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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110081/isolation-and-partial-characterization-of-an-immunogenic-antigen-of-giardia-lamblia
#1
Jael Quintero, Alejandra Valdez, Brenda Samaniego, Gloria Lopez-Romero, Humberto Astiazaran-Garcia, Lucila Rascon, Linda Breci, Adriana Garibay-Escobar, Ramón Robles-Zepeda, Carlos Velazquez
Humoral and cellular immune responses play an important role during Giardia lamblia infection. Several Giardia proteins have been identified as immunogenic antigens based on their elicited humoral immune response. Poorly is known about Giardia antigens that stimulate a cellular immune response. The main purpose of this study was to isolate and partial characterize an immunogenic antigen (5G8) of G. lamblia. The 5G8 protein was isolated from G. lamblia trophozoite lysates by affinity chromatography using moAb 5G8-coupled CNBr-Sepharose...
January 18, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107991/setting-up-the-cut-off-level-of-a-sensitive-barcode-lateral-flow-assay-with-magnetic-nanoparticles
#2
Vasily G Panferov, Irina V Safenkova, Anatoly V Zherdev, Boris B Dzantiev
A barcode lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on magnetic nanoparticles with a controllable cut-off level was developed for the first time. The regulation of the cut-off levels was based on the changes in the position and concentration of three antibodies (two monoclonal and polyclonal) with different affinities (KD=4.22×10(-9), 9.67×10(-9), 1.05×10(-8) M), respectively. To obtain specific conjugates, monoclonal antibodies were covalently immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticles' surface. Potato virus X causing a reduction in the potato yield was used as a model polyvalent antigen...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104399/structural-basis-for-the-regulation-of-nuclear-import-of-epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-1-ebna1-by-phosphorylation-of-the-nuclear-localization-signal
#3
Ryohei Nakada, Hidemi Hirano, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is expressed in every EBV-positive tumor and is essential for the maintenance, replication, and transcription of the EBV genome in the nucleus of host cells. EBNA1 is a serine phosphoprotein, and it has been shown that phosphorylation of S385 in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of EBNA1 increases the binding affinity to the nuclear import adaptor importin-α1 as well as importin-α5, and stimulates nuclear import of EBNA1. To gain insights into how phosphorylation of the EBNA1 NLS regulates nuclear import, we have determined the crystal structures of two peptide complexes of importin-α1: one with S385-phosphorylated EBNA1 NLS peptide, determined at 2...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101463/development-of-a-novel-human-single-chain-antibody-against-egfrviii-antigen-by-phage-display-technology
#4
Leila Rahbarnia, Safar Farajnia, Hossein Babaei, Jafar Majidi, Bahman Akbari, Shiva Ahdi Khosroshahi
Purpose: EGFRvIII as the most common mutant variant of the epidermal growth factor receptor is resulting from deletion of exons 2-7 in the coding sequence and junction of exons 1 and 8 through a novel glycine residue. EGFRvIII is highly expressed in glioblastoma, carcinoma of the breast, ovary, and lung but not in normal cells. The aim of the present study was identification of a novel single chain antibody against EGFRvIII as a promising target for cancer therapy. Methods: In this study, a synthetic peptide corresponding to EGFRvIII protein was used for screening a naive human scFv phage library...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100678/modulation-of-naive-cd8-t-cell-response-features-by-ligand-density-affinity-and-continued-signaling-via-internalized-tcrs
#5
Renu Balyan, Rupali Gund, Chitra Ebenezer, Jasneet Kaur Khalsa, Divya Anna Verghese, Thyagarajan Krishnamurthy, Anna George, Vineeta Bal, Satyajit Rath, Ashutosh Chaudhry
