing-the-acute-cognitive-outcomes-of-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-hf-rtms-vs-electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-in-major-depression-a-systematic-review
#9
Karina Karolina Kedzior, Maria Schuchinsky, Imke Gerkensmeier, Colleen Loo
The present study aimed to systematically compare the cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in head-to-head studies with major depression (MDD) patients. A systematic literature search identified six studies with 219 MDD patients that were too heterogeneous to reliably detect meaningful differences in acute cognitive outcomes after ECT vs. HF-rTMS. Cognitive effects of brain stimulation vary depending on the timeframe and methods of assessment, stimulation parameters, and maintenance treatment...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284822/-algorithms-and-urinary-incontinence-in-the-elderly-assessment-treatment-recommendations-and-levels-of-evidence-review
#10
P Meyer
OBJECTIVES: Search processing algorithms in a primary care setting, analyzing the specifics of care management for seniors suffering from urinary incontinence (UI), described the recommendations and levels of evidence of treatment. METHODS: A literature review carried out via PubMed(®) and websites of scientific societies with search keywords classified according to an algorithm. RESULTS: One hundred algorithms have been discovered in the field of evaluation and treatment of UI...
March 8, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280463/notes-on-human-trials-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-between-1960-and-1998
#11
REVIEW
Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Pedro Schestatsky, Marom Bikson, André R Brunoni, Ada Pellegrinelli, Fernanda X Piovesan, Mariana M S A Santos, Renata B Menezes, Felipe Fregni
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function including cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychiatric therapies. While cases of human stimulation with rudimentary batteries date back more than 200 years, clinical trials with current controlled stimulation were published intermittently since the 1960s. The modern era of tDCS only started after 1998. Objectives: To review methods and outcomes of tDCS studies from old literature (between 1960 and 1998) with intention of providing new insight for ongoing tDCS trials and development of tDCS protocols especially for the purpose of treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273933/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-modulates-attention-and-pain-in-fibromyalgia-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Adriana Ferreira Silva, Maxciel Zortea, Sandra Carvalho, Jorge Leite, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo
Cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients has been reported, especially when increased attentional demands are required. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been effective in modulating attention. We tested the effects of a single session of tDCS coupled with a Go/No-go task in modulating three distinct attentional networks: alertness, orienting and executive control. Secondarily, the effect on pain measures was evaluated. Forty females with fibromyalgia were randomized to receive active or sham tDCS...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270633/-magnetic-stimulation-therapy-for-mood-disorder
#13
Shinsuke Kito
In Japan, approximately one million patients currently receive medical treatment for mood disorders. However, there are only a few available treatments for patients with treatment-resistant depression or bipolar depression. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a neuromodulation technique, has proven to be effective for treatment-resistant depression, and also has a potential therapeutic efficacy in patients with bipolar depression who do not respond to medication. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is an experimental technique for introducing a seizure by using rTMS, which demonstrates a therapeutic efficacy similar to that of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), but with fewer cognitive side effects...
March 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268683/effect-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-neural-adaptation-in-thalamo-cortical-system-in-rats
#14
Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu, Kenji Ibayashi, Ryohei Kanzaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy on medically refractory epilepsy, and recently reported to improve cognitive function including learning and memory. The thalamo-cortical system may underlie such VNS-induced cognitive improvements. Thus, the present study targeted the auditory cortex and thalamus in rats, and investigated whether and how VNS modulates stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) of the neural activity in these nuclei. A depth electrode array recorded auditory evoked potentials from the auditory thalamus and cortex under an oddball paradigm either with or without VNS...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267150/ablation-of-neuropsin-neuregulin-1-signaling-imbalances-erbb4-inhibitory-networks-and-disrupts-hippocampal-gamma-oscillation
#15
M Kawata, S Morikawa, S Shiosaka, H Tamura
Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons are pivotal for the processing of information in healthy brain, whereas the coordination of these functions is seriously disrupted in diseased brain. How these interneurons in the hippocampus participate in pathological functions remains unclear. We previously reported that neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling, which is actuated by neuropsin, is important for coordinating brain plasticity. Neuropsin cleaves mature NRG1 (bound to extracellular glycosaminoglycans) in response to long-term potentiation or depression, liberating a soluble ligand that activates its receptor, ErbB4...
March 7, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262134/interventions-in-adhd-a-comparative-review-of-stimulant-medications-and-behavioral-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Adnan Rajeh, Shabbir Amanullah, K Shivakumar, Julie Cole
ADHD has a prevalence of approximately 10% in children with evidence supporting it's continuance into adulthood. This has a significant impact on how we address treatment at substance abuse facilities and also has implications for personal and occupational functioning. A lack of evidence to support the superiority of any one intervention over the other has created difficulties for both clinicians and parents. A recent review highlights long-term and short-term outcomes (Craig et al., 2015). This article reviews the benefits and pitfalls of both pharmacological interventions and behavioral therapies in the treatment of ADHD...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258925/parkinsonian-gait-improves-with-bilateral-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-during-cognitive-multi-tasking
#17
Gaurav Chenji, Melissa L Wright, Kelvin L Chou, Rachael D Seidler, Parag G Patil
BACKGROUND: Gait impairment in Parkinson's disease reduces mobility and increases fall risk, particularly during cognitive multi-tasking. Studies suggest that bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation, a common surgical therapy, degrades motor performance under cognitive dual-task conditions, compared to unilateral stimulation. OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of bilateral versus unilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation on walking kinematics with and without cognitive dual-tasking...
February 24, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251243/-nonpharmacological-treatment-procedures-for-parkinson-s-disease
#18
K Witt, E Kalbe, R Erasmi, G Ebersbach
Nonpharmacological treatment strategies in Parkinson' disease include heterogeneous treatment modalities, such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, cognitive training and deep brain stimulation as well as noninvasive brain stimulation strategies. Even in the early stages of Parkinson's disease nonpharmacological interventions, such as active exercise therapy and speech therapy can be indicated taking the individual symptoms of a patient into account. Mild cognitive deficits are frequently detected in the course of the disease and progression of these disorders to dementia in the advanced stages of the disease is not uncommon...
March 1, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243312/acupuncture-improved-neurological-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury-by-activating-bdnf-trkb-pathway
#19
Xiaohong Li, Chong Chen, Xiping Yang, Jingjing Wang, Ming-Liang Zhao, Hongtao Sun, Sai Zhang, Yue Tu
How to promote neural repair following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long been an intractable problem. Although acupuncture has been demonstrated to facilitate the neurological recovery, the underlying mechanism is elusive. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts substantial protective effects for neurological disorders. In this study, we found that the level of BDNF and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) was elevated spontaneously after TBI and reached up to the peak at 12 h. Nevertheless, this enhancement is quickly declined to the normal at 48 h...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243198/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-a-new-strategy-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
REVIEW
Agustina Birba, Agustín Ibáñez, Lucas Sedeño, Jesica Ferrari, Adolfo M García, Máximo Zimerman
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques can significantly modulate cognitive functions in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, they have been applied in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) to prevent or delay the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we review this emerging empirical corpus and discuss therapeutic effects of NIBS on several target functions (e.g., memory for face-name associations and non-verbal recognition, attention, psychomotor speed, everyday memory)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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