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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238347/langerhans-cells-programmed-by-the-epidermis
#1
REVIEW
Kalum Clayton, Andres F Vallejo, James Davies, Sofia Sirvent, Marta E Polak
Langerhans cells (LCs) reside in the epidermis as a dense network of immune system sentinels. These cells determine the appropriate adaptive immune response (inflammation or tolerance) by interpreting the microenvironmental context in which they encounter foreign substances. In a normal physiological, "non-dangerous" situation, LCs coordinate a continuous state of immune tolerance, preventing unnecessary and harmful immune activation. Conversely, when they sense a danger signal, for example during infection or when the physical integrity of skin has been compromised as a result of a trauma, they instruct T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system to mount efficient effector responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238207/advances-in-t-cell-checkpoint-immunotherapy-for-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
REVIEW
Xinmeng Qi, Bo Jia, Xue Zhao, Dan Yu
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been found to be a complex group of malignancies characterized by their profound immunosuppression and high aggressiveness. In most cases of advanced HNSCC, treatment fails to obtain total cancer cure. Efforts are needed to develop new therapeutic approaches to improve HNSCC outcomes. In this light, T-cells "immune checkpoint" has attracted much attention in cancer immunotherapy. It has been broadly accepted that inhibitory T-cell immune checkpoints contribute to tumor immune escape through negative immune regulatory signals (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4], programmed cell death 1 [PD-1], B7-H3, and B7-H4, etc)...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237835/hla-class-i-mediated-hiv-1-control-in-vietnamese-infected-with-hiv-1-subtype-a-e
#3
Takayuki Chikata, Giang Van Tran, Hayato Murakoshi, Tomohiro Akahoshi, Ying Qi, Vivek Naranbhai, Nozomi Kuse, Yoshiko Tamura, Madoka Koyanagi, Sachiko Sakai, Dung Hoai Nguyen, Dung Thi Nguyen, Ha Thu Nguyen, Trung Vu Nguyen, Shinichi Oka, Maureen P Martin, Mary Carrington, Keiko Sakai, Kinh Van Nguyen, Masafumi Takiguchi
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) play an important role in the control of HIV-1 subtype B or C infection. However, the role of CTLs in HIV-1 subtype A/E infection still remains unclear. Here we investigated the association of HLA class I alleles with clinical outcome in treatment-naïve Vietnamese infected with subtype A/E. We found that HLA-C*12:02 was significantly associated with lower pVL and higher CD4 count and that the HLA-A*29:01-B*07:05-C*15:05 haplotype was significantly associated with higher pVL and lower CD4 count as compared to individuals without these respective genotypes...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237087/type-frequency-and-spatial-distribution-of-immune-cell-infiltrates-in-cns-germinomas-evidence-for-inflammatory-and-immunosuppressive-mechanisms
#4
Pia Zapka, Evelyn Dörner, Verena Dreschmann, Noriaki Sakamato, Glen Kristiansen, Gabriele Calaminus, Christian Vokuhl, Ivo Leuschner, Torsten Pietsch
Central nervous system germinomas are characterized by a massive immune cell infiltrate. We systematically characterized these immune cells in 28 germinomas by immunophenotyping and image analysis. mRNA expression was analyzed by Nanostring technology and in situ RNA hybridization. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were composed of 61.8% ± 3.1% (mean ± SE) CD3-positive T cells, including 45.2% ± 3.5% of CD4-positive T-helper cells, 23.4% ± 1.5% of CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, 5.5% ± 0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237063/spectrum-of-pig-a-mutations-in-t-lymphocytes-of-rats-treated-with-procarbazine
#5
Javier Revollo, Javed A Bhalli, Cameron Tebbe, Jessica Noteboom, Demetria Thomas, Page McKinzie, Nicholas Felton, Mason G Pearce, Vasily N Dobrovolsky
Procarbazine is a primary component of antineoplastic combination chemotherapy often used for the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is believed that cytostatic and cytotoxic properties of procarbazine are mediated via its interaction with genomic DNA. Procarbazine is a carcinogen in animal models; it is classified as Group 2A compound by IARC. Also it is known as an in vitro and in vivo mutagen and genotoxicant. However, the molecular mechanism by which procarbazine induces mutations is not thoroughly understood and the spectrum of procarbazine-induced in vivo mutations is described insufficiently...
