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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545257/the-reactive-sulfur-species-concept-15-years-on
#1
REVIEW
Gregory I Giles, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Wesam Ali, Claus Jacob
Fifteen years ago, in 2001, the concept of "Reactive Sulfur Species" or RSS was advocated as a working hypothesis. Since then various organic as well as inorganic RSS have attracted considerable interest and stimulated many new and often unexpected avenues in research and product development. During this time, it has become apparent that molecules with sulfur-containing functional groups are not just the passive "victims" of oxidative stress or simple conveyors of signals in cells, but can also be stressors in their own right, with pivotal roles in cellular function and homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545151/provenance-based-data-integrity-checking-and-verification-in-cloud-environments
#2
Muhammad Imran, Helmut Hlavacs, Inam Ul Haq, Bilal Jan, Fakhri Alam Khan, Awais Ahmad
Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user's data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545068/automatically-tracking-neurons-in-a-moving-and-deforming-brain
#3
Jeffrey P Nguyen, Ashley N Linder, George S Plummer, Joshua W Shaevitz, Andrew M Leifer
Advances in optical neuroimaging techniques now allow neural activity to be recorded with cellular resolution in awake and behaving animals. Brain motion in these recordings pose a unique challenge. The location of individual neurons must be tracked in 3D over time to accurately extract single neuron activity traces. Recordings from small invertebrates like C. elegans are especially challenging because they undergo very large brain motion and deformation during animal movement. Here we present an automated computer vision pipeline to reliably track populations of neurons with single neuron resolution in the brain of a freely moving C...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544990/degradation-of-mecoprop-in-polluted-landfill-leachate-and-waste-water-in-a-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor
#4
Mònica Escolà Casas, Tue Kjærgaard Nielsen, Witold Kot, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, Anders Johansen, Kai Bester
Mecoprop is a common pollutant in effluent-, storm- and groundwater as well as in leachates from derelict dumpsites. Thus, bioremediation approaches may be considered. We conducted batch experiments with moving bed biofilm (MBBR)-carriers to understand the degradation of mecoprop. As a model, the carriers were incubated in effluent from a conventional wastewater treatment plant which was spiked to 10, 50 and 100 μg L(-1) mecoprop. Co-metabolic processes as well as mineralization were studied. Initial mecoprop concentration and mecoprop degradation impacted the microbial communities...
May 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544388/healing-effect-of-controlled-anti-electromigration-on-conventional-and-high-tc-superconducting-nanowires
#5
Xavier D A Baumans, Joseph Lombardo, Jérémy Brisbois, Gorky Shaw, Vyacheslav S Zharinov, Ge He, Heshan Yu, Jie Yuan, Beiyi Zhu, Kui Jin, Roman B G Kramer, Joris Van de Vondel, Alejandro V Silhanek
The electromigration process has the potential capability to move atoms one by one when properly controlled. It is therefore an appealing tool to tune the cross section of monoatomic compounds with ultimate resolution or, in the case of polyatomic compounds, to change the stoichiometry with the same atomic precision. As demonstrated here, a combination of electromigration and anti-electromigration can be used to reversibly displace atoms with a high degree of control. This enables a fine adjustment of the superconducting properties of Al weak links, whereas in Nb the diffusion of atoms leads to a more irreversible process...
