Read by QxMD icon Read

Cytotoxic T cell

Maren Paulmann, Maja Mockenhaupt
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) are known for a high morbidity and mortality. They may be life-threatening for the affected patient and difficult to accomplish for the patient's family and the treating physician. Such conditions include not only bullous reactions like toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), but also acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Since clinical pattern, etiology, prognosis and treatment differ among these severe skin reactions, a clear diagnosis based on a comprehensive clinical examination, skin biopsy, and specific laboratory tests is necessary...
September 28, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Genevieve M Weir, Olga Hrytsenko, Tara Quinton, Neil L Berinstein, Marianne M Stanford, Marc Mansour
BACKGROUND: Future cancer immunotherapies will combine multiple treatments to generate functional immune responses to cancer antigens through synergistic, multi-modal mechanisms. In this study we explored the combination of three distinct immunotherapies: a class I restricted peptide-based cancer vaccine, metronomic cyclophosphamide (mCPA) and anti-PD-1 treatment in a murine tumor model expressing HPV16 E7 (C3). METHODS: Mice were implanted with C3 tumors subcutaneously...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Sasha E Stanton, Mary L Disis
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) play an essential role in mediating response to chemotherapy and improving clinical outcomes in all subtypes of breast cancer. Triple negative breast cancers (TN) are most likely to have tumors with >50 % lymphocytic infiltrate, termed lymphocyte predominant breast cancer, and derive the greatest survival benefit from each 10 % increase in TIL. The majority of HER2(+) breast cancers have similar level of immune infiltrate as TN breast cancer yet the presence of TILs has not shown the same survival benefit...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Annalisa Lonetti, Alessandra Cappellini, Alice Bertaina, Franco Locatelli, Andrea Pession, Francesca Buontempo, Camilla Evangelisti, Cecilia Evangelisti, Ester Orsini, Laura Zambonin, Luca Maria Neri, Alberto Maria Martelli, Francesca Chiarini
BACKGROUND: Although in recent years, the introduction of novel chemotherapy protocols has improved the outcome of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients, refractory and/or relapsing disease remains a foremost concern. In this context, a major contribution was provided by the introduction of the nucleoside analog nelarabine, approved for salvage treatment of T-ALL patients with refractory/relapsed disease. However, nelarabine could induce a life-threatening, dose-dependent neurotoxicity...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Sven Jarius, Marius Ringelstein, Jürgen Haas, Irina I Serysheva, Lars Komorowski, Kai Fechner, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Philipp Albrecht, Harald Hefter, Andreas Moser, Eva Neuen-Jacob, Hans-Peter Hartung, Brigitte Wildemann, Orhan Aktas
BACKGROUND: Recently, we described a novel autoantibody, anti-Sj/ITPR1-IgG, that targets the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) in patients with cerebellar ataxia. However, ITPR1 is expressed not only by Purkinje cells but also in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, in the substantia gelatinosa and in the motor, sensory (including the dorsal root ganglia) and autonomic peripheral nervous system, suggesting that the clinical spectrum associated with autoimmunity to ITPR1 may be broader than initially thought...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elisabeth Salzer, Deniz Cagdas, Miroslav Hons, Emily M Mace, Wojciech Garncarz, Özlem Yüce Petronczki, René Platzer, Laurène Pfajfer, Ivan Bilic, Sol A Ban, Katharina L Willmann, Malini Mukherjee, Verena Supper, Hsiang Ting Hsu, Pinaki P Banerjee, Papiya Sinha, Fabienne McClanahan, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Winfried F Pickl, John G Gribben, Hannes Stockinger, Keiryn L Bennett, Johannes B Huppa, Loïc Dupré, Özden Sanal, Ulrich Jäger, Michael Sixt, Ilhan Tezcan, Jordan S Orange, Kaan Boztug
RASGRP1 is an important guanine nucleotide exchange factor and activator of the RAS-MAPK pathway following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. The consequences of RASGRP1 mutations in humans are unknown. In a patient with recurrent bacterial and viral infections, born to healthy consanguineous parents, we used homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing to identify a biallelic stop-gain variant in RASGRP1. This variant segregated perfectly with the disease and has not been reported in genetic databases. RASGRP1 deficiency was associated in T cells and B cells with decreased phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal-regulated serine kinase ERK, which was restored following expression of wild-type RASGRP1...
