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Pandemrix narcolepsy

Camille Planty, Corey P Mallett, Kevin Yim, Jorge C G Blanco, Marina Boukhvalova, Thomas March, Robbert van der Most, Eric Destexhe
An increased risk of narcolepsy following administration of an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix™) was described in children and adolescents in certain European countries. We investigated the potential effects of administration of the AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, non-adjuvanted vaccine antigen and AS03 Adjuvant System alone, on the central nervous system (CNS) in one-month-old cotton rats. Naïve or A(H1N1)pdm09 virus-primed animals received 2 or 3 intramuscular injections, respectively, of test article or saline at two-week intervals...
September 14, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Kartini Gadroen, Sabine M J M Straus, Alexandra Pacurariu, Daniel Weibel, Xavier Kurz, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the frequency and quality of spontaneous narcolepsy case reports following administration of pandemic influenza vaccine as captured in the Eudravigilance database. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of spontaneous Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs), reporting narcolepsy following administration of pandemic influenza vaccine as received by Eudravigilance until July 2014. De-duplication was carried out by Eudravigilance...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
Tomi Sarkanen, Reija Alén, Markku Partinen
INTRODUCTION: Narcolepsy type 1 is an organic sleep disorder caused by the destruction of hypocretin producing neurons in hypothalamus. In addition to daytime sleepiness, the spectrum and severity of symptoms are very variable. Psychiatric comorbidity and phenomena resembling psychotic symptoms are also common. Current treatment options for narcolepsy are symptomatic but there are few case reports of positive effect of immunotherapy. We report a very severely affected young boy treated with rituximab (RXB)...
September 2016: Neurologist
Richard E Rosch, Michael Farquhar, Paul Gringras, Deb K Pal
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare, but important differential diagnosis for daytime sleepiness and atonic paroxysms in an adolescent. A recent increase in incidence in the pediatric age group probably linked to the use of the Pandemrix influenza vaccine in 2009, has increased awareness that different environmental factors can "trigger" narcolepsy with cataplexy in a genetically susceptible population. Here, we describe the case of a 13-year-old boy with narcolepsy following yellow fever vaccination. He carries the HLA DQB1*0602 haplotype strongly associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Yves Dauvilliers, Régis Lopez
Narcolepsy with cataplexy or narcolepsy type 1 in a rare, disabling sleep disorder, with a prevalence of 20 to 30 per 100,000. Its onset peaks in the second decade. The main features are excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy or sudden less of muscle tone triggered by emotional situations. Other less consistent symptoms include hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, and weight gain. Narcolepsy with cataplexy remains a clinical diagnosis but nighttime and daytime polysomnography (multiple sleep latency tests) are useful to document mean sleep latency below 8 min and at least two sleep-onset REM periods...
June 2016: La Revue du Praticien
Åke Lernmark
The etiology of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated organ-specific autoimmune diseases is incomplete. In type 1 diabetes and celiac disease, the strongest associations are with the HLA-DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, whereas the DQB1*06:02 allele has a strong negative association. In contrast, narcolepsy, especially as recently triggered by the Pandemrix(®) H1N1 vaccine (GlaxoKlineSmith (GSK), Brentford, Middlesex, UK), did not seem to develop without at least one copy of the latter allele. The overall hypothesis is that the role of these different HLA haplotypes, especially in Finland and Sweden, is related to the immune response to infectious agents that are common in these two populations...
July 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
S Sohail Ahmed, Emanuele Montomoli, Franco Laghi Pasini, Lawrence Steinman
Despite the very high benefit-to-risk ratio of vaccines, the fear of negative side effects has discouraged many people from getting vaccinated, resulting in the reemergence of previously controlled diseases such as measles, pertussis and diphtheria. This fear has been amplified more recently by multiple epidemiologic studies that confirmed the link of an AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Germany) used in Europe during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic [A(H1N1) pdm09] with the development of narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder, in children and adolescents...
March 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Tomi Sarkanen, Anniina Alakuijala, Markku Partinen
OBJECTIVE: To follow and analyze the clinical course and quality of life of Pandemrix H1N1-vaccine-related narcolepsy (pNT1). METHODS: Twenty-six drug-naïve confirmed pNT1 subjects completed Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS), Swiss Narcolepsy Scale (SNS), Rimon's Brief Depression scale (RDS), and WHO-5 Well-being index questionnaires near the disease onset and in a follow-up a minimum of two years later. The number of cataplexies and body mass index (BMI) were recorded...
