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Membrane Sterols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784041/lipid-metabolism-reprogramming-and-its-potential-targets-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Chunming Cheng, Feng Geng, Xiang Cheng, Deliang Guo
Reprogramming of lipid metabolism is a newly recognized hallmark of malignancy. Increased lipid uptake, storage and lipogenesis occur in a variety of cancers and contribute to rapid tumor growth. Lipids constitute the basic structure of membranes and also function as signaling molecules and energy sources. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors in the endoplasmic reticulum, play a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Recent studies have revealed that SREBPs are highly up-regulated in various cancers and promote tumor growth...
May 21, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783105/sterol-gradients-in-cells
#2
REVIEW
Anant K Menon
Cell organelles and the plasma membrane have unique lipid compositions. Consequently, there is a gradient of lipid-dependent properties along the secretory pathway. We focus here on the steep sterol gradients that exist between the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane, as well as across the plasma membrane where sterols are found principally in the cytoplasmic leaflet. Recent progress in these areas has been remarkable, with new concepts and molecules to account for non-vesicular intracellular sterol transport, and an exciting new mechanism to explain the unexpected transbilayer distribution of sterols...
May 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783097/regulation-of-phytosterol-biosynthetic-pathway-during-drought-stress-in-rice
#3
M S Sujith Kumar, Ibandalin Mawlong, Kishwar Ali, Aruna Tyagi
Plants respond to drought stress in the form of various physio-biochemical and molecular changes at both cellular and molecular levels. Drought stress causes the destruction of cell membranes by disintegration of membrane lipids. One of the major groups of membrane lipids that plays important role in preserving the integrity of cell membranes is phytosterols. HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the principal enzyme in the biosynthesis of plant sterols, synthesized via mevalonic acid pathway. Phospholipid: sterol acyltransferase (PSAT) is another important enzyme that plays an important role in turnover of phytosterols into steryl esters and helps maintain homeostasis of membrane lipids...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782498/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites-integrate-sterol-and-phospholipid-regulation
#4
Evan Quon, Yves Y Sere, Neha Chauhan, Jesper Johansen, David P Sullivan, Jeremy S Dittman, William J Rice, Robin B Chan, Gilbert di Paolo, Christopher T Beh, Anant K Menon
Tether proteins attach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other cellular membranes, thereby creating contact sites that are proposed to form platforms for regulating lipid homeostasis and facilitating non-vesicular lipid exchange. Sterols are synthesized in the ER and transported by non-vesicular mechanisms to the plasma membrane (PM), where they represent almost half of all PM lipids and contribute critically to the barrier function of the PM. To determine whether contact sites are important for both sterol exchange between the ER and PM and intermembrane regulation of lipid metabolism, we generated Δ-super-tether (Δ-s-tether) yeast cells that lack six previously identified tethering proteins (yeast extended synatotagmin [E-Syt], vesicle-associated membrane protein [VAMP]-associated protein [VAP], and TMEM16-anoctamin homologues) as well as the presumptive tether Ice2...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771525/an-nmr-biochemical-assay-for-oxidosqualene-cyclase-evaluation-of-inhibitor-activities-on-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-human-enzymes
#5
Osamu Tani, Yukie Akutsu, Shinji Ito, Takayuki Suzuki, Yukihiro Tateishi, Tomohiko Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Niimi, Ichiji Namatame, Yasunori Chiba, Hitoshi Sakashita, Tomomi Kubota, Tetsuo Yanagi, Shusaku Mizukami, Kenji Hirayama, Koji Furukawa, Kazuhiko Yamasaki
Oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), a membrane-associated protein, is a key enzyme of sterol biosynthesis. Here we report a novel assay for OSC, involving reaction in aqueous solution, NMR quantification in organic solvent, and factor analysis of spectra. We evaluated one known and three novel inhibitors on OSC of Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasite causative of Chagas disease, and compared with their effects on human OSC for selectivity. Among them, one novel inhibitor showed a significant parasiticidal activity.
