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Antibody response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941453/development-of-a-dna-aptamer-for-screening-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-b-by-cell-selex
#1
Kimia Mirzakhani, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari, Iraj Rasooli, Samaneh Rasoulinejad
Background: Artificial oligonucleotides like DNA or RNA aptamers can be used as biodiagnostic alternatives for antibodies to detect pathogens. Comparing to antibodies, artificial oligonucleotides are produced easily at lower costs and are more stable. Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningitis, is responsible for about 1% of infections in an epidemic period. Specific DNA aptamers that bind to N. meningitidis serogroup B were identified by whole-cell Systemic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment (SELEX)...
September 24, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938671/pd-1-pd-l1-antibodies-efficacy-and-safety-versus-docetaxel-monotherapy-in-advanced-nsclc-patients-after-first-line-treatment-option-systems-assessment
#2
Qiang Su, Zhigang Sun, Chenguang Zhang, Yanli Hou, Bangwei Cao
Meta-analysis was conducted to systematically assess the effectiveness and safety of programmed cell death protein-1 or ligand-1 (PD-1 or PD-L1) antibodies versus docetaxel alone in advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, the prognostic significance of PD-L1 expression in advanced NSCLC was also investigated. 5 eligible studies including 3579 patients were identified through comprehensive search of multiple databases. The results showed that pooled hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were 0...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938620/pathological-expression-of-tissue-factor-confers-promising-antitumor-response-to-a-novel-therapeutic-antibody-sc1-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-and-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#3
Xuesai Zhang, Qingrou Li, Hui Zhao, Lanping Ma, Tao Meng, Jianchang Qian, Rui Jin, Jingkang Shen, Ker Yu
The pathological presence of tissue factor (TF) in cancer cells promotes tumor-initiated thrombosis and cancer metastasis. We found that TF is aberrantly present in large percentage of aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PaC), two most lethal forms of malignancy that urgently need effective treatment. TF expression in TNBC clustered with higher levels of vimentin, basal-type keratins KRT5/14 and caveolin-1 but lower levels of luminal-type biomarkers. We developed a novel and specific anti-TF therapeutic antibody SC1, which displayed an exceedingly high potency against TF extracellular domain (EC50: 0...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938533/trans-sialidase-based-vaccine-candidate-protects-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-not-only-inducing-an-effector-immune-response-but-also-affecting-cells-with-regulatory-suppressor-phenotype
#4
Estefanía Prochetto, Carolina Roldán, Iván A Bontempi, Daiana Bertona, Luz Peverengo, Miguel H Vicco, Luz M Rodeles, Ana R Pérez, Iván S Marcipar, Gabriel Cabrera
Prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccines have an important potential to control Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi)infection. The involvement of regulatory/suppressor immune cells after an immunization treatment and T. cruzi infection has never been addressed. Here we show that a new trans-sialidase-based immunogen (TSf) was able to confer protection, correlating not only with beneficial changes in effector immune parameters, but also influencing populations of cells related to immune control. Regarding the effector response, mice immunized with TSf showed a TS-specific antibody response, significant delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity and increased production of IFN-γ by CD8+ splenocytes...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938451/antibody-mediated-targeting-of-the-fgfr1c-isoform-increases-glucose-uptake-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-in-male-mice
#5
Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Scott Cooper, Jeni C Luckett, Alan C Perkins, James D Dunbar, Dennis P Smith, Paul J Emmerson, Andrew C Adams, Francis J P Ebling, Kostas Tsintzas
The increased prevalence of obesity and its cardiometabolic implications demonstrates the imperative to identify novel therapeutic targets able to effect meaningful metabolic changes in this population. Antibody-mediated targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c isoform (FGFR1c) has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycaemia and protect from diet- and genetically-induced obesity in rodents and non-human primates. However, it is currently unknown which tissue(s) contribute to this glucose lowering effect...
