Read by QxMD icon Read

Substance misuse and addictions

Daniel V Mogford, Rebecca J Lawrence
Aims and method To investigate the burden of medical comorbidity in a population receiving in-patient treatment for drug and alcohol problems. All patients admitted over a 6-month period were included in the data-set. We recorded diagnostic information on admission that allowed the calculation of predicted 10-year survival using a previously validated comorbidity index. Results Despite the majority of the sample having a predicted 10-year survival chance of greater than 75%, a sizeable minority (16.7%) are carrying a high burden of medical comorbidity, with a predicted 10-year survival chance of less than 50%...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Kristen P Lindgren, Clayton Neighbors, Melissa L Gasser, Jason J Ramirez, Dario Cvencek
BACKGROUND: This paper provides an overview of the self-concept as it relates to substance use. Self-concept has a long history in psychological theory and research; however, substance self-concept (e.g., viewing one's self as a drinker or smoker) is an understudied area of research with the potential to expand existing conceptualizations of substance use, addiction, and prevention and treatment efforts, and should receive greater research attention. OBJECTIVES: First, we review and provide a theoretical framework of substance self-concept that draws from dual process models and distinguishes between implicit and explicit self-concept...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Marie-Louise Mares, David H Gustafson, Joseph E Glass, Andrew Quanbeck, Helene McDowell, Fiona McTavish, Amy K Atwood, Lisa A Marsch, Chantelle Thomas, Dhavan Shah, Randall Brown, Andrew Isham, Mary Jane Nealon, Victoria Ward
BACKGROUND: Millions of Americans need but don't receive treatment for substance use, and evidence suggests that addiction-focused interventions on smart phones could support their recovery. There is little research on implementation of addiction-related interventions in primary care, particularly in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) that provide primary care to underserved populations. We used mixed methods to examine three FQHCs' implementation of Seva, a smart-phone app that offers patients online support/discussion, health-tracking, and tools for coping with cravings, and offers clinicians information about patients' health tracking and relapses...
September 29, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Benedict Morris
With the recent introduction of the Psychoactive Substances Bill in the United Kingdom, it is a useful time to retrospectively review the patterns of prevalence of the psychoactive products known as 'Legal Highs'. There has been emerging research and rapidly expanding political, public and media attention and awareness, yet comparatively little scientific discourse on the psychological aspects driving their consumption, beyond simply their legal status. This paper focuses on their usage patterns in the particularly vulnerable, but often-neglected period of young adulthood between the ages of 16-24, focussing on their prevalence, trends in pharmacology and psychological aspects of their usage and propensity for addiction...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Andreas G Franke, Sophie Lehmberg, Michael Soyka
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) is a topic of increasing importance. Its prevalence rates range from 1 % to more than 20 %. Students are a group that shows exceptionally high prevalence rates. However, little is known about teachers' knowledge, management, attitudes and ethical judgements regarding PN. METHODS: A web-based survey containing 40 closed questions was developed. All teachers working at all private and public schools in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a state in northeastern Germany, were invited to participate after their respective school offices were contacted by telephone, email and mail...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
G Dorard, C Bungener, O Phan, Y Edel, M Corcos, S Berthoz
BACKGROUND: The use of illicit substances, in particular cannabis, among French adolescents and young adults has become an important public health concern. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in pathological substance use is nowadays critical. Psychiatric comorbidities have been previously reported in adult substance abusers but are less documented in adolescents, especially regarding cannabis dependence. OBJECTIVES: We investigated mental health problems in adolescents and young adults, seeking treatment for their problematic cannabis use, comparatively to healthy controls, taking into account the participant's gender and age...
September 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Imaneh Abasi, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani
CONTEXT: Recent years have produced many articles about women's addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women's taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: "women and addiction", "women addiction and family", "addiction", "substance abuse" and "family"...
June 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
Charles-Édouard Giguère, Stéphane Potvin
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are significant risk factors for psychiatric relapses and hospitalizations in psychiatric populations. Unfortunately, no instrument has been validated for the screening of SUDs in psychiatric emergency settings. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) is widely used in the addiction field, but is has not been validated in that particular context. The objective of the current study is to examine the psychometric properties of the DAST administered to psychiatric populations evaluated in an emergency setting...
August 31, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Michelle Luciano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Addiction
T Cameron Wild, Yan Yuan, Brian R Rush, Karen A Urbanoski
OBJECTIVE: Mixed evidence on the effectiveness of using legal referrals to leverage treatment participation may reflect unmeasured variability in client motivations for seeking care. We hypothesized that associations between legal referral and client engagement would be moderated by reasons that clients sought treatment, as conceptualized by self-determination theory (SDT). METHODS: Adults entering a Western Canadian residential addiction treatment program (N=325; 49...
