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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902779/differential-cytokine-gene-expression-in-granulomas-from-lungs-and-lymph-nodes-of-cattle-experimentally-infected-with-aerosolized-mycobacterium-bovis
#1
Mitchell V Palmer, Tyler C Thacker, W Ray Waters
The hallmark lesion of tuberculosis in humans and animals is the granuloma. The granuloma represents a distinct host cellular immune response composed of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, and multinucleated giant cells, often surrounding a caseous necrotic core. Within the granuloma, host-pathogen interactions determine disease outcome. Factors within the granulomas such as cytokines and chemokines drive cell recruitment, activity, function and ultimately the success or failure of the host's ability to control infection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871809/biomarkers-for-discrimination-between-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-active-tuberculosis-disease
#2
Eun-Jeong Won, Jung-Ho Choi, Young-Nan Cho, Hye-Mi Jin, Hae Jin Kee, Yong-Wook Park, Yong-Soo Kwon, Seung-Jung Kee
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether combinations of multiplex cytokine responses could differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection states. METHODS: Mtb-specific antigen-induced and unstimulated cytokines were measured by Luminex assay in supernatants of QuantiFERON(®) Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in 48 active pulmonary TB patients (TB), 15 latent TB infection subjects (LTBI), and 13 healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: Among the 29 cytokines, eight Mtb antigen-specific biomarkers (GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-3, IL-13, IP-10, and MIP-1β) in the Mtb-infected group were significantly different from those of the HCs...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866772/h1-ic31-vaccination-is-safe-and-induces-long-lived-tnf-%C3%AE-il-2-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-m-tuberculosis-infected-and-uninfected-adolescents-a-randomized-trial
#3
Helen Mearns, Hennie D Geldenhuys, Benjamin M Kagina, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Francesca Little, Frances Ratangee, Hassan Mahomed, Willem A Hanekom, Søren T Hoff, Morten Ruhwald, Ingrid Kromann, Peter Bang, Mark Hatherill, Peter Andersen, Thomas J Scriba
BACKGROUND: Control of the tuberculosis epidemic requires a novel vaccine that is effective in preventing tuberculosis in adolescents, a key target population for vaccination against TB. METHODS: Healthy adolescents, stratified by M. tuberculosis-infection status, were enrolled into this observer-blinded phase II clinical trial of the protein-subunit vaccine candidate, H1:IC31, comprising a fusion protein (H1) of Ag85B and ESAT-6, formulated with the IC31 adjuvant...
November 17, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865393/selective-reduction-of-ifn-%C3%AE-single-positive-mycobacteria-specific-cd4-t-cells-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#4
Catherine Riou, Rubina Bunjun, Tracey L Müller, Agano Kiravu, Zekarias Ginbot, Tolu Oni, Rene Goliath, Robert J Wilkinson, Wendy A Burgers
HIV-1 is recognized to increase the risk for tuberculosis even before CD4+ T cell deficiency is profound. To better understand how HIV-1 alters immunity to latent tuberculosis, we compared the magnitude and functional profile of mycobacteria-specific CD4+ T cells between HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected individuals, using flow cytometry. In HIV-1 infection, IFN-γ single positive mycobacteria-specific CD4+ T cells were decreased, while the frequency of polyfunctional cells (IFN-γ+IL-2+TNF-α+) remained unchanged...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865390/alternative-bcg-delivery-strategies-improve-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-non-human-primates-protection-associated-with-mycobacterial-antigen-specific-cd4-effector-memory-t-cell-populations
#5
S Sharpe, A White, C Sarfas, L Sibley, F Gleeson, A McIntyre, R Basaraba, S Clark, G Hall, E Rayner, A Williams, P D Marsh, M Dennis
Intradermal (ID) BCG injection provides incomplete protection against TB in humans and experimental models. Alternative BCG vaccination strategies may improve protection in model species, including rhesus macaques. This study compares the immunogenicity and efficacy of BCG administered by ID and intravenous (IV) injection, or as an intratracheal mucosal boost (ID + IT), against aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman strain. Disease pathology was significantly reduced, and survival improved, by each BCG vaccination strategy, relative to unvaccinated animals...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865389/mycobacterium-indicus-pranii-as-a-booster-vaccine-enhances-bcg-induced-immunity-and-confers-higher-protection-in-animal-models-of-tuberculosis
#6
Mohd Saqib, Rahul Khatri, Bindu Singh, Ananya Gupta, Arvind Kumar, Sangeeta Bhaskar
