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Substance misuse and addictions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182139/assessing-behavioral-patterns-of-internet-addiction-and-drug-abuse-among-high-school-students
#1
Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi
BACKGROUND: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents' addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. METHODS: A sectional and descriptive-analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148472/using-social-listening-data-to-monitor-misuse-and-nonmedical-use-of-bupropion-a-content-analysis
#2
Laurie S Anderson, Heidi G Bell, Michael Gilbert, Julie E Davidson, Christina Winter, Monica J Barratt, Beta Win, Jeffery L Painter, Christopher Menone, Jonathan Sayegh, Nabarun Dasgupta
BACKGROUND: The nonmedical use of pharmaceutical products has become a significant public health concern. Traditionally, the evaluation of nonmedical use has focused on controlled substances with addiction risk. Currently, there is no effective means of evaluating the nonmedical use of noncontrolled antidepressants. OBJECTIVE: Social listening, in the context of public health sometimes called infodemiology or infoveillance, is the process of identifying and assessing what is being said about a company, product, brand, or individual, within forms of electronic interactive media...
1, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107679/meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-impulsivity-and-substance-related-cognitive-biases
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Leung, Petra K Staiger, Melissa Hayden, Jarrad A G Lum, Kate Hall, Victoria Manning, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that substance-related cognitive biases (attentional, memory, and approach bias) contribute to the maintenance and development of substance misuse. Impulsivity has been suggested to influence how cognitive biases contribute to substance misuse, possibly by biasing incentive salience attribution processes. However, the strength and moderators of the relationship between impulsivity and substance-related cognitive biases has yet to be empirically examined...
January 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100243/combating-substance-misuse-competences-and-preparation-of-special-education-department-students
#4
Eman Al-Zboon
BACKGROUND: This study examines Jordanian special education department students' competences and preparation relating to combating substance misuse (SM). METHOD: Thematic analysis was performed on data from interviews with 150 students. RESULTS: Some participants denied the possibility of addiction among students with disabilities, and presented negative attitudes toward their role in combating SM. In general, the participants displayed low levels of professionalism relating to combating SM, and the results revealed that they felt that their preparation programme had been inadequate and they desired more courses that related to combating SM...
January 14, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035543/surgeon-general-s-report-on-addiction-what-does-it-mean
#5
Linda Rosenberg
A new Congress and a new President-elect mean changes are in store for 2017. But one topic that remains bipartisan is addiction. The Surgeon General's first-ever report on substance misuse and related disorders, Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health, reminds us of the inequities in treatment of addictions and opens new opportunities for change.
January 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012094/clinical-pharmacology-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mephedrone
#6
Esther Papaseit, José Moltó, Robert Muga, Marta Torrens, Rafael de la Torre, Magí Farré
4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular new psychoactive substance (NPS) that is structurally related to the parent compound cathinone, the β-keto analogue of amphetamine. Mephedrone appeared on the street drug market as a substitute for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and was subsequently banned due to the potential health risks associated with its use. Nevertheless, mephedrone continues to be widely consumed among specific populations, with unique patterns of misuse. To date, most information about the biological effects of mephedrone comes from user experiences, epidemiological data, clinical cases, toxicological findings, and animal studies, whilst there are very few data regarding its human pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988038/-acute-psychiatric-symptoms-during-methylphenidate-intravenous-injections-a-case-report
#7
Fabrice Vérité, Joëlle Micallef
We report the case of a 32-year-old man who developed acute psychiatric disorders after repeated intravenous injections of methylphenidate. The behavioural disorders with extreme psychomotor restlessness and delirious syndrome have resolved within 24hours. The available data highlight the fact that the prescriptions of methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like substance, are constantly increasing in Europe and Northern America. The potential of abuse and addiction to this drug, which is growingly misused, is now clearly established...