December 8, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235395/adjuvant-activity-of-ethanol-extract-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-leaves-with-inactivated-rabies-virus-antigen
#6
D Singh, B Jayashankar, K P Mishra, H Tanwar, S N Madhusudana, A Y Belludi, R Tulsawani, S B Singh, L Ganju
CONTEXT: Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae), commonly known as seabuckthorn (SBT), is known for its medicinal and nutritional properties. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of in vivo adjuvant activity of SBT leaf extract (SBTE) with inactivated rabies virus antigen (Rb). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss albino mice were immunized with aqueous-alcoholic SBTE (100 mg/kg body weight) or algel (aluminium hydroxide gel) with or without Rb (5% v/v). After priming, booster was administered on day 14...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235195/human-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-produce-cell-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Huang Zhu, Yi-Shin Lai, Ye Li, Robert Blum, Dan Kaufman
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a promising resource to produce immune cells for adoptive cellular immunotherapy to better treat and potentially cure otherwise lethal cancers. Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells can now be routinely produced from human PSCs. These PSC-derived lymphocytes have phenotype and function similar to primary lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood. PSC-derived T and NK cells have advantages compared to primary immune cells, as they can be precisely engineered to introduce improved anti-tumor activity and produced in essentially unlimited numbers...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233192/methanolic-extract-of-euchelus-asper-exhibits-in-ovo-anti-angiogenic-and-in-vitro-anti-proliferative-activities
#8
Sweta Agrawal, Sachin Chaugule, Shashank More, Gargi Rane, Madhavi Indap
BACKGROUND: The marine environment is a rich source of bioactive natural products. Many of the marine bioactive compounds have been derived successfully from molluscs. Euchelus asper is a marine mollusc which is commonly found in the intertidal rocky regions of the Mumbai coast. The present study was focused on evaluating the anti-angiogenic and anti- proliferative activities of methanolic extract of Euchelus asper (EAME). METHODS: The anti-angiogenic activity of EAME (50-800 μg/mL) was assessed by chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) model wherein multiple parameters in the CAM blood vessels were analysed through morphometric and histological investigations...
December 12, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233021/amitriptyline-modulated-ca2-signaling-and-induced-ca2-independent-cell-viability-in-human-osteosarcoma-cells
#9
T Lu, C-T Chou, W-Z Liang, C-C Kuo, I-L Chen, J-L Wang, C-R Jan
Amitriptyline is a widely used tricyclic antidepressant, which acts primarily as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. This study examined the effect of amitriptyline on Ca2+ homeostasis and its related mechanism in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Amitriptyline evoked cytosolic-free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) rises concentration dependently. Amitriptyline-evoked Ca2+ entry was confirmed by Mn2+-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. This entry was inhibited by Ca2+ entry modulators nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365, the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate but was not affected by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232637/copper-ii-complexes-based-on-tripodal-pyrazolyl-amines-synthesis-structure-magnetic-properties-and-anticancer-activity
#10
Salah S Massoud, Febee R Louka, Gerard T Ducharme, Roland C Fischer, Franz A Mautner, Ján Vančo, Radovan Herchel, Zdeněk Dvořák, Zdeněk Trávníček
The Cu(II) complexes [Cu(bpdmpz)Cl]ClO4 (1), [Cu(bdmpzp)Cl]ClO4 (2-ClO4), [Cu(bdmpzp)Cl]PF6 (2-PF6) and [Cu(tdmpza)Cl]ClO4 (3), bpdmpzp=[bis[((2-pyridylmethyl)-di(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolyl)methyl)]amine, bdmpzp=[bis((di(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolyl)methyl)-(2-pyridylmethyl)]amine and tdmpza=tris[di(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolyl)-methyl)]amine were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic and conductivity measurements, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, infrared and electronic spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231815/endothelial-cells-express-nkg2d-ligands-and-desensitize-anti-tumor-nk-responses
#11
Thornton W Thompson, Alexander Byungsuk Kim, Po-Yi Jonathan Li, Jiaxi Wang, Benjamin T Jackson, Kristen Ting Hui Huang, Lily Zhang, David H Raulet
Natural Killer (NK) cells confer protection from tumors and infections by releasing cytotoxic granules and pro-inflammatory cytokines upon recognition of diseased cells. The responsiveness of NK cells to acute stimulation is dynamically tuned by steady-state receptor-ligand interactions of an NK cell with its cellular environment. Here we demonstrate that in healthy WT mice the NK activating receptor NKG2D is engaged in vivo by one of its ligands, RAE-1ε, which is expressed constitutively by lymph node endothelial cells and highly induced on tumor-associated endothelium...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231062/promising-immunotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#12
John C Henegan, Guru Sonpavde
Sipuleucel-T is the only currently approved immunotherapy for the management of prostate cancer. However, other immunotherapy agents have recently shown activity in prostate cancer and are being developed alone or in combination with other agents. Areas covered: This article provides a review of positive or encouraging clinical trials of agents under development including vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, immune modulators, gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy and chimeric antigen receptor-modified 'designer' T cells in patients with prostate cancer...
