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Elizabeth M Irungu, Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Kenneth Ngure, Elly Katabira, Nulu Bulya, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Stephen Asiimwe, Edna Tindimwebwa, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduce HIV-1 transmission within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Prioritizing couples at highest HIV-1 transmission risk for ART and PrEP would maximize impact and minimize costs. METHODS: The Partners Demonstration Project is an open-label, delivery study of integrated PrEP and ART for HIV-1 prevention among high risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. We evaluated the feasibility of using a validated risk score that weighs a combination of easily measurable factors (age, children, marital status, male circumcision status, condom use, plasma HIV-1 levels) to identify couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission for enrollment...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Shen Yinzhong, L U Hongzhou
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can not only turn HIV infection from a fatal disease into a treatable chronic disease, but also reduce HIV transmission among high-risk people. In recent years the concept "treatment as prevention" has been accepted by the public. More and more studies have shown that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV can effectively reduce the spreading of HIV in high-risk populations. Clinical trials have also shown that PrEP is safe, and can effectively prevent high-risk people from HIV infection...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Beryl A Koblin, James E Egan, Vijay Nandi, Jordan M Sang, Magdalena Cerdá, Hong-Van Tieu, Danielle C Ompad, Donald R Hoover, Victoria Frye
Substantial literature demonstrates the influence of the neighborhood environment on health behaviors and outcomes. But limited research examines on how gay and bisexual men experience and exist in various geographic and virtual spaces and how this relates to their sexual behavior. New York City Men 2 Men (NYCM2M) was a cross-sectional study designed to identify neighborhood-level characteristics within the urban environment that influence sexual risk behaviors, substance use, and depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in NYC...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Xia Lin, Christine L Mattson, Mark Freedman, Jacek Skarbinski
Using nationally representative data, we assessed the prevalence of erectile dysfunction medication (EDM) prescription, and its association with insertive condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with an HIV-serodiscordant partner among sexually-active HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) receiving medical care in the United States. Overall, 14 % (95 % CI 12-16) were prescribed EDM and 21 % (95 % CI 19-23) engaged in serodiscordant CAI. MSM who were prescribed EDM were more likely to engage in insertive CAI with a serodiscordant casual partner than those not prescribed EDM after adjusting for illicit drug use before or during sex (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1...
September 16, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Stephanie H Cook, Daphne C Watkins, Benjamin Calebs, Patrick A Wilson
This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant)...
2016: Psychology and Sexuality
Angela Robertson Bazzi, Kirkpatrick B Fergus, Rob Stephenson, Catherine A Finneran, Julia Coffey-Esquivel, Marco A Hidalgo, Sam Hoehnle, Patrick S Sullivan, Robert Garofalo, Matthew J Mimiaga
BACKGROUND: An estimated one- to two-thirds of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among US men who have sex with men (MSM) occur within the context of primary partnerships. Thus, HIV interventions that recognize and harness the power of relationships are needed. Increasingly, HIV prevention efforts are being directed toward improving engagement across the HIV care continuum from testing to linkage to care, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, engagement in care, and viral suppression...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron, Lara Kidoguchi, Nelly R Mugo, Elly Katabira, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Stephen Asiimwe, Jessica E Haberer, Jennifer Morton, Kenneth Ngure, Nulu Bulya, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Craig Hendrix, Mark A Marzinke, Norma C Ware, Monique A Wyatt, Susan Morrison, Harald Haugen, Andrew Mujugira, Deborah Donnell, Connie Celum
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral-based interventions for HIV-1 prevention, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) to reduce the infectiousness of HIV-1 infected persons and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the susceptibility of HIV-1 uninfected persons, showed high efficacy for HIV-1 protection in randomized clinical trials. We conducted a prospective implementation study to understand the feasibility and effectiveness of these interventions in delivery settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between November 5, 2012, and January 5, 2015, we enrolled and followed 1,013 heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda in a prospective implementation study...
