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Membrane Sterols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916806/antifungal-activity-of-oleuropein-against-candida-albicans-the-in-vitro-study
#1
Nataša Zorić, Nevenka Kopjar, Ivan Bobnjarić, Igor Horvat, Siniša Tomić, Ivan Kosalec
In the present study we investigated activity of oleuropein, a complex phenol present in large quantities in olive tree products, against opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Oleuropein was found to have in vitro antifungal activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 12.5 mg·mL(-1). Morphological changes in the nuclei after staining with fluorescent DNA-binding dyes revealed that apoptosis was a primary mode of cell death in the analyzed samples treated with subinhibitory concentrations of oleuropein...
November 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911384/analysis-of-scap-n-glycosylation-and-trafficking-in-human-cells
#2
Chunming Cheng, Jeffrey Yunhua Guo, Feng Geng, Xiaoning Wu, Xiang Cheng, Qiyue Li, Deliang Guo
Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907120/structural-and-functional-elucidation-of-yeast-lanosterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-in-complex-with-agrochemical-antifungals
#3
Joel D A Tyndall, Manya Sabherwal, Alia A Sagatova, Mikhail V Keniya, Jacopo Negroni, Rajni K Wilson, Matthew A Woods, Klaus Tietjen, Brian C Monk
Azole antifungals, known as demethylase inhibitors (DMIs), target sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway of fungal pathogens of both plants and humans. DMIs remain the treatment of choice in crop protection against a wide range of fungal phytopathogens that have the potential to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. We used a yeast membrane protein expression system to overexpress recombinant hexahistidine-tagged S. cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase and the Y140F or Y140H mutants of this enzyme as surrogates in order characterize interactions with DMIs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907003/mapping-cholesterol-interaction-sites-on-serotonin-transporter-through-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics
#4
Mariarosaria Ferraro, Matteo Masetti, Maurizio Recanatini, Andrea Cavalli, Giovanni Bottegoni
Serotonin transporter (SERT) modulates serotonergic signaling via re-uptake of serotonin in pre-synaptic cells. The inclusion in cholesterol-enriched membrane domains is crucial for SERT activity, suggesting a cross-talk between the protein and the sterol. Here, we develop a protocol to identify potential cholesterol interaction sites coupling statistical analysis to multi-microsecond coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of SERT in a previously validated raft-like membrane model. Six putative sites were found, including a putative CRAC motif on TM4 and a CARC motif on TM10...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897248/comprehensive-investigation-of-tobacco-leaves-during-natural-early-senescence-via-multi-platform-metabolomics-analyses
#5
Lili Li, Jieyu Zhao, Yanni Zhao, Xin Lu, Zhihui Zhou, Chunxia Zhao, Guowang Xu
Senescence is the final stage of leaf growth and development. Many different physiological activities occur during this process. A comprehensive metabolomics analysis of tobacco middle leaves at 5 different developmental stages was implemented through multi-platform methods based on liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In total, 412 metabolites were identified, including pigments, sterols, lipids, amino acids, polyamines, sugars and secondary metabolites...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893829/sansevieria-roxburghiana-schult-schult-f-family-asparagaceae-attenuates-type-2-diabetes-and-its-associated-cardiomyopathy
#6
Niloy Bhattacharjee, Ritu Khanra, Tarun K Dua, Susmita Das, Bratati De, M Zia-Ul-Haq, Vincenzo De Feo, Saikat Dewanjee
BACKGROUND: Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult. F. (Family: Asparagaceae) rhizome has been claimed to possess antidiabetic activity in the ethno-medicinal literature in India. Therefore, present experiments were carried out to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous) extract of S. roxburghiana rhizome (SR) against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated cardiomyopathy in Wistar rats. METHODS: SR was chemically characterized by GC-MS analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836991/mice-lacking-lipid-droplet-associated-hydrolase-a-gene-linked-to-human-prostate-cancer-have-normal-cholesterol-ester-metabolism
#7
Nora Kory, Susanne Grond, Siddhesh S Kamat, Zhihuan Li, Natalie Krahmer, Chandramohan Chitraju, Ping Zhou, Florian Fröhlich, Ivana Semova, Christer Ejsing, Rudolf Zechner, Benjamin F Cravatt, Robert V Farese, Tobias C Walther
Variations in the gene LDAH (C2ORF43), which encodes lipid droplet-associated hydrolase (LDAH), are among few loci associated with human prostate cancer. Homologues of LDAH have been identified as proteins of lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are cellular organelles that store neutral lipids, such as triacylglycerols and sterol esters, as precursors for membrane components and as reservoirs of metabolic energy. LDAH is reported to hydrolyze cholesterol esters and to be important in macrophage cholesterol ester metabolism...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830109/pelger-hu%C3%A3-t-anomaly-and-greenberg-skeletal-dysplasia-lbr-associated-diseases-of-cholesterol-metabolism
#8
Elizabeth M Turner, Christian Schlieker
Lamin B Receptor (LBR) is an inner nuclear membrane protein associated with the rare human diseases Pelger-Huët anomaly and Greenberg skeletal dysplasia. A new study has used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic manipulations in a human cell system to determine that the molecular etiology of these previously poorly understood disorders is a defect in cholesterol synthesis due to loss of LBR-associated sterol C14 reductase activity. The study furthermore determined that disease-associated LBR point mutations reduce sterol C14 reductase activity by decreasing the affinity of LBR for the reducing agent NADPH...