October 24, 2016: Nature Immunology
Bing Kan, Li Yang, Yan-Jun Wen, Jin-Rong Yang, Ting Niu, Jiong Li, Hong-Xin Deng, Wei Wei, Li-Gong Chen, Quan Zhang, Wei Wang, Yu-Quan Wei
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulating molecule of angiogenesis in tumor formation and progression. Cancer cells always secrete VEGF to stimulate angiogenesis that facilitate growth and invasion of the tumor. In this study, we established a VEGF164 overexpressing LL/2 lung cancer cell model and found that the postirradiated VEGF164-modified tumor cells protected the host against the challenge with LL/2 wild-type tumor cells. Histochemical assay showed that there were large areas of tumor necrosis with macrophage infiltration in the mice vaccinated with the VEGF164-modified tumor vaccine...
October 21, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Kelly D Moynihan, Cary F Opel, Gregory L Szeto, Alice Tzeng, Eric F Zhu, Jesse M Engreitz, Robert T Williams, Kavya Rakhra, Michael H Zhang, Adrienne M Rothschilds, Sudha Kumari, Ryan L Kelly, Byron H Kwan, Wuhbet Abraham, Kevin Hu, Naveen K Mehta, Monique J Kauke, Heikyung Suh, Jennifer R Cochran, Douglas A Lauffenburger, K Dane Wittrup, Darrell J Irvine
Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity...
October 24, 2016: Nature Medicine
Xiao-Ling Wang, Zhong-Yang Ding, Gao-Qiang Liu, Hailong Yang, Guo-Ying Zhou
Triterpene acids (TAs) are the major bioactive constituents in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lingzhi. However, fermentative production of TAs has not been optimized for commercial use, and whether the TAs isolated from G. lingzhi submerged culture mycelia possess antitumor activity needs to be further proven. In this study, enhanced TA yield and productivity were attained with G. lingzhi using response surface methodology. The interactions of three variables were studied using a Box-Benhnken design, namely initial pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and fermentation temperature...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cameron Browne
This paper concerns modeling the coupled within-host population dynamics of virus and CTL (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte) immune response. There is substantial evidence that the CTL immune response plays a crucial role in controlling HIV in infected patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that certain CTL variants can recognize HIV infected cells early in the infected cell lifecycle before viral production, while other CTLs only detect viral proteins (epitopes) presented on the surface of infected cells after viral production...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Lei Wang, Na Peng, Xiaoyan Hu, Wentao Liang, Kai Liang, Guizhu Peng
Objective To evaluate the effects of cryopreservation on the proliferation and killing activity of lymphocytes, and explore a novel protocol of preparing autologous mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Methods Mononuclear cells derived from spleen (5.0×10(6)/mL) were cryopreserved in CELLBANKER2 for 6 days and recovered in water bath at 39DegreesCelsius. The fresh lymphocytes and post-cryopreservation lymphocytes were induced by CD3 mAb (100 ng/mL) and recombinant mouse interleukin 2 (rmIL-2, 100 ng/mL) to obtain cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs)...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Arvin Eskandari, Janine N Boodram, Paul B Cressey, Chunxin Lu, Peter M Bruno, Michael T Hemann, Kogularamanan Suntharalingam
We report the cancer stem cell (CSC) potency of a novel series of copper(ii)-phenanthroline complexes bearing nonsteriodial anti-inflammatory drugs: naproxen, tolfenamic acid, and indomethacin (2a-3c). Two of the complexes, 2a and 3c, kill breast CSC-enriched HMLER-shEcad cells (grown in both monolayer and three-dimensional cell cultures) to a significantly better extent than salinomycin, a well-established CSC toxin. The most potent complex in the series, 3c induces its cytotoxic effect by generating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) activity...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Wei Du, Nicholas D Leigh, Guanglin Bian, Emad Alqassim, Rachel E O'Neill, Lin Mei, Jingxin Qiu, Hong Liu, Philip L McCarthy, Xuefang Cao
Granzyme B (GzmB) is a key cytotoxic molecule utilized by T cells to kill pathogen-infected cells or transformed tumor cells. Previous studies using allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) murine models showed that GzmB is required for CD8(+) T cells to cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, our recent study demonstrated that GzmB-mediated damage of CD8(+) T cells diminished their graft-versus-tumor (GVT) activity. In this study, we examined the role of GzmB in GVT effect mediated by conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells (CD4(+) Tcon)...
