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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922904/the-body-as-gift-commodity-or-something-in-between-ethical-implications-of-advanced-kidney-donation
#1
Julian J Koplin
An innovative program recently initiated at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center allows people to donate a kidney in exchange for a voucher that a loved one can redeem for a kidney if and when needed. As a relatively new practice, the ethical implications of advanced kidney donation have not yet been widely discussed. This paper reflects on some of the bioethical issues at stake in this new donation program, as well as some broader philosophical issues related to the meaning and moral salience of commodification...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922902/from-directed-donation-to-kidney-sale-does-the-argument-hold-up
#2
James Stacey Taylor
The UCLA Medical Center has initiated a "voucher program" under which a person who donated a kidney would receive a voucher that she could provide to someone of her choosing who could then use it to move to the top of the renal transplantation waiting list. If the use of such vouchers as incentives for donors is morally permissible, then cash payments for kidneys are also morally permissible. But, that argument faces five objections. First, there are some goods whose nature allows them to be exchanged for similar goods but renders them monetarily inalienable...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922860/structural-plasticity-of-synaptopodin-in-the-axon-initial-segment-during-visual-cortex-development
#3
Annabelle Schlüter, Domenico Del Turco, Thomas Deller, Annika Gutzmann, Christian Schultz, Maren Engelhardt
The axon initial segment (AIS) is essential for action potential generation. Recently, the AIS was identified as a site of neuronal plasticity. A subpopulation of AIS in cortical principal neurons contains stacks of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forming the cisternal organelle (CO). The function of this organelle is poorly understood, but roles in local Ca2+-trafficking and AIS plasticity are discussed. To investigate whether the presence and/or the size of COs are linked to the development and maturation of AIS of cortical neurons, we analyzed the relationship between COs and the AIS during visual cortex development under control and visual deprivation conditions...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922859/spatial-embryonic-origin-delineates-gabaergic-hub-neurons-driving-network-dynamics-in-the-developing-entorhinal-cortex
#4
Laura Mòdol, Vitor Hugo Sousa, Arnaud Malvache, Thomas Tressard, Agnes Baude, Rosa Cossart
Coordinated neuronal activity is essential for the development of cortical circuits. GABAergic hub neurons that function in orchestrating early neuronal activity through a widespread net of postsynaptic partners are therefore critical players in the establishment of functional networks. Evidence for hub neurons was previously found in the hippocampus, but their presence in other cortical regions remains unknown. We examined this issue in the entorhinal cortex, an initiation site for coordinated activity in the neocortex and for the activity-dependent maturation of the entire entorhinal-hippocampal network...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922851/%C3%AE-endosulfine-arpp-19e-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-stroke
#5
Rupal I Mehta, Natalia Tsymbalyuk, Svetlana Ivanova, Jesse A Stokum, Kyoon Woo, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
In nutrient restricted environments, the yeast endosulfines Igo1/2 are activated via TORC1 inhibition and function critically to initiate and coordinate the cellular stress response that promotes survival. We examined expression of αEnsa, the mammalian homolog of yeast endosulfines, in rat stroke. Prominent neuronal upregulation of αEnsa was identified in 3 patterns within the ischemic gradient: (1) neurons in GFAP-/HSF1+ cortex showed upregulation and near-complete nuclear translocation of αEnsa protein within hours of ischemic onset; (2) neurons in GFAP+/HSF1+ cortex showed upregulation in cytoplasm and nuclei that persisted for days; (3) neurons in GFAP+/HSF1- cortex showed delayed cytosolic-only upregulation that persisted for days...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922807/tedizolid-is-highly-bactericidal-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#6
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Pooi S Lee, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To determine if tedizolid is effective for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, and to use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics to design optimal doses. Methods: We performed an exposure-response experiment in the hollow-fibre system model of intracellular MAC (HFS-MAC). We mimicked the tedizolid concentration-time profiles achieved in the lungs of patients treated once daily for 28 days. The HFS-MAC was sampled at intervals to determine the tedizolid pharmacokinetics and MAC intracellular burden...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922787/optimal-duration-of-extended-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-for-early-breast-cancer-results-of-the-ideal-trial-boog-2006-05
#7
Erik J Blok, Judith R Kroep, Elma Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Marjolijn Duijm-de Carpentier, Hein Putter, Joan van den Bosch, Eduard Maartense, A Elise van Leeuwen-Stok, Gerrit-Jan Liefers, Johan W R Nortier, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Cornelis J H van de Velde