May 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544217/towards-a-crispr-picture-use-of-crispr-cas9-to-model-diseases-in-human-stem-cells-in-vitro
#6
Jamie L Freiermuth, Ian J Powell-Castilla, G Ian Gallicano
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be differentiated into any cell in the body unlocking enormous research potential. Combined with the recent discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 endonucleases in bacteria and their modification for use in biomedical research, these methods have the potential to revolutionize the field of genetic engineering and open the door to generating in vitro models that more closely resemble the in vivo system than ever before. Use of CRISPR/Cas9 has created a whirlwind within the scientific community in the last few years, as the race to move beyond just disease analysis and towards the goal of gene and cell therapy moves further...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544037/using-experience-based-co-design-for-the-development-of-physical-activity-provision-in-non-acute-rehabilitation-and-recovery-mental-health-care
#7
Evan Matthews, Mary Cowman, Suzanne Denieffe
Despite advances in recovery focused mental health care, people with severe mental illness (SMI) experience multiple physical comorbidity compounded by unhealthy lifestyle behaviours including low levels of physical activity (Vancampfort et al. 2017; Walker et al. 2015). Responding to this, international policy is moving to include physical activity as part of fundamental care for people with severe mental illness (Pratt et al. 2016; Richardson et al. 2005). Incorporation of physical activity into mental health service provision should adopt an approach that is in keeping with best practice, recovery orientated guidelines of mental health service provision, with particular consideration shown to incorporating service users as partners in care plan development and delivery (Department of Health, 2001; Department of Health and Children, 2006)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543973/advancing-the-adverse-outcome-pathway-framework-an-international-horizon-scanning-approach
#8
Carlie A LaLone, Gerald T Ankley, Scott E Belanger, Michelle R Embry, Geoff Hodges, Dries Knapen, Sharon Munn, Edward J Perkins, Murray A Rudd, Daniel L Villeneuve, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett, Xiaowei Zhang, Markus Hecker
Our ability to conduct whole-organism toxicity tests to understand chemical safety has been outpaced by the synthesis of new chemicals for a wide variety of commercial applications. As a result, scientists and risk assessors are turning to mechanistically based studies to increase efficiencies in chemical risk assessment and making greater use of in vitro and in silico methods to evaluate potential environmental and human health hazards. In this context, the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework has gained traction in regulatory science because it offers an efficient and effective means for capturing available knowledge describing the linkage between mechanistic data and the apical toxicity end points required for regulatory assessments...
June 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543877/it-s-time-to-move-on-from-the-bell-curve
#9
Lawrence R Robinson
The bell-curve was first described in the 18(th) century by de Moivre and Gauss to depict the distribution of binomial events, such as coin tossing, or repeated measures of physical objects. In the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, the bell-curve was appropriated, or perhaps misappropriated, to apply to biologic and social measures across people. For many years we used it to derive reference values for our electrophysiologic studies. There is, however, no reason to believe that electrophysiologic measures should approximate a bell curve distribution, and empiric evidence suggests they do not...
May 23, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543662/inclusion-access-and-civility-in-public-bioethics
#10
Rebecca Dresser
I could tell many war stories about my experience serving on the President's Council on Bioethics-one of the most controversial national bioethics commissions so far-but I want to focus instead on how the experience influenced my views on bioethics, politics, and the potential contributions of national commissions. The executive order that established the Council directed it to consider policy questions, but it spoke primarily of providing a forum for national discussion, inquiry, and education. In this sense, the Council's mission departed from that of other national bioethics commissions, which have had more direct policy functions...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543424/how-to-rethink-the-fourteen-day-rule
#11
Sarah Chan
Recently, attention has been drawn to the basic principles governing the use of human embryos in research: specifically, the so-called fourteen-day rule. This rule stipulates that human embryos should not be allowed to grow in vitro past fourteen days of development. For years, the fourteen-day limit was largely theoretical, since culture techniques were not sufficient to maintain embryos up to this point. Yet in the past year, research has suggested that growing embryos beyond fourteen days might be feasible and scientifically valuable...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542912/the-nucleus-is-irreversibly-shaped-by-motion-of-cell-boundaries-in-cancer-and-non-cancer-cells
#12
Vincent J Tocco, Yuan Li, Keith G Christopher, James H Matthews, Varun Aggarwal, Lauren Paschall, Hendrik Luesch, Jonathan D Licht, Richard B Dickinson, Tanmay P Lele
Actomyosin stress fibers impinge on the nucleus and can exert compressive forces on it. These compressive forces have been proposed to elongate nuclei in fibroblasts, and lead to abnormally shaped nuclei in cancer cells. In these models, the elongated or flattened nuclear shape is proposed to store elastic energy. However, we found that deformed shapes of nuclei are unchanged even after removal of the cell with micro-dissection, both for smooth, elongated nuclei in fibroblasts and abnormally shaped nuclei in breast cancer cells...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542900/the-sensory-trigeminal-complex-and-the-organisation-of-its-primary-afferents-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#13