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771515/the-link-between-membrane-composition-and-permeability-to-drugs
#6
Chi Hang Tse, Jeffrey Comer, Yi Wang, Christophe Chipot
Prediction of membrane permeability to small molecules represents an important aspect of drug discovery. First-principle calculations of this quantity require an accurate description of both the thermodynamics and kinetics that underlie translocation of the permeant across the lipid bilayer. In this contribution, the membrane permeability to three drugs, or drug-like molecules, namely, 9-anthroic acid (ANA), 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA) and hydrocortisone (HYL) are estimated in a pure 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and in a POPC:cholesterol (2:1) mixture...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767519/molecular-structure-and-permeability-at-the-interface-between-phase-separated-membrane-domains
#7
Rodrigo Maghdissian Cordeiro
Phase-separated membrane domains, also known as lipid rafts, are believed to play an important role in cell function. Although most rafts are sterol-enriched membrane regions, evidence suggests that living cells may also contain gel-like rafts. Interactions between gel and fluid domains have a large impact on membrane properties, as is the case with permeability. The membrane permeability may reach a peak at the main phase transition temperature, by far exceeding the values recorded at the fluid phase. It has been proposed that gel-fluid interfaces are leaky, but the effect has not yet been demonstrated at the molecular level...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746894/sphingolipid-hydroxylation-in-mammals-yeast-and-plants-an-integrated-view
#8
REVIEW
Joaquim Trigo Marquês, H Susana Marinho, Rodrigo Freire Martins de Almeida
This review is focused on sphingolipid backbone hydroxylation, a small but widespread structural feature, with profound impact on membrane biophysical properties. We start by summarizing sphingolipid metabolism in mammalian cells, yeast and plants, focusing on how distinct hydroxylation patterns emerge in different eukaryotic kingdoms. Then, a comparison of the biophysical properties in membrane model systems and cellular membranes from diverse organisms is made. From an integrative perspective, these results can be rationalized considering that superficial hydroxyl groups in the backbone of sphingolipids (by intervening in the H-bond network) alter the balance of favorable interactions between membrane lipids...
May 7, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746582/assembly-hub-function-of-er-localized-snare-proteins-in-biogenesis-of-tombusvirus-replication-compartment
#9
Zsuzsanna Sasvari, Nikolay Kovalev, Paulina Alatriste Gonzalez, Kai Xu, Peter D Nagy
Positive-strand RNA viruses assemble numerous membrane-bound viral replicase complexes within large replication compartments to support their replication in infected cells. Yet the detailed mechanism of how given subcellular compartments are subverted by viruses is incompletely understood. Although, Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) uses peroxisomal membranes for replication, in this paper, we show evidence that the ER-resident SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) proteins play critical roles in the formation of active replicase complexes in yeast model host and in plants...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730298/exploring-the-biophysical-properties-of-phytosterols-in-the-plasma-membrane-for-novel-cancer-prevention-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Omar Fakih, Didem Sanver, David Kane, James L Thorne
Cancer is a global problem with no sign that incidences are reducing. The great costs associated with curing cancer, through developing novel treatments and applying patented therapies, is an increasing burden to developed and developing nations alike. These financial and societal problems will be alleviated by research efforts into prevention, or treatments that utilise off-patent or repurposed agents. Phytosterols are natural components of the diet found in an array of seeds, nuts and vegetables and have been added to several consumer food products for the management of cardio-vascular disease through their ability to lower LDL-cholesterol levels...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722895/interactions-between-lipids-and-proteins-are-critical-for-plasma-membrane-ordered-domain-organization-in-by-2-cells
#11
Kevin Grosjean, Christophe Der, Franck Robert, Dominique Thomas, Sébastien Mongrand, Françoise Simon-Plas, Patricia Gerbeau-Pissot
The laterally heterogeneous plant plasma membrane (PM) induces its finely controlled compartmentalization into specialized areas including membrane-ordered domains. Recently, PM spatial distribution has emerged with a key role in cell responses to environmental challenges. To monitor the local level of membrane order, BY-2 tobacco suspension cell PMs were labelled with an environment-sensitive probe (di-4-ANEPPDHQ) to evaluate membrane packing. To identify mechanisms and cell components involved in short-term (one hour) maintenance of the ordered domain organization in steady-state cell PMs, four experimental models were compared: modulation of the cytoskeleton or the cell wall integrity of tobacco BY-2 cells; and formation of giant vesicles using either a lipid mixture of tobacco BY-2 cell PMs or the original lipids and proteins combination of tobacco BY-2 cell PM...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702135/zhiheshouwu-ethanol-extract-induces-intrinsic-apoptosis-and-reduced-unsaturated-fatty-acids-via-srebp1-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#12
Hongliang Li, Longchao Xiang, Nian Yang, Fengjun Cao, Chen Li, Ping Chen, Xuzhi Ruan, Yibin Feng, Nian Zhou, Xuanbin Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major incidence and one of the most life-threatening cancer. How to conquer HCC is a worldwide issue for patients. Zhiheshouwu (Polygoni multiflori Radix Praeparata) is a Chinese medicinal herb exhibiting both lowering lipid and inhibiting cancer cells. However, it remains a matter if its inhibiting cancer cells is related to its lowering lipid. In this study, we investigate the effects of Zhiheshouwu ethanolic extract (HSWE) on apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in Bel-7402 cells...