November 24, 2016: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960229/automated-telephone-communication-systems-for-preventive-healthcare-and-management-of-long-term-conditions
#8
REVIEW
Pawel Posadzki, Nikolaos Mastellos, Rebecca Ryan, Laura H Gunn, Lambert M Felix, Yannis Pappas, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Steven A Julious, Liming Xiang, Brian Oldenburg, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: Automated telephone communication systems (ATCS) can deliver voice messages and collect health-related information from patients using either their telephone's touch-tone keypad or voice recognition software. ATCS can supplement or replace telephone contact between health professionals and patients. There are four different types of ATCS: unidirectional (one-way, non-interactive voice communication), interactive voice response (IVR) systems, ATCS with additional functions such as access to an expert to request advice (ATCS Plus) and multimodal ATCS, where the calls are delivered as part of a multicomponent intervention...
14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955636/effects-of-delaying-binge-drinking-on-adolescent-brain-development-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study
#9
Josiane Bourque, Travis E Baker, Alain Dagher, Alan C Evans, Hugh Garavan, Marco Leyton, Jean R Séguin, Robert Pihl, Patricia J Conrod
BACKGROUND: Onset of alcohol use by 14 relative to 21 years of age strongly predicts elevated risk for severe alcohol use problems, with 27% versus 4% of individuals exhibiting alcohol dependence within 10 years of onset. What remains unclear is whether this early alcohol use (i) is a marker for later problems, reflected as a pre-existing developmental predisposition, (ii) causes global neural atrophy or (iii) specifically disturbs neuro-maturational processes implicated in addiction, such as executive functions or reward processing...
December 13, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933148/role-of-peer-support-workers-in-improving-patient-experience-in-tower-hamlets-specialist-addiction-unit
#10
Wiktor Kulik, Amar Shah
The aim of the project was to improve patient experience for people in Tower Hamlets Specialist Addictions Unit in order to increase satisfaction by 25% in 12 months starting in August 2014. The team used the model for improvement as part of ELFT's quality improvement programme to support iterative cycles of testing and learning. This involved support from the Trust's quality improvement team. The theory of change was visualised through a driver diagram. A number of outcomes were measured and plotted over time - patient satisfaction, staff satisfaction, and attendance to peer support groups...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920355/initiation-of-addiction-treatment-and-access-to-services-young-adults-accounts-of-their-help-seeking-experiences
#11
Vincent Wagner, Karine Bertrand, Jorge Flores-Aranda, Didier Acier, Natacha Brunelle, Michel Landry, Serge Brochu
Substance addiction in young adults is particularly problematic. Yet, much remain at stake in understanding the specifics of this population's access to services. The objective of this study is to explore young adults' initiation of substance misuse treatment. Our study sample was composed of 35 individuals aged 18 to 30 with problematic psychoactive substance use who have been identified in criminal courts, hospital emergency departments, and Health and Social Services Centers in Québec (Canada). A thematic analysis was performed on the 62 semi-structured interviews conducted with participants...
December 4, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873121/challenges-to-treatment-of-chronic-pain-and-addiction-during-the-opioid-crisis
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Krashin, Natalia Murinova, Mark Sullivan
Health care in the USA faces a double challenge, the crisis of chronic pain and the crisis of opioid misuse and overdose. Patients have been prescribed opioids at high doses with unclear indications for long periods of time, putting them at high risk for morbidity and mortality. A significant proportion of these patients have comorbid psychiatric or substance use disorders complicating their pain conditions. The challenges to treating these patients adequately are discussed, along with potential solutions to these issues at the level of the individual provider, healthcare systems, and society...
December 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830625/substance-misuse
#13
(no author information available yet)
This literature review concerned the end of life care needs of patients with drug and alcohol addiction, particularly in the UK, and to identify existing good practice guidance. Three themes emerged: » The need to improve recognition of substance misuse in patients receiving palliative care, and to meet the challenges palliative care teams face when caring for patients who have current or past opiate, benzodiazepine or alcohol addictions. » A lack of UK literature addressing the end of life care needs of patients with drug and alcohol addiction...