BCG, the only approved vaccine protects against severe form of childhood tuberculosis but its protective efficacy wanes in adolescence. BCG has reduced the incidence of infant TB considerably in endemic areas; therefore prime-boost strategy is the most realistic measure for control of tuberculosis in near future. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) shares significant antigenic repertoire with Mtb and BCG and has been shown to impart significant protection in animal models of tuberculosis. In this study, MIP was given as a booster to BCG vaccine which enhanced the BCG mediated immune response, resulting in higher protection...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858493/sp110b-controls-host-immunity-and-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis
#7
Jia-Shiun Leu, Mei-Ling Chen, So-Yi Chang, Sung-Liang Yu, Chia-Wei Lin, Hsuan Wang, Wan-Chen Chen, Chin-Hao Chang, Jann-Yuan Wang, Li-Na Lee, Chong-Jen Yu, Igor Kramnik, Bo-Shiun Yan, Pan-Chyr Yang
RATIONALE: How host genetic factors affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection outcomes remains largely unknown. SP110b, an interferon (IFN)-induced nuclear protein, is the nearest human homolog to the mouse Ipr1 protein that has been shown to control host innate immunity to Mtb infection. However, the function(s) of SP110b remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the role of SP110b in controlling the host immunity and susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) as well as to identify the fundamental immunological and molecular mechanisms affected by SP110b...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855374/inflammatory-properties-and-adjuvant-potential-of-synthetic-glycolipids-homologous-to-mycolate-esters-of-the-cell-wall-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Hermann Giresse Tima, Juma''a Raheem Al Dulayymi, Olivier Denis, Pauline Lehebel, Klarah Sherzad Baols, Mohsin Omar Mohammed, Laurent L'Homme, Mohaned Mohammed Sahb, Georges Potemberg, Sylvie Legrand, Roland Lang, Rudi Beyaert, Jacques Piette, Mark Stephen Baird, Kris Huygen, Marta Romano
The cell wall of mycobacteria is characterised by glycolipids composed of different classes of mycolic acids (MAs; alpha-, keto-, and methoxy-) and sugars (trehalose, glucose, and arabinose). Studies using mutant Mtb strains have shown that the structure of MAs influences the inflammatory potential of these glycolipids. As mutant Mtb strains possess a complex mixture of glycolipids, we analysed the inflammatory potential of single classes of mycolate esters of the Mtb cell wall using 38 different synthetic analogues...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852671/highly-multiplexed-proteomic-analysis-of-quantiferon-supernatants-to-identify-biomarkers-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Mary Ann De Groote, Michael Higgins, Thomas Hraha, Kirsten Wall, Michael L Wilson, David G Sterling, Nebojsa Janjic, Randall Reves, Urs A Ochsner, Robert Belknap
The tests for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are limited by poor predictive value for identifying people at highest risk for progression to active TB, and have varying sensitivity and specificity in different populations. The identification of a more robust signature for LTBI is important for TB prevention and elimination. A pilot study was conducted with samples from immigrants to the U.S. that were screened for LTBI by the three commercially approved tests: Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT), and T-SPOT...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849167/type-i-ifn-inhibits-alternative-macrophage-activation-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-leads-to-enhanced-protection-in-the-absence-of-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling
#10
Lúcia Moreira-Teixeira, Jeremy Sousa, Finlay W McNab, Egídio Torrado, Filipa Cardoso, Henrique Machado, Flávia Castro, Vânia Cardoso, Joana Gaifem, Xuemei Wu, Rui Appelberg, António Gil Castro, Anne O'Garra, Margarida Saraiva
Tuberculosis causes ∼1.5 million deaths every year, thus remaining a leading cause of death from infectious diseases in the world. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that type I IFN plays a detrimental role in tuberculosis pathogenesis, likely by interfering with IFN-γ-dependent immunity. In this article, we reveal a novel mechanism by which type I IFN may confer protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the absence of IFN-γ signaling. We show that production of type I IFN by M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages induced NO synthase 2 and inhibited arginase 1 gene expression...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833091/divergent-macrophage-responses-to-mycobacterium-bovis-among-naturally-exposed-uninfected-and-infected-cattle
#11
Omar A Alcaráz-López, Cindy García-Gil, Claudia Morales-Martínez, Gonzalo López-Rincón, Ciro Estrada-Chávez, José A Gutiérrez-Pabello, Hugo Esquivel-Solís
Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), is a successful pathogen that remains an important global threat to livestock. Cattle naturally exposed to M. bovis normally become reactive to the M. bovis-purified protein derivative (PPD; tuberculin) skin test; however, some individuals remain negative, suggesting they may be resistant to infection. To better understand host innate resistance to infection, 26 cattle from herds with a long history of high tuberculosis prevalence were included in this study...