December 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230222/single-dose-of-consensus-hemagglutinin-based-virus-like-particles-vaccine-protects-chickens-against-divergent-h5-subtype-influenza-viruses
#13
Peipei Wu, Jihu Lu, Xuehua Zhang, Mei Mei, Lei Feng, Daxin Peng, Jibo Hou, Sang-Moo Kang, Xiufan Liu, Yinghua Tang
The H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the greatest threats to global poultry industry. To develop broadly protective H5 subunit vaccine, a recombinant consensus HA sequence (rHA) was constructed and expressed in virus-like particles (rHA VLPs) in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The efficacy of the rHA VLPs vaccine with or without immunopotentiator (CVCVA5) was assessed in chickens. Compared to the commercial Re6 or Re6-CVCVA5 vaccines, single dose immunization of chickens with rHA VLPs or rHA-CVCVA5 vaccines induced higher levels of serum hemagglutinin inhibition titers and neutralization titers, mucosal antibodies, IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines in sera, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230121/leptomeningeal-disease-and-the-evolving-role-of-molecular-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Katharine Hall Thomas, Robert A Ramirez
Background: Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a complication that results from solid tumor metastasis. Prognosis is extremely poor. As therapeutic options for solid tumors improve, the rate of LMD continues to increase. Until recently, treatment has been limited to radiation therapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy, with an overall survival of 2-3 months. Targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapies are promising new options for increasing overall survival and clinical improvement; however, optimal clinical management remains unknown...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229458/the-effects-of-irrigants-on-the-survival-of-human-stem-cells-of-the-apical-papilla-including-endocyn
#15
Mark B Scott, Gregory S Zilinski, Timothy C Kirkpatrick, Van T Himel, Kent A Sabey, Thomas E Lallier
INTRODUCTION: Endocyn, a pH-neutral solution of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite has been developed for use as an endodontic irrigant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Endocyn on human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts, rat osteosarcoma cells (UMR-106), and stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) compared with other commonly used endodontic irrigants. METHODS: To determine cytotoxicity, cells were exposed to various concentrations of Endocyn, 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 17% EDTA, and 2% chlorhexidine for 10 minutes, 1 hour, or 24 hours...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227356/novel-advances-on-tissue-immune-dynamics-in-hiv-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-lessons-from-imaging-studies
#16
Eirini Moysi, Kartika Padhan, Giulia Fabozzi, Constantinos Petrovas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent findings on the effect of HIV/SIV infection on lymph node viral and T-cell dynamics using imaging-based methodologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic infection, particularly HIV/SIV, alters dramatically the microenvironment, immune cell frequency, distribution, function and tissue organization of secondary lymphoid tissues. These changes are not always reversible. Over the past few years, the implementation of advanced imaging protocols on human lymph node biopsies as well as on longitudinal lymphoid tissues samples from nonhuman primates (NHP) have provided a wealth of information on how local immune responses evolve over time in response to a persisting retroviral pathogen...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226731/pharmacogenetics-of-platinum-based-chemotherapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-predictive-validity-of-polymorphisms-of-ercc1
#17
Gerhard Hamilton, Barbara Rath
The efficacy of platinum based chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by chemoresistance. Platinum drugs damage DNA by introducing intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks which result in cell death. Excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) is a member of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which erases such defects. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERCC1 impair this activity and have been suggested to predict the response to chemotherapy. Area covered...
December 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226489/inhibitory-effect-of-sulphated-polysaccharide-porphyran-isolated-from-porphyra-yezoensis-on-rankl-induced-differentiation-of-raw264-7-cells-into-osteoclasts
#18
Mikinori Ueno, Kichul Cho, Shogo Isaka, Tomoki Nishiguchi, Kenichi Yamaguchi, Daekyung Kim, Tatsuya Oda
Safe and efficient therapeutic agents for bone diseases are required in natural sources. We previously found that edible seaweed-derived polysaccharide porphyran exhibited anti-inflammatory effects through the down regulation of nuclear factor-κB. The aim of this study was to investigate the availability of porphyran as a therapeutic agent for bone diseases. The effects of porphyran on receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells were examined. Porphyran suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in a concentration-dependent manner (6...
December 11, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226015/conserved-hiv-epitopes-for-an-effective-hiv-vaccine
#19
Bikash Sahay, Cuong Q Nguyen, Janet K Yamamoto
Despite major advances in antiretroviral therapy against HIV-1, an effective HIV vaccine is urgently required to reduce the number of new cases of HIV infections in the world. Vaccines are the ultimate tool in the medical arsenal to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS. Several failed phase-IIb to -III clinical vaccine trials against HIV-1 in the past generated a plethora of information that could be used for better designing of an effective HIV vaccine in the future. Most of the tested vaccine candidates produced strong humoral responses against the HIV proteins; however, failed to protect due to: 1) the low levels and the narrow breadth of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies and the HIV-specific antibody-dependent Fc-mediated effector activities, 2) the low levels and the poor quality of the anti-HIV T-cell responses, and 3) the excessive responses to immunodominant non-protective HIV epitopes, which in some cases blocked the protective immunity and/or enhanced HIV infection...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225606/epstein-barr-virus-specific-immune-control-by-innate-lymphocytes
#20
REVIEW
Christian Münz
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a potent B cell transforming pathogen in humans. In most persistently EBV-infected individuals, potent cytotoxic lymphocyte responses prevent EBV-associated pathologies. In addition to comprehensive adaptive T cell responses, several innate lymphocyte populations seem to target different stages of EBV infection and are compromised in primary immunodeficiencies that render individuals susceptible to symptomatic EBV infection. In this mini-review, I will highlight the functions of natural killer, γδ T cells, and natural killer T cells during innate immune responses to EBV...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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