Macarena Faunes, J Martin Wild, Thomas Finger
Our knowledge of the avian sensory trigeminal system has been largely restricted to the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV) and its ascending projections to the forebrain. Studies addressing the cytoarchitecture and organisation of afferent input to the sensory trigeminal complex, which includes both the PrV and the nuclei of the descending trigeminal tract (nTTD), have only been performed in pigeons and ducks. Here we extend such an analysis to a songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We describe the cytoarchitecture of the sensory trigeminal complex, the patterns of calbindin-like and substance P-like immunoreactivity, and the organisation of afferents from the three branches of the trigeminal nerve and from the lingual branch of the hypoglossal nerve...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542792/on-the-complexity-of-clinical-and-molecular-bases-of-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation
#14
REVIEW
Cristina Tello, Alejandra Darling, Vincenzo Lupo, Belén Pérez-Dueñas, Carmen Espinós
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of inherited heterogeneous neurodegenerative rare disorders. These patients present with dystonia, spasticity, parkinsonism and neuropsychiatric disturbances, along with brain MRI evidence of iron accumulation. In sum, they are devastating disorders and to date, there is no specific treatment. Ten NBIA genes are accepted: PANK2, PLA2G6, C19orf12, COASY, FA2H, ATP13A2, WDR45, FTL, CP, and DCAF17, and. Nonetheless, a relevant percentage of patients remain without genetic diagnosis, suggesting that other novel NBIA genes remain to be discovered...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542785/tap-tap-who-s-there-it-s-localized-muscle-activity-elicited-by-the-human-stretch-reflex
#15
Martin E Héroux
Skeletal muscles are the motors that make us move. Discharge of α-motoneurones causes muscle fibres they innervate to contract and generate force. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542612/interface-condition-for-the-darcy-velocity-at-the-water-oil-flood-front-in-the-porous-medium
#16
Xiaolong Peng, Yong Liu, Baosheng Liang, Zhimin Du
Flood front is the jump interface where fluids distribute discontinuously, whose interface condition is the theoretical basis of a mathematical model of the multiphase flow in porous medium. The conventional interface condition at the jump interface is expressed as the continuous Darcy velocity and fluid pressure (named CVCM). Our study has inspected this conclusion. First, it is revealed that the principle of mass conservation has no direct relation to the velocity conservation, and the former is not the true foundation of the later, because the former only reflects the kinetic characteristic of the fluid particles at one position(the interface), but not the different two parts of fluid on the different side of the interface which required by the interface conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542581/spontaneous-bimanual-independence-during-parallel-tapping-and-sawing
#17
Sandra Dorothee Starke, Chris Baber
The performance of complex polyrhythms-rhythms where the left and right hand move at different rates-is usually the province of highly trained individuals. However, studies in which hand movement is guided haptically show that even novices can perform polyrhythms with no or only brief training. In this study, we investigated whether novices are able to tap with one hand by matching different rates of a metronome while sawing with the other hand. This experiment was based on the assumption that saw movement is controlled consistently at a predictable rate without the need for paying primary attention to it...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542558/improvement-of-non-key-traits-in-radiata-pine-breeding-programme-when-long-term-economic-importance-is-uncertain
#18
Yongjun Li, Heidi Dungey, Alvin Yanchuk, Luis A Apiolaza
Diameter at breast height (DBH), wood density (DEN) and predicted modulus of elasticity (PME) are considered as 'key traits' (KT) in the improvement in radiata pine breeding programmes in New Zealand. Any other traits which are also of interest to radiata pine breeders and forest growers are called 'non-key traits' (NKTs). External resin bleeding (ERB), internal checking (IC), number of heartwood rings (NHR) are three such non-key traits which affect wood quality of radiata pine timber. Economic importance of the KTs and NKTs is hard to define in radiata pine breeding programmes due to long rotation period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542494/forces-applied-during-classical-touch-assays-for-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Adam L Nekimken, Eileen A Mazzochette, Miriam B Goodman, Beth L Pruitt
For decades, Caenorhabditis elegans roundworms have been used to study the sense of touch, and this work has been facilitated by a simple behavioral assay for touch sensation. To perform this classical assay, an experimenter uses an eyebrow hair to gently touch a moving worm and observes whether or not the worm reverses direction. We used two experimental approaches to determine the manner and moment of contact between the eyebrow hair tool and freely moving animals and the forces delivered by the classical assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542323/short-term-impacts-and-value-of-a-periodic-no-take-zone-ntz-in-a-community-managed-small-scale-lobster-fishery-madagascar
#20
Stephen Long
The small-scale lobster fisheries of Madagascar's impoverished southeast coast account for the majority of national catch and export, making a significant contribution to the regional economy. Data suggests catches have declined, likely due to over-exploitation. In response, the community of Sainte Luce has established a locally managed marine area (LMMA) to manage their lobster fishery, including a 13 km2 periodic no take zone (NTZ). Participatory monitoring data were used to assess compliance, identify changes in catch per unit effort (CPUE) associated with the NTZ and consider the short-term value of the NTZ...
2017: PloS One
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