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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775566/the-challenge-of-discordant-serology-in-chagas-disease-the-role-of-two-confirmatory-techniques-in-inconclusive-cases
#1
Zaira Moure, Elena Sulleiro, Laura Iniesta, Carmen Guillen, Israel Molina, M Magdalena Alcover, Cristina Riera, Tomás Pumarola, Roser Fisa
Serodiscordance in Chagas disease (CD) remains a challenge since individuals with inconclusive results are clinically complicated to manage. This work, conducted outside the endemic area, aims to compare two different confirmatory techniques for the diagnosis of CD in individuals without a definitive diagnosis, to analyze the performance of the screening techniques in this group of patients, and to describe the serological follow-up of these subjects over time. Sera from 48 individuals with repeatedly discordant results by one recombinant enzyme immunoassay (r-ELISA) and one native ELISA (n-ELISA), were included in the study...
May 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773807/risk-factors-associated-with-htlv-1-vertical-transmission-in-brazil-longer-breastfeeding-higher-maternal-proviral-load-and-previous-htlv-1-infected-offspring
#2
Arthur M Paiva, Tatiane Assone, Michel E J Haziot, Jerusa Smid, Luiz Augusto M Fonseca, Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Augusto Cesar Penalva de Oliveira, Jorge Casseb
HTLV-1 is transmitted primarily either through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. The mother/child pairs were classified as seroconcordant or serodiscordant. We analyzed mother to child transmission (MTCT) according to sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the mother, child's gender and duration of breastfeeding. Between June 2006 and August 2016 we followed 192 mothers with HTLV-1 infection (mean age 41 years old), resulting in 499 exposed offspring, 288 (57.7%) of whom were tested for HTLV-1, making up the final sample for the study, along with their 134 respective mothers...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762175/pregnancy-outcomes-and-infant-growth-among-babies-with-in-utero-exposure-to-tenofovir-based-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#3
Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Ting Hong, Connie Celum, Mark A Marzinke, Kenneth Ngure, Stephen Asiimwe, Elly Katabira, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Nulu Bulya, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Global guidelines recommend pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use by women at risk for HIV, including during pregnancy, a period with heightened HIV risk. However, data to support safety of PrEP use during pregnancy are limited, particularly from women using PrEP throughout pregnancy. METHODS: In an open-label delivery study of PrEP integrated with ART for high risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project), women who became pregnant while using PrEP were offered the option to continue PrEP throughout pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745290/healthcare-providers-understanding-of-hiv-serodiscordance-in-south-africa-and-uganda-implications-for-hiv-prevention-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
Ross Greener, Cecilia Milford, Francis Bajunirwe, Faith N Mosery, Claudia K Ng, Rachel Rifkin, Jasmine Kastner, Lavanya Pillay, Angela Kaida, David R Bangsberg, Jennifer A Smit, Lynn T Matthews
HIV transmission within stable heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples accounts for almost half the new incident infections in South Africa and Uganda. Advances in HIV prevention provide opportunities to reduce transmission risk within serodiscordant partnerships (e.g., antiretroviral treatment (ART), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), medical male circumcision, and couples-based HIV counselling and testing). These interventions require a clinical encounter with a provider who recognises prevention opportunities within these partnerships...
May 10, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741594/early-adopters-of-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-in-a-population-based-combination-prevention-study-in-rural-kenya-and-uganda
#5
Catherine A Koss, James Ayieko, Florence Mwangwa, Asiphas Owaraganise, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Laura B Balzer, Albert Plenty, Norton Sang, Jane Kabami, Theodore D Ruel, Douglas Black, Carol S Camlin, Craig R Cohen, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Tamara D Clark, Edwin D Charlebois, Maya L Petersen, Moses R Kamya, Diane V Havlir
Background: Global guidelines recommend preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals with substantial HIV risk. Data on PrEP uptake in sub-Saharan Africa outside of clinical trials are limited. We report on "early adopters" of PrEP in SEARCH, an ongoing population-based study in rural Uganda and Kenya. Methods: Following community mobilization and education on PrEP, population-based HIV testing was conducted. HIV-uninfected adults were offered PrEP based on an empirically-derived HIV risk score or an individual's self-identified HIV risk (if not identified by score)...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739290/sexual-health-consequences-of-forced-sexual-debut-among-ugandan-women-in-hiv-serodiscordant-partnerships-results-from-the-haarp-study
#6
Katherine A Muldoon, Rachel King, Wendy Zhang, Josephine Birungi, Mastula Nanfuka, Samuel Tibengana, Omoboade Afolabi, David M Moore
Sexual coercion, especially forced sexual debut, is associated with lifelong adverse health consequences. This is compounded in regions, such as Uganda, where the dual impact of HIV and violence critically shapes women's sexual health risks. Among a sample of women in HIV serodiscordant relationships, we investigated the prevalence and consequences of forced sexual debut. Data for this analysis come from the Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment as Prevention (HAARP) Study, a cohort of HIV serodiscordant couples in Jinja, Eastern Uganda, and investigates the role of forced sexual debut on two outcomes: age of sexual debut and having more than three lifetime sexual partners...