Background: The optimal duration of extended endocrine therapy beyond five years after initial aromatase inhibitor-based adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a clinical trial to compare two different extended endocrine therapy durations. Methods: In the randomized phase III IDEAL trial, postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomly allocated to either 2...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922785/is-the-women-s-health-initiative-whi-dietary-modification-associated-with-a-reduced-risk-of-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Hormuzd A Katki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922784/low-fat-dietary-pattern-and-pancreatic-cancer-risk-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-dietary-modification-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Li Jiao, Liang Chen, Donna L White, Lesley Tinker, Rowan T Chlebowski, Linda V Van Horn, Peter Richardson, Dorothy Lane, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Hashem B El-Serag
Background: Observational studies suggest that diet may influence pancreatic cancer risk. We investigated the effect of a low-fat dietary intervention on pancreatic cancer incidence. Methods: The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (WHI-DM) trial is a randomized controlled trial conducted in 48 835 postmenopausal women age 50 to 79 years in the United States between 1993 and 1998. Women were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 19 541), with the goal of reducing total fat intake and increasing intake of vegetables, fruits, and grains, or to the usual diet comparison group (n = 29 294)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922781/toxicity-of-extended-adjuvant-therapy-with-aromatase-inhibitors-in-early-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Hadar Goldvaser, Tristan A Barnes, Boštjan Šeruga, David W Cescon, Alberto Ocaña, Domen Ribnikar, Eitan Amir
Background: A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported improvement in breast cancer outcomes from extending treatment with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) beyond the initial five years after diagnosis. However, the toxicity profile of extended AIs is uncertain. Methods: We identified RCTs that compared extended AIs to placebo or no treatment using MEDLINE and a review of abstracts from key conferences between 2013 and 2016. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), absolute risks, and the number needed to harm (NNH) were computed for prespecified safety and tolerability outcomes including cardiovascular events, bone fractures, second cancers (excluding new breast cancer), treatment discontinuation for adverse events, and death without recurrence...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922771/a-specific-role-of-iron-in-promoting-meristematic-cell-division-during-adventitious-root-formation
#11
Alexander Hilo, Fahimeh Shahinnia, Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken, Michael Melzer, Twan Rutten, Nicolaus von Wirén, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei
Adventitious root (AR) formation is characterized by a sequence of physiological and morphological processes and determined by external factors, including mineral nutrition, the impacts of which remain largely elusive. Morphological and anatomical evaluation of the effects of mineral elements on AR formation in leafy cuttings of Petunia hybrida revealed a striking stimulation by iron (Fe) and a promotive action of ammonium (NH4+). The optimal application period for these nutrients corresponded to early division of meristematic cells in the rooting zone and coincided with increased transcript levels of mitotic cyclins...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922756/the-meiotic-regulator-jason-utilizes-alternative-translation-initiation-sites-to-produce-differentially-localized-forms
#12
Simon Cabout, Megan P Leask, Shiny Varghese, Jun Yi, Benjamin Peters, Lei Liu Conze, Claudia Köhler, Lynette Brownfield
The JASON (JAS) protein plays an important role in maintaining an organelle band across the equator of male meiotic cells during the second division, with its loss leading to unreduced pollen in Arabidopsis. In roots cells, JAS localizes to the Golgi, tonoplast and plasma membrane. Here we explore the mechanism underlying the localization of JAS. Overall, our data show that leaky ribosom scanning and alternative translation initiation sites (TISs) likely leads to the formation of two forms of JAS: a long version with an N-terminal Golgi localization signal and a short version with a different N-terminal signal targeting the protein to the plasma membrane...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922712/ellagic-acid-promotes-ventricular-remodeling-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-by-up-regulating-mir-140-3p
#13
Da-Zhen Wei, Cong Lin, Yin-Qing Huang, Lian-Pin Wu, Ming-Yuan Huang
In the paper, we observed the effect of ellagic acid (EA) on myocardial morphology and cardiac function and explored the mechanism of miR-140-3p-mediated EA in ventricular remodeling. The experimental animals were divided into 3 groups: control group, AMI group, AMI+EA group. Intragastric administration for 4 weeks was initiated on the first day after surgery in rats. Rodent echocardiography was used to measure heart size and cardiac function. The level of fibrosis was observed by Masson staining. The number of cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method...