October 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Vicky Stergiopoulos, Agnes Gozdzik, Jason Tan de Bibiana, Tim Guimond, Stephen W Hwang, Donald A Wasylenki, Molyn Leszcz
BACKGROUND: Frequent users of hospital emergency departments (EDs) are a medically and socially vulnerable population. This article describes the rationale for a brief case management intervention for frequent ED users with mental health and/or addiction challenges and the design of a randomized trial assessing its effectiveness. METHODS/DESIGN: Eligible participants are adults in a large urban centre with five or more ED visits in the past year, with at least one prior visit for a mental health or addictions reason...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Karen H Antman, Harris A Berman, Terence R Flotte, Jeffrey Flier, Dennis M Dimitri, Monica Bharel
Drug overdose has become the leading cause of injury death in the United States. More than half of those deaths involve prescription drugs, specifically opioids. A key component of addressing this national epidemic is improving prescriber practices.A review of the curricula at the four medical schools in Massachusetts revealed that, although they taught components of addiction medicine, no uniform standard existed to ensure that all students were taught prevention and management strategies for prescription drug misuse...
August 16, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Cornelis A J De Jong, Christine Goodair, Ilana Crome, Darius Jokubonis, Nady El-Guebaly, Geert Dom, Arnt Schellekens, Barbara Broers, Emilis Subata, Gabrielle Katrine Welle-Strand, Lonneke Luycks, Michel Wolters, Tamara Schoof
This perspective article focuses on the need for training and education for undergraduate medical students on substance-related disorders, and describes initiatives undertaken in the United Kingdom (UK), Netherlands, United States (US), and Norway to develop the skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed by future doctors to treat patients adequately. In addition, we stress that in postgraduate training, further steps should be taken to develop Addiction Medicine as a specialized and transverse medical domain...
March 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Micol Parolin, Alessandra Simonelli, Daniela Mapelli, Marianna Sacco, Patrizia Cristofalo
Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Steve Sharman, Jenny Dreyer, Luke Clark, Henrietta Bowden-Jones
Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless...
June 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Tomasz Zaprutko, Dorota Koligat, Michał Michalak, Marta Wieczorek, Malwina Józiak, Monika Ratajczak, Kinga Szydłowska, Joanna Miazek, Krzysztof Kus, Elżbieta Nowakowska
INTRODUCTION: The misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs became a global public health concern. Although abuse with dextrometorphan (DXM), pseudoefedrine (PSD), codeine (COD) or benzydamine (BND) may lead even to psychosis, drugs containing these substances are relatively cheap and freely available. In Poland the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction was amended in 2015, however it seems that there are still some points which could be improved. METHODS: Study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015 using a specially designed questionnaire delivered to pharmacists from the Greater Poland region...
August 2016: Health Policy
June Bryan de la Peña, Jae Hoon Cheong
The tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) combination is an anaesthetic drug commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is an equal amount combination of tiletamine, a dissociative anaesthetic pharmacologically classified as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and zolazepam, a benzodiazepine tranquilizer. There are concerns regarding the safety profile of this drug combination due to incidents of human misuse/abuse. In this paper, we discuss the abuse liability of this drug combination based on currently available scientific evidence...
August 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Stefania Chiappini, Fabrizio Schifano
INTRODUCTION: The gabapentinoids pregabalin and gabapentin are being increasingly prescribed for a range of clinical conditions. Recently, although gabapentinoids at therapeutic dosages may present with low addictive liability levels, cases of misuse and rising numbers of related fatalities have been reported. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to identify and assess cases of gabapentinoid misuse or dependence as reported to the European Medicines Agency's EudraVigilance database, to identify the magnitude of this problem and the characteristics of these reactions...
July 2016: CNS Drugs
Safuadan Plojovic, Slavica Dimitrijevic, Andrijana Maksimovic, Sabina Zejnelagic, Adem Hurem, Muamer Muraspahic
Due to the data of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Serbia, over 70% of persons being in prisons and serving their sentences are drug addicts, and 50% of them are drug users. In the European prisons, the percentage of persons using drugs in the entire prison population is 20-70%, and in the USA 70-80%, in the Australian prisons between 50 and 80% of the convicts in prisons are addicts of psychologically active substances. The results of our survey are pursuant to official statistics data for Serbia, the European countries, USA and Australia, since 80% of our convicts in prisons have misused psychologically active substances during the period of 30 days, the previous period before coming to these institutions...
March 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"