March 2016: Sleep Medicine
Quentin Canelle, Walthère Dewé, Bruce L Innis, Robbert van der Most
In retrospective observational studies, an increased relative risk of incident narcolepsy was observed in some European countries among recipients of the AS03-adjuvanted, A(H1N1)pdm09, inactivated, detergent-split virion vaccine Pandemrix™ manufactured in Dresden, Germany (D-Pan H1N1). A similar increased risk was not observed in a retrospective population-based study in individuals in Quebec province, Canada, who received Aprepanrix™, a Quebec-manufactured AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 inactivated, detergent-split virion vaccine (Q-Pan H1N1)...
September 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
S Sohail Ahmed, Lawrence Steinman
We previously reported an increased frequency of antibodies to hypocretin (HCRT) receptor 2 in sera obtained from narcoleptic patients who received the European AS03-adjuvanted vaccine Pandemrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, s.a.) for the global influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009 [A(H1N1)pdm09]. These antibodies cross-reacted with a particular fragment of influenza nucleoprotein (NP) - one of the proteins naturally contained in the virus used to make seasonal influenza vaccine and pandemic influenza vaccines...
March 31, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Leonoor Wijnans, Caitlin Dodd, Maria de Ridder, Silvana Romio, Daniel Weibel, Sebastiaan Overeem, Gert Jan Lammers, Jan Bonhoeffer, Steve Black, Miriam Sturkenboom
Several studies have identified an association between Pandemrix(TM), an AS03 adjuvanted pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine, and narcolepsy, a rare and under-diagnosed sleep disorder with a median onset-to-diagnosis interval of ten years. This paper reviews potential sources of bias in published studies and aims to provide, through simulation, methodological recommendations for assessment of vaccine safety signals. Our simulation study showed that in the absence of an association between the vaccine and the outcome, presence of detection bias and differential exposure misclassification could account for elevated risk estimates...
May 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Kaatje Bollaerts, Vivek Shinde, Gaël Dos Santos, Germano Ferreira, Vincent Bauchau, Catherine Cohet, Thomas Verstraeten
BACKGROUND: An increase in narcolepsy cases was observed in Finland and Sweden towards the end of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Preliminary observational studies suggested a temporal link with the pandemic influenza vaccine Pandemrix™, leading to a number of additional studies across Europe. Given the public health urgency, these studies used readily available retrospective data from various sources. The potential for bias in such settings was generally acknowledged. Although generally advocated by key opinion leaders and international health authorities, no systematic quantitative assessment of the potential joint impact of biases was undertaken in any of these studies...
2016: PloS One
Julia Stowe, Nicholas Andrews, Christopher Kosky, Gary Dennis, Sofia Eriksson, Andrew Hall, Guy Leschziner, Paul Reading, John M Shneerson, Katherine Donegan, Elizabeth Miller
STUDY OBJECTIVES: An increased risk of narcolepsy has been observed in children following ASO3-adjuvanted pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (Pandemrix) vaccine. We investigated whether this risk extends to adults in England. METHODS: Six adult sleep centers in England were visited between November 2012 and February 2014 and vaccination/clinical histories obtained from general practitioners. Suspected narcolepsy cases aged older than 17 y were selected. The risk of narcolepsy following Pandemrix was calculated using cases diagnosed by the time of the center visits and those with a diagnosis by November 30, 2011 after which there was increased awareness of the risk in children...
2016: Sleep
Thomas Verstraeten, Catherine Cohet, Gaël Dos Santos, Germano Lc Ferreira, Kaatje Bollaerts, Vincent Bauchau, Vivek Shinde
A link between Pandemrix™ (AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) and narcolepsy was first suspected in 2010 in Sweden and Finland following a number of reports in children and adolescents. Initial scepticism about the reported association faded as additional countries reported similar findings, leading several regulatory authorities to restrict the use of Pandemrix™. The authors acknowledge that currently available data suggest an increased risk of narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix™; however, from an epidemiologist's perspective, significant methodological limitations of the studies have not been fully addressed and raise questions about the reported risk estimates...
