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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353010/modulation-of-immune-responses-by-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-asymptomatic-children-living-in-the-endemic-region-of-mbita-western-kenya
#1
Caroline Kijogi, Daisuke Kimura, Lam Quoc Bao, Risa Nakamura, Evans Asena Chadeka, Ngetich Benard Cheruiyot, Felix Bahati, Kazuhide Yahata, Osamu Kaneko, Sammy M Njenga, Yoshio Ichinose, Shinjiro Hamano, Katsuyuki Yui
Individuals living in malaria endemic areas become clinically immune after multiple re-infections over time and remain infected without apparent symptoms. However, it is unclear why a long period is required to gain clinical immunity to malaria, and how such immunity is maintained. Although malaria infection is reported to induce inhibition of immune responses, studies on asymptomatic individuals living in endemic regions of malaria are relatively scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional study of immune responses in asymptomatic school children aged 4-16years living in an area where Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma mansoni infections are co-endemic in Kenya...
January 15, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352853/interferon-regulatory-factor-5-is-a-potential-target-of-autoimmune-response-triggered-by-epstein-barr-virus-and-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-investigating-a-mechanism-of-molecular-mimicry
#2
Marco Bo, Gian Luca Erre, Magdalena Niegowska, Marco Piras, Loredana Taras, Maria Giovanna Longu, Giuseppe Passiu, Leonardo A Sechi
OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterised by a pro-inflammatory cytokines linked erosive joint damage and by humoral and cellular response against a broad range of self-peptides. Molecular mimicry between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and host peptides has long been regarded as an RA pathogenetic mechanism. Using bioinformatic analysis we identified high sequence homology among interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), EBV antigen BOLF1 and MAP antigen MAP_4027...
January 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352371/innate-and-adaptive-t-cells-in-influenza-disease
#3
REVIEW
Simone Nüssing, Sneha Sant, Marios Koutsakos, Kanta Subbarao, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Influenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized...
January 20, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352310/leishmania-proteophosphoglycans-regurgitated-from-infected-sand-flies-accelerate-dermal-wound-repair-and-exacerbate-leishmaniasis-via-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-dependent-signalling
#4
Emilie Giraud, Tereza Lěstinová, Tamsyn Derrick, Oihane Martin, Rod J Dillon, Petr Volf, Ingrid Műller, Paul A Bates, Matthew E Rogers
Leishmania parasites are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by female phlebotomine sand flies as they bloodfeed by lacerating the upper capillaries of the dermis with their barbed mouthparts. In the sand fly midgut secreted proteophosphoglycans from Leishmania form a biological plug known as the promastigote secretory gel (PSG), which blocks the gut and facilitates the regurgitation of infective parasites. The interaction between the wound created by the sand fly bite and PSG is not known. Here we nanoinjected a sand fly egested dose of PSG into BALB/c mouse skin that lead to the differential expression of 7,907 transcripts...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351987/cd83-is-a-new-potential-biomarker-and-therapeutic-target-for-hodgkin-lymphoma
#5
Ziduo Li, Xinsheng Ju, Kenneth Lee, Candice Clarke, Jennifer L Hsu, Edward Abadir, Christian E Bryant, Suzanne Pears, Neroli Sunderland, Scott Heffernan, Annemarie Hennessy, Tsun-Ho Lo, Geoffrey A Pietersz, Fiona Kupresanin, Phillip D Fromm, Pablo A Silveira, Con Tsonis, Wendy A Cooper, Ilona Cunningham, Christina Brown, Georgina J Clark, Derek N J Hart
Chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are effective treatments for most Hodgkin lymphoma patients, however there remains a need for better tumor-specific target therapy in Hodgkin lymphoma patients with refractory or relapsed disease. We demonstrate that membrane CD83 is a diagnostic and therapeutic target, highly expressed in Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in 29/35 (82.9%) Hodgkin lymphoma patient lymph node biopsies. CD83 from Hodgkin lymphoma tumor cells was able to trogocytose to surrounding T cells and interestingly, the trogocytosing CD83+T cells expressed significantly more PD-1 compared to CD83- T cells...
January 19, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351869/allosteric-kissing-complex-based-electrochemical-biosensor-for-sensitive-regenerative-and-versatile-detection-of-proteins
#6
Mingsha Zhao, Shanshan Zhang, Zhiqiang Chen, Changzhi Zhao, Li Wang, Shufeng Liu
Herein, an allosteric kissing complex-based electrochemical biosensor was ingeniously proposed for the simple, sensitive, regenerative and versatile detection of proteins. Two hairpins (Hp1 and Hp2) were designed and the Hp1 was immobilized on the electrode surface, which could form a kissing complex with Hp2 through the apical loop-loop or kissing interaction of the RNA-RNA base sequences. The Hp2 possesses the appended single-stranded tails on each end, which hybridize with the recognition element-conjugated DNA strands to construct a protein responsive switch of Hp2 scaffold...