August 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938071/automatic-identification-and-quantification-of-extra-well-fluorescence-in-microarray-images
#6
Robert Rivera, Jie Wang, Xiaobo Yu, Gokhan Demirkan, Marika Hopper, Xiaofang Bian, Tasnia Tahsin, D Mitchell Magee, Ji Qiu, Joshua LaBaer, Garrick Wallstrom
In recent studies involving NAPPA microarrays, extra-well fluorescence is used as a key measure for identifying disease biomarkers since there is evidence to support that it is better correlated with strong antibody responses than statistical analysis involving intra-spot intensity. Since this feature is not well quantified by traditional image analysis software, identification and quantification of extra-well fluorescence is performed manually, which is both time consuming and highly susceptible to variation between raters...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938007/neuropilin-1-modulates-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-to-drive-glioblastoma-growth-and-recurrence-after-anti-angiogenic-therapy
#7
Sam C Kwiatkowski, Paola A Guerrero, Shinya Hirota, Zhihua Chen, John E Morales, Manish Aghi, Joseph H McCarty
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a rapidly progressive brain cancer that exploits the neural microenvironment, and particularly blood vessels, for selective growth and survival. Anti-angiogenic agents such as the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) blocking antibody bevacizumab yield short-term benefits to patients due to blood vessel regression and stabilization of vascular permeability. However, tumor recurrence is common, and this is associated with acquired resistance to bevacizumab. The mechanisms that drive acquired resistance and tumor recurrence in response to anti-angiogenic therapy remain largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938001/cell-cycle-stage-specific-transcriptional-activation-of-cyclins-mediated-by-hat2-dependant-h4k10-acetylation-of-promoters-in-leishmania-donovani
#8
Udita Chandra, Aarti Yadav, Devanand Kumar, Swati Saha
Chromatin modifications affect several processes. In investigating the Leishmania donovani histone acetyltransferase HAT2, using in vitro biochemical assays and HAT2-heterozygous genomic knockout we found the constitutively nuclear HAT2 acetylated histone H4K10 in vitro and in vivo. HAT2 was essential. HAT2-depleted cells displayed growth and cell cycle defects, and poor survival in host cells. Real time PCR and DNA microarray analyses, as well as rescue experiments, revealed that downregulation of cyclins CYC4 and CYC9 were responsible for S phase and G2/M defects of HAT2-depleted cells respectively...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937963/ki67-and-lymphocytes-in-the-pretherapeutic-core-biopsy-of-primary-invasive-breast-cancer-positive-markers-of-therapy-response-prediction-and-superior-survival
#9
REVIEW
Claus M Schlotter, Lothar Tietze, Ulf Vogt, Carlos Villena Heinsen, Antje Hahn
Background Core needle biopsy plays a crucial role as diagnostic tool for BC. Both Ki67 and likely tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the near future are determining the kind of systemic therapy. The role of TILs in BC is still an issue for clinical research, albeit preliminary results of neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical studies already now highlight the crucial impact of TILs on therapy response and survival. Methods Evaluation of related publications (pubmed) and meeting abstracts (ASCO, SABCS). Results The monoclonal antibody Ki67 recognizing a nuclear antigene in proliferating cells is a positive marker of therapy response and superior survival...
September 22, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937879/advax4-delta-inulin-combination-adjuvant-together-with-ecmx-a-fusion-construct-of-three-protective-mtb-antigens-induces-a-potent-th1-immune-response-and-protects-mice-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#10
Bruno de Paula Oliveira Santos, Monalisa Martins Trentini, Renato Beilner Machado, Mara Rúbia Nunes Celes, André Kipnis, Nikolai Petrovsky, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a main public health concern and 10.4 million new cases occurred in 2015 around the world. BCG is the only approved vaccine against TB, but has variable efficacy and new vaccines are needed. We developed two new mTB vaccine candidates based on the recombinant fusion proteins, rCMX and rECMXformulated with Advax4, a new combination adjuvant combining delta inulin, CpG oligonucleotide and murabutide. When BALB/c mice were immunized three times intramuscularly with these vaccine formulationsInjection of Advax4 alone increased the percentage of lymphatic endothelial cells and activated macrophages (F480/CD11b(+)) in the draining lymph nodes consistent with a chemotactic adjuvant effect...