November 11, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832150/one-year-tuberculosis-risk-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-starting-their-first-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitor-therapy-from-2008-to-2012-in-taiwan-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Chong-Hong Lim, Ching-Heng Lin, Der-Yuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Wen-Cheng Chao, Tsai-Ling Liao, Hsin-Hua Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients within 1 year after initiation of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy from 2008 to 2012. METHODS: We used the 2003-2013 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify RA patients who started any RA-related medical therapy from 2008 to 2012. Those who initiated etanercept or adalimumab therapy during 2008-2012 were selected as the TNFi group and those who never received biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug therapy were identified as the comparison group after excluding the patients who had a history of TB or human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828711/wnt5a-deficiency-regulates-inflammatory-cytokine-secretion-polarization-and-apoptosis-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-macrophages
#13
Deming Chen, Guobao Li, Xiangdong Fu, Pei Li, Jie Zhang, Lan Luo
Tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is one of the global public health catastrophes. Wnt signaling has recently been identified to exert immunoregulatory functions in a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases, including tuberculosis. The opposite expression of Wnt5a in human and mice during MTB infection drives us to explore the roles and biological significances of reduced Wnt5a for MTB-treated mice. In our study, the reduction of WNT5A in MTB-treated mice lung tissues or MTB-infected mice bone marrow-derived macrophages (BM-Mø) was in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
November 9, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817127/the-conversion-rate-of-tuberculosis-screening-tests-during-biological-therapies-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Giovanna Cuomo, Virginia D'Abrsca, Daniela Iacono, Ilenia Pantano
Screening for active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) is mandatory to the initiation of biological therapy in patients with rheumatic diseases. To determine the prevalence of LTBI in patients with rheumatoid arthritis before treatment with biological therapy (anti-TNF, abatacept, and tocilizumab) and the rate of TB conversion during treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we evaluated the file of 275 patients with RA treated with biological agents. We considered patients with negative baseline TB screening (tuberculin skin test (TST); quantiferon TB gold in tube (QFT-GIT); chest x-ray) and with rescreening for a TB assay every year...
November 5, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813605/association-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-gene-polymorphism-with-osteoarticular-tuberculosis-prognosis-in-a-hebei-population
#15
Y J Lv, S J Liu, W N Hu, G P Zhang, Q Y Ren, L D Zheng, Y C Zhang, R Q Li, Z K Zhang
This study investigated the association of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-308, -238, and -863 polymorphisms with osteoarticular tuberculosis (OA-TB) prognosis in a Hebei population. Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood samples of 120 OA-TB patients and 100 healthy volunteers. TNF-α-308, -238, and -863 were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism; genotype and allele frequencies were calculated. Serum TNF-α level was significantly higher in OA-TB patients (283.16 ± 51.68 ng/L) than in control (122...