January 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351806/isolated-septic-arthritis-of-hip-joint-a-rare-presentation-of-melioidosis-a-case-report
#7
N P Weerasinghe, H M M Herath, T M U Liyanage
BACKGROUND: Despite, Sri Lanka lies in the melioidosis endemic belt between 5°N and 10°N surrounded by countries known to have endemic melioidosis for many years, comparatively fewer cases of melioidosis infection have been reported in Sri Lanka. Melioidosis has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation, ranging from severe pneumonia to abscess formation in various organs. Isolated septic arthritis, which is a rare but well-recognized manifestation of melioidosis, could be the sole presenting problem in some patients with melioidosis...
January 19, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351737/identifying-genome-wide-immune-gene-variation-underlying-infectious-disease-in-wildlife-populations-a-next-generation-sequencing-approach-in-the-gopher-tortoise
#8
Jean P Elbers, Mary B Brown, Sabrina S Taylor
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease is the single greatest threat to taxa such as amphibians (chytrid fungus), bats (white nose syndrome), Tasmanian devils (devil facial tumor disease), and black-footed ferrets (canine distemper virus, plague). Although understanding the genetic basis to disease susceptibility is important for the long-term persistence of these groups, most research has been limited to major-histocompatibility and Toll-like receptor genes. To better understand the genetic basis of infectious disease susceptibility in a species of conservation concern, we sequenced all known/predicted immune response genes (i...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351649/sex-dependent-interactions-between-leptin-wasting-and-humoral-immunity-in-two-ethnic-communities-of-school-aged-children-differentially-exposed-to-schistosoma-haematobium
#9
Emmanuel Hermann, Lobna Gaayeb, Papa S Sow, Modou Seck, Andre B Sagna, Simon Senghor, Lydie Bandagny, Clement Brinkhuizen, Delphine Delcroix-Genete, Anne-Marie Schacht, Gilles Riveau
Background: Leptin is a nutritional hormone whose production is generally higher in females. We investigated how leptin is associated with sex dimorphism during urinary schistosomiasis in relation with wasting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three villages in northern Senegal. Ninety-eight school-aged children belonging to the Fulani or Wolof villages were enrolled. We performed parasitic diagnosis and anthropometric measurement to evaluate nutritional status...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351453/superoxide-inhibition-restores-endothelium-dependent-dilatation-in-aging-arteries-by-enhancing-impaired-adherens-junctions
#10
Fumin Chang, Sheila Flavahan, Nicholas A Flavahan
Endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilatation is impaired in aging arteries. The dysfunction reflects increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is reversed by inhibiting superoxide with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics, and is assumed to reflect superoxide-mediated inactivation of NO. However, the dysfunction also reflects Src-dependent degradation and loss of VE-cadherin from adherens junctions, resulting in a selective impairment in the ability of the junctions to amplify endothelial dilatation...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351418/red-blood-cell-antibody-induced-anemia-causes-differential-degrees-of-tissue-hypoxia-in-kidney-and-brain
#11
Nikhil Mistry, C David Mazer, John G Sled, Alan H Lazarus, Lindsay S Cahill, Max Solish, Yu-Qing Zhou, Nadya Romanova, Alexander Gm Hare, Allan Doctor, Joseph A Fisher, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson, Gregory M T Hare
Moderate anemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including acute kidney injury (AKI), in surgical patients. A red blood cell (RBC)-specific antibody model was utilized to determine if moderate subacute anemia could result in tissue hypoxia as a potential mechanism of injury. Cardiovascular and hypoxic cellular responses were measured in transgenic mice capable of expressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-luciferase activity in vivo. Antibody-mediated anemia was associated with mild intravascular hemolysis (6 hours) and splenic RBC sequestration (day 4), resulting in a nadir hemoglobin concentration of 89{plus minus}13 g/L at day 4...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351275/a-mathematical-model-for-il-6-mediated-stem-cell-driven-tumor-growth-and-targeted-treatment
#12
Fereshteh Nazari, Alexander T Pearson, Jacques Eduardo Nör, Trachette L Jackson
Targeting key regulators of the cancer stem cell phenotype to overcome their critical influence on tumor growth is a promising new strategy for cancer treatment. Here we present a modeling framework that operates at both the cellular and molecular levels, for investigating IL-6 mediated, cancer stem cell driven tumor growth and targeted treatment with anti-IL6 antibodies. Our immediate goal is to quantify the influence of IL-6 on cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival, and to characterize the subsequent impact on tumor growth dynamics...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351206/antibody-biomimetic-material-made-of-pyrrole-for-ca-15-3-and-its-application-as-sensing-material-in-ion-selective-electrodes-for-potentiometric-detection
#13
Alexandra R T Santos, Felismina T C Moreira, Luísa A Helguero, M Goreti F Sales
This work reports a very simple approach for creating a synthetic antibody against any protein of interest and its application in potentiometric transduction. The selected protein was Breast Cancer Antigen (CA 15-3), which is implicated in breast cancer disease and used to follow-up breast cancer patients during treatment. The new material with antibody-like properties was obtained by molecular-imprinting technology, prepared by electropolymerizing pyrrol (Py, 5.0 × 10-3 mol/L) around Breast Cancer Antigen (CA 15-3) (100 U/mL) on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass support...