June 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732896/weighing-the-evidence-of-efficacy-of-oral-prep-for-hiv-prevention-in-women-in-southern-africa
#7
Holly Janes, Lawrence Corey, Gita Ramjee, Lindsay N Carpp, Carl Lombard, Myron S Cohen, Peter B Gilbert, Glenda E Gray
As oral tenofovir-based regimens for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are adopted as standard of care for HIV prevention, their utilization in clinical trials among women in southern Africa will require an accurate estimate of oral PrEP efficacy in this population. This information is critical for women in choosing this prevention strategy, and in public health policy making. Estimates of the efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimens containing tenofovir have varied widely across trials that enrolled women, with some studies reporting high efficacy and others reporting no efficacy...
May 6, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703941/couple-serostatus-patterns-in-sub-saharan-africa-illuminate-the-relative-roles-of-transmission-rates-and-sexual-network-characteristics-in-hiv-epidemiology
#8
Steven E Bellan, David Champredon, Jonathan Dushoff, Lauren Ancel Meyers
HIV prevalence has surpassed 30% in some African countries while peaking at less than 1% in others. The extent to which this variation is driven by biological factors influencing the HIV transmission rate or by variation in sexual network characteristics remains widely debated. Here, we leverage couple serostatus patterns to address this question. HIV prevalence is strongly correlated with couple serostatus patterns across the continent; in particular, high prevalence countries tend to have a lower ratio of serodiscordancy to concordant positivity...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691244/cross-sectional-study-on-the-prevalence-and-predictors-of-pregnancy-among-women-living-in-hiv-discordant-relationships-in-a-rural-rakai-cohort-uganda
#9
Lydia Jacenta Nakiganda, Anette Agardh, Benedict Oppong Asamoah
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the prevalence of pregnancy in serodiscordant couples and identifies predictors associated with pregnancy in rural Rakai, Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study that used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the RCCS survey round 17 (2015-2016), which included 488 women in serodiscordant relationships. This study was conducted in Rakai district, located in south-western Uganda...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689539/maximizing-the-benefits-of-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#10
Susan P Buchbinder
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (slash indicates coformulation) is highly effective in preventing new HIV infections. PrEP efficacy is strongly associated with adherence. In clinical trials, PrEP has been more effective in men who have sex with men and HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples than in women, likely reflecting pharmacokinetic differences between levels of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in vaginal and rectal tissues, and poorer adherence in studies in women. Current guidelines recommend daily PrEP for men and women; however, PrEP taken at least 4 days per week for men may be as effective as daily PrEP, and women must take PrEP 6 to 7 days per week to maximize efficacy...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680936/hiv-risk-and-protective-factors-in-the-context-of-alcohol-and-substance-use-during-pride
#11
Paul A Shuper, Duncan J MacLachlan, Narges Joharchi, Tim H Guimond, John Maxwell, Barry D Adam
This investigation sought to identify HIV-risk and -protective factors among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) who engaged in anal sex following alcohol or substance use during an international Pride Festival. MSM attending World Pride were surveyed regarding (1) alcohol, substance use, and sex during the past 24 h; and (2) HIV-risk and -protective factors. Valid data were provided by 1123 MSM. Anal sex was reported by 195 MSM, among whom the majority (n = 105) consumed alcohol or substances prior to sex...
April 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624560/sexual-behaviors-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-and-factors-associated-with-sexual-transmitted-infection-in-south-africa
#12
Dvora Joseph Davey, Remco P H Peters, Noah Kojima, Maanda Mudau, Lindsey De Vos, Dawie Olivier, James A McIntyre, Jeffrey D Klausner, Andrew Medina-Marino
BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviors in HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa are not well understood. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited into a prospective cohort at first antenatal care visit. Sociodemographic information and self-collected vulvovaginal swab samples were collected from participants. Vulvovaginal swab samples were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using GeneXpert®. We investigated sexual behaviors, alcohol use and factors associated with condomless sex during pregnancy and prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) among our cohort...
April 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566857/overcoming-barriers-to-providing-hiv-prevention-for-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-desiring-pregnancy
#13
EDITORIAL
Joelle Brown, Maryam Zafer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558813/associations-between-sexual-partner-number-and-hiv-risk-behaviors-implications-for-hiv-prevention-efforts-in-a-treatment-as-prevention-tasp-environment
#14
Heather L Armstrong, Eric Abella Roth, Ashleigh Rich, Nathan J Lachowsky, Zishan Cui, Paul Sereda, Kiffer G Card, Jody Jollimore, Terry Howard, David M Moore, Robert S Hogg
Previous research indicates that gay and bisexual men (GBM) have significantly more sexual partners than same-aged heterosexual men and women. As a result, some HIV intervention programs have focused on partner reduction. However, new research findings question the relevance of sexual partner number as a sexual risk measure for GBM given Treatment as Prevention (TasP) programs and new seroadaptive strategies which have led to lower GBM community viral load and new HIV prevention behaviors. To assess if sexual partner number continues to remain an important measure of sexual risk for GBM living in a city that actively promotes TasP as provincial policy, we analysed cross-sectional data from 719 GBM recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Vancouver, Canada...