2016: Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806377/fatty-acid-synthesis-configures-the-plasma-membrane-for-inflammation-in-diabetes
#9
Xiaochao Wei, Haowei Song, Li Yin, Michael G Rizzo, Rohini Sidhu, Douglas F Covey, Daniel S Ory, Clay F Semenkovich
Dietary fat promotes pathological insulin resistance through chronic inflammation. The inactivation of inflammatory proteins produced by macrophages improves diet-induced diabetes, but how nutrient-dense diets induce diabetes is unknown. Membrane lipids affect the innate immune response, which requires domains that influence high-fat-diet-induced chronic inflammation and alter cell function based on phospholipid composition. Endogenous fatty acid synthesis, mediated by fatty acid synthase (FAS), affects membrane composition...
November 2, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801580/a-simple-strategy-for-taming-membrane-disrupting-antibiotics
#10
Yuming Yu, Mary J Sabulski, Wiley A Schell, Marcos Moura Pires, John Perfect, Steven L Regen
A strategy has been devised for increasing the cellular selectivity of membrane-disrupting antibiotics based on the attachment of a facially amphiphilic sterol. Using Amphotericin B (AmB) as a prototype, covalent attachment of cholic acid bound to a series of α,ω-diamines has led to a dramatic reduction in hemolytic activity, a significant reduction in toxicity towards HEK293T cells, and significant retention of antifungal activity.
November 1, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800617/contribution-of-constitutive-characteristics-of-lipids-and-phenolics-in-roots-of-tree-species-in-myrtales-to-aluminum-tolerance
#11
Eriko Maejima, Mitsuru Osaki, Tadao Wagatsuma, Toshihiro Watanabe
High aluminum (Al) concentration in soil solution is the most important factor restricting plant growth in acidic soils. However, various plant species naturally grow in such soils. Generally, they are highly tolerant to Al, but organic acid exudation, the most common Al tolerance mechanism, cannot explain their tolerance. Lower phospholipid and higher sterol proportions in root plasma membrane enhance Al tolerance. Other cellular components, such as cell walls and phenolics, may also be involved in Al tolerance mechanisms...
November 1, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797198/domain-stability-in-biomimetic-membranes-driven-by-lipid-polyunsaturation
#12
Xubo Lin, Joseph Helmuth Lorent, Allison D Skinkle, Kandice R Levental, Melvin Neal Waxham, Alemayehu A Gorfe, Ilya Levental
Biological membranes contain a broad variety of lipid species whose individual physicochemical properties and collective interactions ultimately determine membrane organization. A key aspect of the organization of cellular membranes is their lateral subdivision into domains of distinct structure and composition. The most widely studied membrane domains are lipid rafts, which are the biological manifestations of liquid-ordered phases that form in sterol-containing membranes. Detailed studies of biomimetic membrane mixtures have yielded wide-ranging insights into the physical principles behind lipid rafts; however, these simplified models do not fully capture the diversity and complexity of the mammalian lipidome, most notably in their exclusion of polyunsaturated lipids...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761133/the-hsp90-co-chaperones-sti1-aha1-and-p23-regulate-adaptive-responses-to-antifungal-azoles
#13
Xiaokui Gu, Wei Xue, Yajing Yin, Hongwei Liu, Shaojie Li, Xianyun Sun
Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes) to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast), Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast) were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760357/effect-of-lung-surfactant-protein-sp-c-and-sp-c-promoted-membrane-fragmentation-on-cholesterol-dynamics
#14
Nuria Roldan, Thomas K M Nyholm, J Peter Slotte, Jesús Pérez-Gil, Begoña García-Álvarez
To allow breathing and prevent alveolar collapse, lung surfactant (LS) develops a complex membranous system at the respiratory surface. LS is defined by a specific protein and lipid composition, including saturated and unsaturated phospholipid species and cholesterol. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been suggested to be an essential element for sustaining the presence of cholesterol in surfactant without functional impairment. In this work, we used a fluorescent sterol-partitioning assay to assess the effect of the surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C on cholesterol distribution in membranes...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743491/characterization-of-phosphatidic-acid-phosphatase-activity-in-the-oleaginous-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica-and-its-role-in-lipid-biosynthesis
#15
Derell Hardman, Daniel McFalls, Stylianos Fakas
Phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) catalyses the committed step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and thus regulates the amounts of TAG produced by the cell. TAG is the target of biotechnological processes developed for the production of food lipids or biofuels. These processes are using oleaginous microorganisms like the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as the TAG producers. Thus manipulating key enzymatic activities like PAP in Y. lipolytica could drive lipid biosynthesis towards TAG production and increase TAG yields...