September 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922709/non-drainage-versus-drainage-in-tourniquet-free-knee-arthroplasty-a-prospective-trial
#14
Kai Zhou, Haoyang Wang, Jinglong Li, Duan Wang, Zongke Zhou, Fuxing Pei
BACKGROUND: It is still unknown whether drainage is necessary and non-drainage is safe and acceptable after tourniquet-free total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We aim to investigate whether non-drainage use is accepted in TKA that is performed without a tourniquet. METHODS: Clinical data of 80 adult patients who did or did not receive drainage in our centres from August 2015 to December 2015 were prospective investigated. RESULTS: The drainage group exhibited reduced hidden blood loss (47...
September 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922678/serum-uric-acid-concentrations-can-predict-hypertension-a-longitudinal-population-based-epidemiological-study
#16
Rongjiong Zheng, Tianmeng Yang, Qingmei Chen, Changxi Chen, Yushan Mao
An elevated serum uric acid concentration may be associated with hypertension, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. However, whether the elevation is causal or a consequence of hypertension among the Chinese population remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the longitudinal relationship between the serum uric acid concentrations and hypertension among Chinese individuals. This study included 5105 subjects, initially without hypertension, who were followed up for 9 years. The subjects were divided into four groups based on the serum uric acid quartile...
September 18, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922662/treatment-of-autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-follow-up-in-7-cases
#17
Xinguang Yang, Junyan Liang, Qingmei Huang, Huiming Xu, Cong Gao, Youming Long, Xiaoyu Xiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to report an autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy with long-term follow-up in 7 patients. METHODS: Antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay and patient data were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Seven patients (4 female, 3 male) with ≥1 year follow-up were included. All patients had positive GFAP antibodies in their cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Their median age at disease onset was 56 years (range 27-69) and the median disease duration was 1 year (range 1-4)...
September 19, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922651/evaluating-the-effect-of-smoking-cessation-treatment-on-a-complex-dynamical-system
#18
Korkut Bekiroglu, Michael A Russell, Constantino M Lagoa, Stephanie T Lanza, Megan E Piper
OBJECTIVE: To understand the dynamic relations among tobacco withdrawal symptoms to inform the development of effective smoking cessation treatments. Dynamical system models from control engineering are introduced and utilized to evaluate complex treatment effects. We demonstrate how dynamical models can be used to examine how distinct withdrawal-related processes are related over time and how treatment influences these relations. METHOD: Intensive longitudinal data from a randomized placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial (N=1504) are used to estimate a dynamical model of withdrawal-related processes including momentary craving, negative affect, quitting self-efficacy, and cessation fatigue for each of six treatment conditions (nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion, patch + lozenge, bupropion + lozenge, and placebo)...
August 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922645/spectrophotometric-determination-of-fluoxetine-by-molecularly-imprinted-polypyrrole-and-optimization-by-experimental-design-artificial-neural-network-and-genetic-algorithm
#19
Azizollah Nezhadali, Maryam Omidvar Motlagh, Samira Sadeghzadeh
A selective method based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) solid-phase extraction (SPE) using UV-Vis spectrophotometry as a detection technique was developed for the determination of fluoxetine (FLU) in pharmaceutical and human serum samples. The MIPs were synthesized using pyrrole as a functional monomer in the presence of FLU as a template molecule. The factors that affecting the preparation and extraction ability of MIP such as amount of sorbent, initiator concentration, the amount of monomer to template ratio, uptake shaking rate, uptake time, washing buffer pH, take shaking rate, Taking time and polymerization time were considered for optimization...
September 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922630/effects-of-iron-and-calcium-carbonate-on-contaminant-removal-efficiencies-and-microbial-communities-in-integrated-wastewater-treatment-systems
#20
Zhimiao Zhao, Xinshan Song, Yinjiang Zhang, Yufeng Zhao, Bodi Wang, Yuhui Wang
In the paper, we explored the influences of different dosages of iron and calcium carbonate on contaminant removal efficiencies and microbial communities in algal ponds combined with constructed wetlands. After 1-year operation of treatment systems, based on the high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis of microbial communities, the optimal operating conditions were obtained as follows: the ACW10 system with Fe(3+) (5.6 mg L(-1)), iron powder (2.8 mg L(-1)), and CaCO3 powder (0.2 mg L(-1)) in influent as the adjusting agents, initial phosphorus source (PO4(3-)) in influent, the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus (N/P) of 30 in influent, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
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