September 22, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937614/a-novel-vav3-homolog-identified-in-lamprey-lampetra-japonica-with-roles-in-lipopolysaccharide-mediated-immune-response
#11
Yanqi Shen, Yishan Zhang, Yinglun Han, Peng Su, Meng Gou, Yue Pang, Qingwei Li, Xin Liu
Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (Vav3), a Rho family GTPase, regulates multiple cell signaling pathways including those of T- and B-cell receptors in vertebrates through mediating the activities of the Rho family members. Whether the lamprey possesses Vav3 homolog and what role it plays in immune response remain unknown. Gene cloning, recombinant expression, antibody production and expression pattern analyses were performed to characterize the lamprey Vav3 in the current study. The lamprey Vav3 is closer to jawed vertebrates' Vav3 molecules (about 53% identities in general) than to Vav2 molecules of jawless and jawed vertebrates (about 51% identities in general) in sequence similarity...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937415/biomarkers-in-vasculitis
#12
Gulen Hatemi, Sinem N Esatoglu, Yusuf Yazici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biomarkers are considered to be helpful in diagnosing, monitoring, predicting treatment response, and prognosis in clinical practice and as outcomes in clinical trials. In this article, we review the recent literature on new biomarkers and the expanding use of older ones in vasculitic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis patients antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody type may be useful as a predictor of relapse and response to rituximab...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937406/tolerance-in-xenotransplantation
#13
Kazuhiko Yamada, Megan Sykes, David H Sachs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent progress in tolerance-inducing strategies across xenogeneic immunological barriers as well as the potential benefit of a tolerance strategy for islets and kidney xenotransplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Using advanced gene editing technologies, xenotransplantation from multitransgenic alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs has demonstrated marked prolongation of renal xenograft survival, ranging from days to greater than several months for life-supporting kidneys, and more than 2 years in a heterotopic nonlife-supporting cardiac xenograft model...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936707/immunoglobulin-genotypes-and-cognitive-functions-in-schizophrenia
#14
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Paul J Nietert, Reiji Yoshimura, Hikaru Hori
Exposure to neurotropic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus, has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. These viruses have evolved highly sophisticated strategies for decreasing the efficacy of the host immune response and interfering with viral clearance. Particular immunoglobulin GM (γ marker) genotypes modulate these viral immunoevasion strategies, influence antibody responsiveness to viral proteins, and are also associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia, providing an excellent rationale for determining their possible involvement in the cognitive functions in this highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder...
September 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936360/robust-antibody-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-induced-by-p-falciparum-csp-adsorbed-to-cationic-liposomal-adjuvant-caf09-confer-sterilizing-immunity-against-experimental-rodent-malaria-infection
#15
Diego A Espinosa, Dennis Christensen, Christian Muñoz, Sanjay Singh, Emily Locke, Peter Andersen, Fidel Zavala
Despite several decades of extensive research, the development of a highly efficacious malaria vaccine has yet to be accomplished. While the RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate shows the potential to prevent a substantial number of clinical malaria cases, significant improvements in protective efficacy are still needed. Multiple studies have shown that RTS,S induces protective antibody and CD4(+) T-cell responses, but limited or negligible CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective capacity of full-length recombinant P...