October 15, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718370/eicosapentaenoic-acid-reduces-membrane-fluidity-inhibits-cholesterol-domain-formation-and-normalizes-bilayer-width-in-atherosclerotic-like-model-membranes
#16
R Preston Mason, Robert F Jacob, Sandeep Shrivastava, Samuel C R Sherratt, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708165/accumulation-of-specific-sterol-precursors-targets-a-map-kinase-cascade-mediating-cell-cell-recognition-and-fusion
#17
Martin Weichert, Alexander Lichius, Bert-Ewald Priegnitz, Ulrike Brandt, Johannes Gottschalk, Thorben Nawrath, Ulrike Groenhagen, Nick D Read, Stefan Schulz, André Fleißner
Sterols are vital components of eukaryotic cell membranes. Defects in sterol biosynthesis, which result in the accumulation of precursor molecules, are commonly associated with cellular disorders and disease. However, the effects of these sterol precursors on the metabolism, signaling, and behavior of cells are only poorly understood. In this study, we show that the accumulation of only ergosterol precursors with a conjugated double bond in their aliphatic side chain specifically disrupts cell-cell communication and fusion in the fungus Neurospora crassa Genetically identical germinating spores of this fungus undergo cell-cell fusion, thereby forming a highly interconnected supracellular network during colony initiation...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696999/aoatg26-a-putative-sterol-glucosyltransferase-is-required-for-autophagic-degradation-of-peroxisomes-mitochondria-and-nuclei-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-oryzae
#18
Takashi Kikuma, Takayuki Tadokoro, Jun-Ichi Maruyama, Katsuhiko Kitamoto
Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotic cells for degradation of cellular proteins and organelles. In filamentous fungi, autophagic degradation of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria, and nuclei occurs in basal cells after the prolonged culture, but its mechanism is not well understood. Here, we functionally analyzed the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae AoAtg26, an ortholog of the sterol glucosyltransferase PpAtg26 involved in pexophagy in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Deletion of Aoatg26 caused a severe decrease in conidiation and aerial hyphae formation, which is typically observed in the autophagy-deficient A...
October 4, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681606/enrichment-of-hydroxylated-c24-and-c26-acyl-chain-sphingolipids-mediates-pin2-apical-sorting-at-trans-golgi-network-subdomains
#19
Valérie Wattelet-Boyer, Lysiane Brocard, Kristoffer Jonsson, Nicolas Esnay, Jérôme Joubès, Frédéric Domergue, Sébastien Mongrand, Natasha Raikhel, Rishikesh P Bhalerao, Patrick Moreau, Yohann Boutté
The post-Golgi compartment trans-Golgi Network (TGN) is a central hub divided into multiple subdomains hosting distinct trafficking pathways, including polar delivery to apical membrane. Lipids such as sphingolipids and sterols have been implicated in polar trafficking from the TGN but the underlying mechanisms linking lipid composition to functional polar sorting at TGN subdomains remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that sphingolipids with α-hydroxylated acyl-chains of at least 24 carbon atoms are enriched in secretory vesicle subdomains of the TGN and are critical for de novo polar secretory sorting of the auxin carrier PIN2 to apical membrane of Arabidopsis root epithelial cells...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680498/observation-on-the-ultrastructure-morphology-of-hela-cells-treated-with-ethanol-statistical-analysis
#20
Fakhri Al-Bagdadi, Matthew J Young, James P Geaghan, Shaomian Yao, Humberto M Barona, Eduardo Martinez-Ceballos, Masami Yoshimura
It is estimated that 5.9% of all human deaths are attributable to alcohol consumption and that the harmful use of ethanol ranks among the top five risk factors for causing disease, disability, and death worldwide. Ethanol is known to disrupt phospholipid packing and promote membrane hemifusion at lipid bilayers. With the exception of mitochondria involved in hormone synthesis, the sterol content of mitochondrial membranes is low. As membranes that are low in cholesterol have increased membrane fluidity and are the most easily disordered by ethanol, we hypothesize that mitochondria are sensitive targets for ethanol damage...
November 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
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