August 2016: PLoS Medicine
Mona Loutfy, Margaret Johnson, Sharon Walmsley, Anna Samarina, Patricia Vasquez, He Hao-Lan, Tshepiso Madihlaba, Marisol Martinez-Tristani, Jean van Wyk
Generally, women are less likely than men to disclose their HIV status. This analysis examined the relationship between HIV disclosure and (1) perceived barriers to care and (2) quality of life (QoL) for women with HIV. The ELLA (EpidemioLogical study to investigate the popuLation and disease characteristics, barriers to care, and quAlity of life for women living with HIV) study enrolled HIV-positive women aged ≥18 years. Women completed the 12-item Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire. QoL was assessed using the Health Status Assessment...
September 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Sanjeev Ramachandran, Sharmistha Mishra, Natalie Condie, Michael Pickles
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, and how, sexual behaviour of HIV-negative individuals in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) changes upon learning their serostatus. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the published literature using EMBASE and Medline to search for publications between 2004 and 2014. We included studies that quantified behaviour change (condom use, number of sexual partners or sex acts) following an HIV test in HIV-negative adults in SSA, and extracted relevant data including study characteristics and measurement type...
August 17, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Susan H Eshleman, Sarah E Hudelson, Andrew D Redd, Ronald Swanstrom, San-San Ou, Xinyi Cindy Zhang, Li-Hua Ping, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Stephen F Porcella, Matthew F Sievers, Craig A Martens, Daniel Bruno, Elena Dukhovlinova, Marybeth McCauley, Theresa Gamble, Jessica M Fogel, Devin Sabin, Thomas C Quinn, Laurence Gunde, Madalitso Maliwichi, Nehemiah Nhando, Victor Akelo, Sikhulile Moyo, Ravindre Panchia, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Nuntisa Chotirosniramit, Marineide Gonçalves de Melo, Jose Pilotto, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Kenneth Mayer, Ying Q Chen, James P Hughes, Myron S Cohen
HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 demonstrated that antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples. HIV from index-partner pairs was analyzed to determine the genetic linkage status of partner infections. Forty-six infections were classified as linked, indicating that the index was the likely source of the partner's infection. Lack of viral suppression and higher index viral load were associated with linked infection. Eight linked infections were diagnosed after the index started ART: four near the time of ART initiation and four after ART failure...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
H Jonathon Rendina, Kristi E Gamarel, John E Pachankis, Ana Ventuneac, Christian Grov, Jeffrey T Parsons
BACKGROUND: Minority stress theory represents the most plausible conceptual framework for explaining health disparities for gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little focus has been given to including the unique stressors experienced by HIV-positive GBM. PURPOSE: We explored the role of HIV-related stress within a minority stress model of mental health and condomless anal sex. METHODS: Longitudinal data were collected on a diverse convenience sample of 138 highly sexually active, HIV-positive GBM in NYC regarding sexual minority (internalized homonegativity and gay-related rejection sensitivity) and HIV-related stressors (internalized HIV stigma and HIV-related rejection sensitivity), emotion dysregulation, mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and hypersexuality), and sexual behavior (condomless anal sex with all male partners and with serodiscordant male partners)...