2017: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936207/sag4-dna-and-peptide-vaccination-provides-partial-protection-against-t-gondii-infection-in-balb-c-mice
#16
Jian Zhou, Lin Wang
Toxoplasma gondii can lead to congenital infections in human. Surface antigen protein 4 (SAG4) of T. gondii is a potential stimulator for humoral and cellular immune responses. In the present study, a DNA vaccine encoding SAG4 from T. gondii was constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice with peptide to evaluate the protective efficacy of the vaccine. The productions of IgG antibodies and cytokines (gamma interferon) from the vaccine (pSAG4/peptide) group were significantly higher than pSAG4 or peptide groups...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935938/an-engineered-bispecific-dna-encoded-igg-antibody-protects-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-pneumonia-challenge-model
#17
Ami Patel, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Ashley E Keller, Trevor R F Smith, Daniel H Park, Stephanie Ramos, Katherine Schultheis, Sarah T C Elliott, Janess Mendoza, Kate E Broderick, Megan C Wise, Jian Yan, Jingjing Jiang, Seleeke Flingai, Amir S Khan, Kar Muthumani, Laurent Humeau, Lily I Cheng, Leslie Wachter-Rosati, C Kendall Stover, Niranjan Y Sardesai, David B Weiner
The impact of broad-spectrum antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance and disruption of the beneficial microbiome compels the urgent investigation of bacteria-specific approaches such as antibody-based strategies. Among these, DNA-delivered monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs), produced by muscle cells in vivo, potentially allow the prevention or treatment of bacterial infections circumventing some of the hurdles of protein IgG delivery. Here, we optimize DNA-delivered monoclonal antibodies consisting of two potent human IgG clones, including a non-natural bispecific IgG1 candidate, targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935935/igg1-memory-b-cells-keep-the-memory-of-ige-responses
#18
Jin-Shu He, Sharrada Subramaniam, Vipin Narang, Kandhadayar Srinivasan, Sean P Saunders, Daniel Carbajo, Tsao Wen-Shan, Nur Hidayah Hamadee, Josephine Lum, Andrea Lee, Jinmiao Chen, Michael Poidinger, Francesca Zolezzi, Juan J Lafaille, Maria A Curotto de Lafaille
The unique differentiation of IgE cells suggests unconventional mechanisms of IgE memory. IgE germinal centre cells are transient, most IgE cells are plasma cells, and high affinity IgE is produced by the switching of IgG1 cells to IgE. Here we investigate the function of subsets of IgG1 memory B cells in IgE production and find that two subsets of IgG1 memory B cells, CD80(+)CD73(+) and CD80(-)CD73(-), contribute distinctively to the repertoires of high affinity pathogenic IgE and low affinity non-pathogenic IgE...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935898/pd-l1-is-an-activation-independent-marker-of-brown-adipocytes
#19
Jessica R Ingram, Michael Dougan, Mohammad Rashidian, Marko Knoll, Edmund J Keliher, Sarah Garrett, Scott Garforth, Olga S Blomberg, Camilo Espinosa, Atul Bhan, Steven C Almo, Ralph Weissleder, Harvey Lodish, Stephanie K Dougan, Hidde L Ploegh
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on a number of immune and cancer cells, where it can downregulate antitumor immune responses. Its expression has been linked to metabolic changes in these cells. Here we develop a radiolabeled camelid single-domain antibody (anti-PD-L1 VHH) to track PD-L1 expression by immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). PET-CT imaging shows a robust and specific PD-L1 signal in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We confirm expression of PD-L1 on brown adipocytes and demonstrate that signal intensity does not change in response to cold exposure or β-adrenergic activation...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935555/vaccination-with-a-dna-vaccine-encoding-toxoplasma-gondii-rop54-induces-protective-immunity-against-toxoplasmosis-in-mice
#20
Wen-Bin Yang, Dong-Hui Zhou, Yang Zou, Kai Chen, Qing Liu, Jin-Lei Wang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Guang-Hui Zhao
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan, which infects most of the warm-blooded animals, causing serious public health problems and enormous economic losses worldwide. The rhoptry effector protein 54 (ROP54) has been indicated as a virulence factor that promotes Toxoplasma infection by modulating GBP2 loading onto parasite-containing vacuoles, which can modulate some aspects of the host immune response. In order to evaluate the immuno-protective value of ROP54, we constructed a eukaryotic recombinant plasmid expressing T...
September 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
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