January 19, 2018: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351125/central-inhibition-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-is-analgesic-in-experimental-neuropathic-pain
#14
Louise S C Nicol, Peter Thornton, Jon P Hatcher, Colin P Glover, Carl I Webster, Matthew Burrell, Kessia Hammett, Clare A Jones, Matthew A Sleeman, Andrew Billinton, Iain Chessell
With less than 50% of patients responding to the current standard of care and poor efficacy and selectivity of current treatments, neuropathic pain continues to be an area of considerable unmet medical need. Biological therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provide better intrinsic selectivity; however, delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a challenge. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is well described in inflammation-induced pain, and early-phase clinical trials evaluating its antagonism have exemplified its importance as a peripheral pain target...
January 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350833/platelets-kill-bacteria-by-bridging-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-via-pf4-and-fc%C3%AE-riia
#15
R Palankar, T P Kohler, K Krauel, J Wesche, S Hammerschmidt, A Greinacher
BACKGROUND: Activated platelets release the chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) stored in their granules. PF4 binds to polyanions (P) on bacteria, undergoes a conformational change and exposes neoepitopes. These neoepitopes induce production of anti-PF4/P antibodies. As PF4 binds to a variety of bacteria, anti-PF4/P IgG can bind and opsonize several bacterial species. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated whether platelets are able to kill bacteria directly after recognizing anti-PF4/P IgG opsonized bacteria in the presence of PF4 via their FcγRIIA...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350566/abp-501-for-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Eleftherios Pelechas, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Alexandros A Drosos
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which has a negative impact on the ability to perform activities daily. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF) is a cytokine with diverse cellular effects, and a key regulator of the inflammatory response. ABP 501 is a biosimilar to adalimumab, a TNF inhibitor. Areas covered: In this review, we examined ABP 501, as a biosimilar candidate to adalimumab in the treatment of RA focusing on the available data. Current data indicate that ABP 501 is a highly similar alternative to adalimumab in terms of safety, efficacy, tolerability and immunogenicity...
January 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350486/inflammatory-response-and-treatment-tolerance-of-long-term-infusion-of-the-anti-gd2-antibody-ch14-18-cho-in-combination-with-interleukin-2-in-patients-with-high-risk-neuroblastoma
#17
Kiraz Ceylan, Luciana J Jahns, Bjoern N Lode, Karoline Ehlert, Silke Kietz, Sascha Troschke-Meurer, Nikolai Siebert, Holger N Lode
BACKGROUND: The monoclonal anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18/CHO in combination with IL-2 is active and effective in high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) patients. Here, we investigated the inflammatory response and treatment tolerance of long-term infusion (LTI) of ch14.18/CHO (10 × 10 mg/m2 ; 24 hr) in combination with subcutaneous (s.c.) IL-2 in a single center program. METHODS: Fifty-three NB patients received up to six cycles of 100 mg/m2 ch14.18/CHO (d8-18, where d represents day(s)) as LTI combined with 6 × 106 IU/m2 s...
January 19, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350181/a-single-continuous-metric-to-define-tiered-serum-neutralization-potency-against-hiv
#18
Peter Hraber, Bette Korber, Kshitij Wagh, David Montefiori, Mario Roederer
HIV-1 Envelope (Env) variants are grouped into tiers by their neutralization-sensitivity phenotype. This helped to recognize that tier-1 neutralization responses can be elicited readily, but do not protect against new infections. Tier-3 viruses are the least sensitive to neutralization. Because most circulating viruses are tier 2, vaccines that elicit neutralization responses against them are needed. While tier classification is widely used for viruses, a way to rate serum or antibody neutralization responses in comparable terms is needed...
January 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349911/identification-of-fish-source-vibrio-alginolyticus-and-evaluation-of-its-bacterial-ghosts-vaccine-immune-effects
#19
Ji Cao, Jiajun Zhang, Lin Ma, Lin Li, Wenchang Zhang, Jinnian Li
Vibrio alginolyticus (V. alginolyticus) is a common pathogen for humans and marine aquatic animals. Vibriosis of marine aquatic animals, caused by V. alginolyticus, has become more prevalent globally in recent years. Hence, a safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed for the control of this disease. Here, the strain 16-3 isolated from the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) suffered from canker was identified as V. alginolyticus based on morphological, biochemical, and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis...
January 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349774/the-vaccine-adjuvant-alum-promotes-il-10-production-that-suppresses-th1-responses
#20
Ewa Oleszycka, Sean McCluskey, Fiona A Sharp, Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Emily Hams, Aoife L Gorman, Padraic G Fallon, Ed C Lavelle
The effectiveness of many vaccines licensed for clinical use relates to the induction of neutralising antibodies, facilitated by the inclusion of vaccine adjuvants, particularly alum. However, the ability of alum to preferentially promote humoral rather than cellular, particularly Th1-type responses, is not well understood. We demonstrate that alum activates immunosuppressive mechanisms following vaccination, which limit its capacity to induce Th1 responses. One of the key cytokines limiting excessive immune responses is IL-10...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
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