March 20, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538626/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-a-brief-internet-based-group-intervention-to-reduce-sexual-transmission-risk-behavior-among-hiv-positive-gay-and-bisexual-men
#15
Dean G Cruess, Kaylee E Burnham, David J Finitsis, Brett M Goshe, Lauren Strainge, Moira Kalichman, Tamar Grebler, Chauncey Cherry, Seth C Kalichman
Background: HIV disproportionately affects sexual minority men, and developing strategies to reduce transmission risk is a public health priority. Purpose: The goal was to empirically test a newly developed, Information, Motivation, Behavioral skills (IMB) theoretically derived, online HIV sexual risk reduction intervention (called HINTS) among a sample of sexual minority men living with HIV. Methods: Participants were 167 men randomized to either the four-session online HINTS intervention or to a time-matched, online control condition...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536817/couple-perspectives-on-unintended-pregnancy-in-an-area-with-high-hiv-prevalence-a-qualitative-analysis-in-rakai-uganda
#16
Stephanie A Grilo, Marina Catallozzi, Craig J Heck, Sanyukta Mathur, Neema Nakyanjo, John S Santelli
Understanding how couples perceive a recent unintended pregnancy in the context of HIV infection and high levels of gender inequality may provide insights for prevention of undesired pregnancy. We used data from 24 in-depth interviews with 8 HIV-serodiscordant and 4 seroconcordant couples living in rural Uganda and interviewed separately; between 15 and 49 years and one or both identified the pregnancy as unintended. A dyadic analysis was performed to understand each partner's perspectives on experiences of a specific pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533847/the-additive-effects-of-depressive-symptoms-and-polysubstance-use-on-hiv-risk-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#17
Kiffer G Card, Nathan J Lachowsky, Heather L Armstrong, Zishan Cui, Lu Wang, Paul Sereda, Jody Jollimore, Thomas L Patterson, Trevor Corneil, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth, David M Moore
INTRODUCTION: Among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM), collinearity between polysubstance use and mental health concerns has obscured their combined effects on HIV risk with multivariable results often highlighting only one or the other. METHODS: We used mediation and moderation analyses to examine the effects of polysubstance use and depressive symptoms on high-risk sex (i.e., condomless anal sex with serodiscordant/unknown status partner) in a sample of sexually-active GBM, aged ≥16 years, recruited in Metro Vancouver using respondent driven sampling...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514254/increased-risk-of-female-hiv-1-acquisition-throughout-pregnancy-and-postpartum-a-prospective-per-coital-act-analysis-among-women-with-hiv-1-infected-partners
#18
Kerry A Thomson, James Hughes, Jared M Baeten, Grace John-Stewart, Connie Celum, Craig R Cohen, Kenneth Ngure, James Kiarie, Nelly Mugo, Renee Heffron
Background: Understanding the absolute and relative risk of HIV-1 acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum can inform HIV-1 prevention strategies for women. Methods: We used a complementary log-log model and data from 2,751 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to compare the probability of women's HIV-1 acquisition risk per sex act during early pregnancy, late pregnancy, postpartum, and non-pregnant periods. Results: At total of 686 pregnancies were identified and 82 incident HIV-1 infections occurred...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487471/nurturing-the-continuum-of-hiv-testing-treatment-and-prevention-matrix-cascade-in-reducing-hiv-transmission
#19
Clarence S Yah
Background: Despite the shift in antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) eligibility cascade from CD4 ≤ 200 to CD4 ≤ 350 to CD4 ≤ 500 mm3 , HIV related morbidity and mortality continue to escalate annually, as do HIV infections. The new paradigm of treatment for all HIV positives individual irrespective of CD4 count may significantly reduce HIV and related illnesses. The author assumes that all HIV infected partners should be eligible for HIV treatment and care, irrespective of CD4 count...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474256/correlates-of-linkage-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-hiv-testing-clients
#20
Charlene A Flash, Oluwatobi O Adegboyega, Xiaoying Yu, Carmen Avalos, Syundai Johnson, Kenneth H Mayer, Thomas P Giordano
BACKGROUND: Publicly funded HIV-testing sites can identify HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates and provide PrEP linkage. SETTING: Harris Health System's HIV clinic, HIV-testing program, and HIV-prevention program (HPP) in Houston, TX, a high HIV-incidence city. METHODS: A prospective assessment of individuals aged 18 years and older recruited from walk-in HIV testing from December 2013 to April 2015 included risk assessment, HIV testing, and self-administered survey, with follow-up surveys at 6 and 12 months and medical record review...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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