November 10, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805267/deficits-in-access-to-reward-are-associated-with-college-student-alcohol-use-disorder
#14
Keanan J Joyner, Alison M Pickover, Kathryn E Soltis, Ashley A Dennhardt, Matthew P Martens, James G Murphy
BACKGROUND: Reward deprivation has been implicated in major depressive disorder and severe substance abuse, but its potential relation to alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms in non-treatment-seeking young adult drinkers is less clear. Depression is often comorbid with alcohol misuse, so relations of AUD with reward deprivation might be due in part to the presence of depressive symptoms in young adults. Behavioral economic theory views addiction as a state that is related in part to deficits in drug-free rewards, and therefore requires an investigation into whether reward deprivation has a direct relation to alcohol misuse that is, at least partially, independent of mood...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752344/medical-comorbidity-and-projected-survival-in-patients-admitted-to-a-specialist-addictions-in-patient-unit
#15
Daniel V Mogford, Rebecca J Lawrence
Aims and method To investigate the burden of medical comorbidity in a population receiving in-patient treatment for drug and alcohol problems. All patients admitted over a 6-month period were included in the data-set. We recorded diagnostic information on admission that allowed the calculation of predicted 10-year survival using a previously validated comorbidity index. Results Despite the majority of the sample having a predicted 10-year survival chance of greater than 75%, a sizeable minority (16.7%) are carrying a high burden of medical comorbidity, with a predicted 10-year survival chance of less than 50%...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720453/-new-patterns-of-substance-use-and-abuse-among-french-adolescents-a-knowledge-synthesis
#16
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715328/a-review-of-implicit-and-explicit-substance-self-concept-as-a-predictor-of-alcohol-and-tobacco-use-and-misuse
#17
Kristen P Lindgren, Clayton Neighbors, Melissa L Gasser, Jason J Ramirez, Dario Cvencek
BACKGROUND: This paper provides an overview of the self-concept as it relates to substance use. Self-concept has a long history in psychological theory and research; however, substance self-concept (e.g., viewing one's self as a drinker or smoker) is an understudied area of research with the potential to expand existing conceptualizations of substance use, addiction, and prevention and treatment efforts, and should receive greater research attention. OBJECTIVES: First, we review and provide a theoretical framework of substance self-concept that draws from dual process models and distinguishes between implicit and explicit self-concept...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687632/implementing-an-mhealth-system-for-substance-use-disorders-in-primary-care-a-mixed-methods-study-of-clinicians-initial-expectations-and-first-year-experiences
#18
Marie-Louise Mares, David H Gustafson, Joseph E Glass, Andrew Quanbeck, Helene McDowell, Fiona McTavish, Amy K Atwood, Lisa A Marsch, Chantelle Thomas, Dhavan Shah, Randall Brown, Andrew Isham, Mary Jane Nealon, Victoria Ward
BACKGROUND: Millions of Americans need but don't receive treatment for substance use, and evidence suggests that addiction-focused interventions on smart phones could support their recovery. There is little research on implementation of addiction-related interventions in primary care, particularly in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) that provide primary care to underserved populations. We used mixed methods to examine three FQHCs' implementation of Seva, a smart-phone app that offers patients online support/discussion, health-tracking, and tools for coping with cravings, and offers clinicians information about patients' health tracking and relapses...
September 29, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663805/understanding-the-prevalence-of-legal-high-misuse-in-early-adulthood
#19
Benedict Morris
With the recent introduction of the Psychoactive Substances Bill in the United Kingdom, it is a useful time to retrospectively review the patterns of prevalence of the psychoactive products known as 'Legal Highs'. There has been emerging research and rapidly expanding political, public and media attention and awareness, yet comparatively little scientific discourse on the psychological aspects driving their consumption, beyond simply their legal status. This paper focuses on their usage patterns in the particularly vulnerable, but often-neglected period of young adulthood between the ages of 16-24, focussing on their prevalence, trends in pharmacology and psychological aspects of their usage and propensity for addiction...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646845/pharmacological-neuroenhancement-teachers-knowledge-and-attitudes-results-from-a-survey-study-among-teachers-in-germany
#20
Andreas G Franke, Sophie Lehmberg, Michael Soyka
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) is a topic of increasing importance. Its prevalence rates range from 1 % to more than 20 %. Students are a group that shows exceptionally high prevalence rates. However, little is known about teachers' knowledge, management, attitudes and ethical judgements regarding PN. METHODS: A web-based survey containing 40 closed questions was developed. All teachers working at all private and public schools in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a state in northeastern Germany, were invited to participate after their respective school offices were contacted by telephone, email and mail...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
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