2016: J Immunol Res Ther
Rafik U Shaikh, Mahesh M Pund, Rajesh N Gacche
The present study was carried out to evaluate in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of selected medicinal plants used in Indian traditional medication. The sequentially extracted plant samples as, Cissus quadrangularis, Plumbago zeylanica, Terminalia bellarica and Terminalia chebula in water, ethanol and hexane were evaluated in-vitro for COX-1 and 2 inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of selected samples showing promising COX-2 inhibition was assessed using carrageenan and Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA) induced mice edema animal model...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Alexander J Sweidan, Navneet K Singh, Natasha Dang, Vinh Lam, Jyoti Datta
INTRODUCTION: Amiodarone is often used in the suppression of tachyarrhythmias. One of the more serious adverse effects includes amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT). Several pulmonary diseases can manifest including interstitial pneumonitis, organizing pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary nodules or masses, and pleural effusion. Incidence of APT varies from 5-15% and is correlated to dosage, age of the patient, and preexisting lung disease...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
Namrita Lall, Vivek Kumar, Debra Meyer, Nomasomi Gasa, Chris Hamilton, Motlalepula Matsabisa, Carel Oosthuizen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Natal gwarri or Natal ebony (Euclea natalensis A.DC.) is a deciduous tree found widespread throughout southern Africa, especially in Kwazulu-Natal and the southern cost. It has been widely used by indigenous communities such as the Zulus, Tsongas and Vendas for symptoms related to tuberculosis (TB). The decoctions made from the plant parts are administered for chest diseases to treat complications such as chest pains, bronchitis, pleurisy and asthma...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jena D French, Keith Bible, Christine Spitzweg, Bryan R Haugen, Mabel Ryder
Inflammation has long been associated with the thyroid and with thyroid cancers, raising seminal questions about the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of advanced thyroid cancers. With a growing understanding of dynamic tumour-immune cell interactions and the mechanisms by which tumour cells evade antitumour immunity, the field of cancer immunotherapy has been revolutionised. In this Review, we provide evidence to support the presence of an antitumour immune response in advanced thyroid cancers linked to cytotoxic T cells and NK cells...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Thejal Srikumar, Jaya Padmanabhan
This chapter describes the potential use of flavopiridol, a CDK inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities, in the treatment of various chronic diseases. Flavopiridol arrests cell cycle progression in the G1 or G2 phase by inhibiting the kinase activities of CDK1, CDK2, CDK4/6, and CDK7. Additionally, it binds tightly to CDK9, a component of the P-TEFb complex (CDK9/cyclin T), and interferes with RNA polymerase II activation and associated transcription. This in turn inhibits expression of several pro-survival and anti-apoptotic genes, and enhances cytotoxicity in transformed cells or differentiation in growth-arrested cells...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M Polívková, J Siegel, S Rimpelová, T Hubáček, Z Kolská, V Švorčík
Non-conventional antimicrobial agents, such as palladium nanostructures, have been increasingly used in the medicinal technology. However, experiences uncovering their harmful and damaging effects to human health have begun to appear. In this study, we have focused on in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of Pd nanostructures supported on a biocompatible polymer. Pd nanolayers of variable thicknesses (ranging from 1.1 to 22.4nm) were sputtered on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). These nanolayers were transformed by low-temperature post-deposition annealing into discrete nanoislands...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"