October 24, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803453/evaluation-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-adverse-events-in-healthy-volunteers-upon-inhalation-of-antituberculosis-drugs
#16
Teerapol Srichana, Chaveewan Ratanajamit, Siwasak Juthong, Tan Suwandecha, Nisa Laohapojanart, Petchawan Pungrassami, Alwar Ramanujam Padmavathi
Inhalation therapy is a promising drug delivery approach for tuberculosis treatment. However, there is always concern about the safety of the dosage form by inhalation as it may induce inflammation. Developing a new dosage form for inhalation must include tests for its safety especially for the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukine (IL)-1β. The safety of four anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs administered via inhalation was assessed in healthy volunteers. Four anti-TB drugs; isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and levofloxacin were prepared as dry powder and evaluated for uniformity of delivered dose and in vitro drug deposition...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803138/five-year-safety-data-from-5-clinical-trials-of-subcutaneous-golimumab-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-psoriatic-arthritis-and-ankylosing-spondylitis
#17
Jonathan Kay, Roy Fleischmann, Edward Keystone, Elizabeth C Hsia, Benjamin Hsu, Yiying Zhou, Neil Goldstein, Jürgen Braun
OBJECTIVE: Assess 5-year golimumab (GOL) safety in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: Subcutaneous (SC) GOL (50 mg or 100 mg every 4 weeks) was evaluated in phase 3 trials of patients with active RA, PsA, and AS. Safety data through Year 5 were pooled across 3 RA trials [1 each evaluating methotrexate (MTX)-naive, MTX-experienced, and antitumor necrosis factor (TNF)-experienced patients], 1 PsA trial, and 1 AS trial...
December 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800700/t-cell-exhaustion-in-tuberculosis-pitfalls-and-prospects
#18
Nargis Khan, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Mohammed Amir, Khurram Mushtaq, Javed Naim Agrewala
T-cells play an important role in immunity but when these cells are overexposed to specific antigens, their function may decline. This state is usually referred to as exhaustion and the T-cells show reduced proliferation and functions such as cytokine release. T-cell exhaustion has been observed in several cancers as well as in chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB). In chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, T-cells may express the exhaustion phenotype and show a progressive loss of secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800521/continued-elevation-of-interleukin-18-and-interferon-%C3%AE-after-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-clinical-failure-in-a-diverse-multicountry-human-immunodeficiency-virus-cohort
#19
Ashwin Balagopal, Nikhil Gupte, Rupak Shivakoti, Andrea L Cox, Wei-Teng Yang, Sima Berendes, Noluthando Mwelase, Cecilia Kanyama, Sandy Pillay, Wadzanai Samaneka, Breno Santos, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Srikanth Tripathy, Cynthia Riviere, Javier R Lama, Sandra W Cardoso, Patcharaphan Sugandhavesa, Richard D Semba, James Hakim, Mina C Hosseinipour, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Ian Sanne, David Asmuth, Thomas Campbell, Robert C Bollinger, Amita Gupta
Background.  We assessed immune activation after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to understand clinical failure in diverse settings. Methods.  We performed a case-control study in ACTG Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings (PEARLS). Cases were defined as incident World Health Organization Stage 3 or 4 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease or death, analyzed from ART weeks 24 (ART24) to 96. Controls were randomly selected. Interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible protein-10, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α, IFN-γ, and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were measured pre-ART and at ART24 in plasma...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799930/increased-tnf-%C3%AE-ifn-%C3%AE-il-2-and-decreased-tnf-%C3%AE-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-central-memory-t-cells-are-associated-with-protective-responses-against-bovine-tuberculosis-following-bcg-vaccination
#20
Mayara F Maggioli, Mitchell V Palmer, Tyler C Thacker, Hans Martin Vordermeier, Jodi L McGill, Adam O Whelan, Michelle H Larsen, William R Jacobs, W Ray Waters
Central memory T cell (Tcm) and polyfunctional CD4 T cell responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB); however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by CD4 T cell effector/memory populations from bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves by flow cytometry prior to and after aerosol challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Polyfunctional cytokine expression patterns in the response by Tcm, effector memory, and effector T cell subsets were similar between BCG-vaccinated and M...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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