2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Woo Jung Kim, Sang Don Lee, Eun Lee, Kee Namkoong, Kang-Won Choe, Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Hye Won Jeong, Jung Yeon Heo
BACKGROUND: Previous reports mostly from Europe suggested an association between an occurrence of narcolepsy and an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine adjuvanted with AS03 (Pandemrix(®)). During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination campaign, the Korean military performed a vaccination campaign with one type of influenza vaccine containing MF59-adjuvants. This study was conducted to investigate the background incidence rate of narcolepsy in South Korean soldiers and the association of the MF59-adjuvanted vaccine with the occurrence of narcolepsy in a young adult group...
September 11, 2015: Vaccine
Anna-Helena Saariaho, Arja Vuorela, Tobias L Freitag, Fabio Pizza, Giuseppe Plazzi, Markku Partinen, Outi Vaarala, Seppo Meri
Following the mass vaccinations against pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in 2009, a sudden increase in juvenile onset narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) was detected in several European countries where AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix vaccine had been used. NC is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. In human NC, the hypocretin-producing neurons in the hypothalamus or the hypocretin signaling pathway are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction. Both genetic (e.g. HLA-DQB1*0602) and environmental risk factors (e...
September 2015: Journal of Autoimmunity
Syed Sohail Ahmed, Wayne Volkmuth, José Duca, Lorenzo Corti, Michele Pallaoro, Alfredo Pezzicoli, Anette Karle, Fabio Rigat, Rino Rappuoli, Vas Narasimhan, Ilkka Julkunen, Arja Vuorela, Outi Vaarala, Hanna Nohynek, Franco Laghi Pasini, Emanuele Montomoli, Claudia Trombetta, Christopher M Adams, Jonathan Rothbard, Lawrence Steinman
The sleep disorder narcolepsy is linked to the HLA-DQB1*0602 haplotype and dysregulation of the hypocretin ligand-hypocretin receptor pathway. Narcolepsy was associated with Pandemrix vaccination (an adjuvanted, influenza pandemic vaccine) and also with infection by influenza virus during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. In contrast, very few cases were reported after Focetria vaccination (a differently manufactured adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccine). We hypothesized that differences between these vaccines (which are derived from inactivated influenza viral proteins) explain the association of narcolepsy with Pandemrix-vaccinated subjects...
July 1, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
N Feltelius, I Persson, J Ahlqvist-Rastad, M Andersson, L Arnheim-Dahlström, P Bergman, F Granath, C Adori, T Hökfelt, S Kühlmann-Berenzon, P Liljeström, M Maeurer, T Olsson, Å Örtqvist, M Partinen, T Salmonson, B Zethelius
In response to the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, a mass vaccination programme with the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine Pandemrix was initiated in Sweden. Unexpectedly, there were a number of narcolepsy cases amongst vaccinated children and adolescents reported. In this review, we summarize the results of a joint cross-disciplinary national research effort to investigate the adverse reaction signal from the spontaneous reporting system and to better understand possible causative mechanisms...
October 2015: Journal of Internal Medicine
Britta Lundgren
During the swine flu pandemic of 2009-2010, all Swedish citizens were recommended to be vaccinated with the influenza vaccine Pandemrix. However, a very serious and unexpected side effect emerged during the summer of 2010: more than 200 children and young adults were diagnosed with narcolepsy after vaccination. Besides the tragic outcome for these children and their families, this adverse side effect suggests future difficulties in obtaining trust in vaccination in cases of emerging pandemics, and thus there is a growing need to find ways to understand the complexities of vaccination decision processes...
December 2015: Medical Humanities
Miriam C J M Sturkenboom
A safety signal around Pandemrix, an AS03 adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 vaccine potentially causing narcolepsy in children and adolescents became public in August 2010, long after cessation of the influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 campaigns in Europe. The signal originated from Finland and Sweden, two countries with school based pandemic vaccination campaigns, with high vaccine coverage, and vaccinations being provided at the peak of the circulating wild virus. Since the announcement awareness grew in Europe, with extensive public media dissemination and regulatory actions...
June 8, 2015: Vaccine
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