April 24, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689384/arabidopsis-blue-light-receptor-phototropin-1-undergoes-blue-light-induced-activation-in-membrane-microdomains
#13
Yiqun Xue, Jingjing Xing, Yinglang Wan, Xueqin Lv, Lusheng Fan, Yongdeng Zhang, Kai Song, Li Wang, Xiaohua Wang, Xin Deng, Frantisek Baluska, John M Christie, Jinxing Lin
Phototropin (phot)-mediated signaling initiated by blue light (BL) plays a critical role in optimizing photosynthetic light capture at the plasma membrane (PM) in plants. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of phot activity at the PM in response to BL remain largely unclear. In this study, by single-particle tracking and step-wise photobleaching analysis we demonstrated that in the dark phot1-GFP proteins remain in an inactive state and mostly present as a monomer. The phot1-GFP diffusion rate and its dimerization increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to BL...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689241/pharmacologic-inhibition-of-s1p-attenuates-atf6-expression-causes-er-stress-and-contributes-to-apoptotic-cell-death
#14
Paul Lebeau, Jae Hyun Byun, Tamana Yousof, Richard C Austin
Mammalian cells express unique transcription factors embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, such as the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), that promote de novo lipogenesis. Upon their release from the ER, the SREBPs require proteolytic activation in the Golgi by site-1-protease (S1P). As such, inhibition of S1P, using compounds such as PF-429242 (PF), reduces cholesterol synthesis and may represent a new strategy for the management of dyslipidemia. In addition to the SREBPs, the unfolded protein response (UPR) transducer, known as the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), is another ER membrane-bound transcription factor that requires S1P-mediated activation...
April 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689189/emerging-role-of-amiodarone-and-dronedarone-as-antiarrhythmic-drugs-in-treatment-of-leishmaniasis
#15
REVIEW
A Oryan, E Bemani, S Bahrami
Leishmaniasis is a group of human and animal diseases causing 20,000 to 40,000 annual deaths and its etiological agents belong to the Leishmania genus. The most current treatment against leishmaniasis is chemotherapy. Pentavalent antimonials such as glucantime and pentostam have been administrated as the first-line drugs in treatment of various forms of leishmaniasis. The second-line drugs such as amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine, pentamidine, azole drugs and paromomycin are used in resistant cases to pentavalent antimonials...
April 21, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680944/effect-of-terbinafine-on-the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-isoprenoid-compounds-in-carrot-suspension-cultured-cells
#16
Begoña Miras-Moreno, Lorena Almagro, María Angeles Pedreño, Ana Belén Sabater-Jara
Terbinafine induced a significant increase of squalene production. Terbinafine increased the expression levels of squalene synthase. Cyclodextrins did not work as elicitors due to the gene expression levels obtained. Plant sterols are essential components of membrane lipids, which contributing to their fluidity and permeability. Besides their cholesterol-lowering properties, they also have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer activities. Squalene, which is phytosterol precursor, is widely used in medicine, foods and cosmetics due to its anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-aging activities...
April 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678958/cholesterol-and-the-journey-of-extracellular-vesicles
#17
Frank W Pfrieger, Nicolas Vitale
Eukaryotic cells employ distinct means to release specific signals and material. Research within the last decade has identified different types of membrane-enclosed structures collectively called extracellular vesicles (EVs) as one of them. EVs fall in two categories depending on their subcellular origin. Exosomes are generated within the endosomal system and reach the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Microvesicles or microparticles are generated by shedding of the plasma membrane...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677130/lipid-biosynthesis-as-an-antifungal-target
#18
REVIEW
Jiao Pan, Cuiting Hu, Jae-Hyuk Yu
Lipids, commonly including phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sterols, and triacylglycerols (TAGs), are important biomolecules for the viability of all cells. Phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols are important constituents of biological membranes. Many lipids play important roles in the regulation of cell metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Neutral lipids, including TAGs and sterol esters (STEs), are important storage lipids in cells. In view of the importance of lipid molecules, this review briefly summarizes the metabolic pathways for sterols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, and neutral lipids in fungi and illustrates the differences between fungal and human (or other mammalian) cells, especially in relation to lipid biosynthetic pathways...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674261/acclimatization-of-pisum-sativum-l-grown-in-soil-contaminated-with-veterinary-antibiotics-an-attribute-of-dose-hormetic-response-of-root-metabolites
#19
R P Tasho, W T Shin, J Y Cho
Plant-veterinary antibiotic interaction has been widely studied, however, to the best of our knowledge acclimatization studies with regard to changes in plant root metabolites has not been reported so far. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in the metabolome of pea roots under antibiotic stress and their role in acclimatization. Pisum sativum L. was grown in soil contaminated with three commonly used veterinary antibiotics - kanamycin (KA), sulfamethazine (SA), and tetracycline (TC). In response to antibiotic stress, plants accumulated different types of low molecular weight compounds that provided protection from stress by contributing to ROS detoxification, protection of membrane integrity, efficient signaling, cell wall function, and cellular osmotic adjustment (glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, stigmasterol, octadecadienoic acid, l-proline)...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648583/lipidpedia-a-comprehensive-lipid-knowledgebase
#20
Tien-Chueh Kuo, Yufeng Jane Tseng
Motivation: Lipids are divided into fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, sterols, prenol lipids and polyketides. Fatty acyls and glycerolipids are commonly used as energy storage, whereas glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and saccharolipids are common used as components of cell membranes. Lipids in fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols classes play important roles in signaling. Although more than 36 million lipids can be identified or computationally generated, no single lipid database provides comprehensive information on lipids...
April 10, 2018: Bioinformatics
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