August 8, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Annette Fenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Jorge Del Romero, María Begoña Baza, Isabel Río, Adrián Jerónimo, Mar Vera, Victoria Hernando, Carmen Rodríguez, Jesús Castilla
The potential of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV has increased the number of serodiscordant couples who are considering natural conception. We aim to describe the results of a protocol for reproductive counseling aimed at HIV serodiscordant couples who desire natural conception, in which the infected partner, the index case, is receiving suppressive antiretroviral treatment.A prospective cohort included all HIV serodiscordant couples attended a counseling program in the period 2002 to 2013 who opted for natural conception and met the following criteria: index case on ART with persistent plasma viral suppression for at least the previous 6 months, ART compliance over 95%, preserved immune status, undetectable HIV viral and proviral load in semen in male index cases, and absence of genitourinary infections and fertility problems in both members of the couple...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Bellington Vwalika, Preeti Ravindhran, Naw Htee Khu, Ilene Brill, Elwyn Chomba, Brent A Johnson, Lisa B Haddad, Amanda Tichacek, Susan Allen
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between female-to-male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk and hormonal contraception is sparse and conflicting. METHODS: Heterosexual HIV-discordant couples from Lusaka, Zambia, were followed longitudinally at 3 month-intervals from 1994 to 2012. The impact of hormonal contraception on time to HIV transmission from HIV-positive women to their HIV-negative male partners (M-F+) was evaluated. RESULTS: Among 1601 M-F+ couples, 171 genetically linked HIV transmissions occurred in men over 3216 couple-years (5...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Myron S Cohen, Ying Q Chen, Marybeth McCauley, Theresa Gamble, Mina C Hosseinipour, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, James G Hakim, Johnstone Kumwenda, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Jose H S Pilotto, Sheela V Godbole, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Breno R Santos, Kenneth H Mayer, Irving F Hoffman, Susan H Eshleman, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Leslie Cottle, Xinyi C Zhang, Joseph Makhema, Lisa A Mills, Ravindre Panchia, Sharlaa Faesen, Joseph Eron, Joel Gallant, Diane Havlir, Susan Swindells, Vanessa Elharrar, David Burns, Taha E Taha, Karin Nielsen-Saines, David D Celentano, Max Essex, Sarah E Hudelson, Andrew D Redd, Thomas R Fleming
BACKGROUND: An interim analysis of data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial showed that antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevented more than 96% of genetically linked infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. ART was then offered to all patients with HIV-1 infection (index participants). The study included more than 5 years of follow-up to assess the durability of such therapy for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1763 index participants to receive either early or delayed ART...
September 1, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Jennifer J Carroll, Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Kenneth Ngure, Patrick Ndase, Stephen Asiimwe, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
OBJECTIVES: Perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is thought to drive low adherence in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials. We explored the level of perceived risk of incident HIV infection in the Partners PrEP Study, in which adherence was generally high. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire assessed perceived risk of HIV at 12 months after enrollment. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between perceived risk and other demographic and behavioral variables...
August 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Amy A Conroy, Kristi E Gamarel, Torsten B Neilands, John A Sauceda, Lynae A Darbes, Samantha E Dilworth, Jonelle M Taylor, Mallory O Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Daisy Krakowiak, John Kinuthia, Alfred O Osoti, Victor Asila, Molly A Gone, Jennifer Mark, Bourke Betz, Saloni Parikh, Monisha Sharma, Ruanne Barnabas, Carey Farquhar
INTRODUCTION: Male partner HIV testing has been recognized as an important component of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Scheduled home-based couple HIV testing may be an effective strategy to reach men. METHODS: Women attending their first antenatal visit at Kisumu County Hospital in Kenya were randomized to home-based education and HIV testing within 2 weeks of enrollment (HOPE) or to written invitations for male partners to attend clinic (INVITE)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Soodabeh Navadeh, Ali Mirzazadeh, Willi McFarland, Sarah Woolf-King, Mohammad Ali Mansournia
OBJECTIVE: To develop and apply a method to quantify bias parameters in the case example of the association between alcohol use and HIV-serodiscordant condomless anal sex with potential confounding by sensation seeking among men who have sex with men (MSM), using expert opinion as an external data source. METHODS: Through an online survey, we sought the input of 41 epidemiologist and behavioural scientists to quantify six parameters in the population of MSM: the proportion of high sensation seeking among heavy-drinking MSM, the proportion of sensation seeking among low-level drinking MSM, and the risk ratio (RR) of the association between sensation seeking and condomless anal sex, for HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM...
2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Zaira Moure, Andrea Angheben, Israel Molina, Federico Gobbi, Mateu Espasa, Mariella Anselmi, Fernando Salvador, Stefano Tais, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Tomás Pumarola, Pere Albajar-Viñas, Elena Sulleiro
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), chronic Chagas disease (CD) diagnosis is based on two serological techniques. To establish a definitive diagnosis, the results must be concordant. In cases of discordances, the WHO proposes repeating serology in a new sample, and if results remain inconclusive, a confirmatory test should be performed. This study, conducted at two Tropical Medicine Units in Europe during four years, aims to assess the diagnostic yield of TESA-blot as a confirmatory technique in patients with inconclusive and discordant results...
June 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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