T cell response magnitudes increase with increasing antigenic dosage. However, it is unclear whether ligand density only modulates the proportions of responding ligand-specific T cells or also alters responses at the single cell level. Using brief (3 h) exposure of TCR-transgenic mouse CD8 T cells in vitro to varying densities of cognate peptide-MHC ligand followed by ligand-free culture in IL-2, we found that ligand density determined the frequencies of responding cells but not the expression levels of the early activation marker molecule, CD69...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096174/anti-folate-receptor-%C3%AE-ige-but-not-igg-recruits-macrophages-to-attack-tumors-via-tnf-%C3%AE-mcp-1-signaling
#6
Debra H Josephs, Heather J Bax, Tihomir Dodev, Mirella Georgouli, Mano Nakamura, Giulia Pellizzari, Louise Saul, Panagiotis Karagiannis, Anthony Cheung, Cecilia Herraiz, Kristina M Ilieva, Isabel Correa, Matthew Fittall, Silvia Crescioli, Patrycja Gazinska, Natalie Woodman, Silvia Mele, Giulia Chiaruttini, Amy E Gilbert, Alexander Koers, Marguerite Bracher, Christopher Selkirk, Heike Lentfer, Claire Barton, Elliott Lever, Gareth Muirhead, Sophia Tsoka, Silvana Canevari, Mariangela Figini, Ana Montes, Noel Downes, David Dombrowicz, Christopher Corrigan, Andrew J Beavil, Frank O Nestle, Paul S Jones, Hannah J Gould, Victoria Sanz-Moreno, Philip J Blower, James Spicer, Sophia N Karagiannis
IgE antibodies are key mediators of anti-parasitic immune responses, but their potential for cancer treatment via antibody-directed cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been little studied. Recently, tumor antigen-specific IgEs were reported to restrict cancer cell growth by engaging high-affinity Fc receptors on monocytes and macrophages, however, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms were undefined and in vivo proof-of-concept was limited. Here, an immunocompetent rat model was designed to recapitulate the human IgE-Fcε receptor system for cancer studies...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095684/effect-of-the-protein-corona-on-antibody-antigen-binding-in-nanoparticle-sandwich-immunoassays
#7
Helena de Puig, Irene Bosch, Marc Carré-Camps, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli
We investigated the effect of the protein corona on the function of nanoparticle (NP) antibody (Ab) conjugates in dipstick sandwich immunoassays. Ab specific for Zika virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) were conjugated to gold NPs, and another anti-NS1 Ab was immobilized onto the nitrocellulose membrane. Sandwich immunoassay formation was influenced by whether the strip was run in corona forming conditions, i.e., in human serum. Strips run in buffer or pure solutions of bovine serum albumin exhibited false positives, but those run in human serum did not...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091939/immuno-pcr-technology-for-detection-of-natural-human-antibodies-against-le-c-disaccharide
#8
Artem V Maerle, Daria V Voronina, Kira L Dobrochaeva, Oxana E Galanina, Leonid P Alekseev, Nicolai V Bovin, Sergei K Zavriev, Dmitriy Yu Ryazantsev
The development of an immuno-PCR assay for quantitation of low amounts of anti-glycan human antibodies is described. The sensitivity of the assay for determination of low-affinity anti-Le(C) IgM has been found to be 4 ng/ml (~100 pg per sample), thus being two orders of magnitude higher compared to the conventional ELISA with the same antigen.
January 14, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089881/two-step-chromatographic-purification-of-glutathione-s-transferase-tagged-human-papillomavirus-type-16-e6-protein-and-its-application-for-serology
#9
Mei Ling Xu, Seung Cheol Kim, Hyoung Jin Kim, Woong Ju, Yun Hwan Kim, Hong-Jin Kim
Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 protein is an oncoprotein with a pivotal role in cervical carcinogenesis. Expression and purification of HPV E6 from Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been difficult because of its strong hydrophobicity even when expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST). There has been no protocol suggested for purifying GST-tagged HPV E6 protein with high purity so far. Herein, we provide efficient protocol for purifying GST-HPV16 E6 protein for the first time. In the current study, the GST-tagged protein was expressed in E...
January 9, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088708/germinal-centers-programmed-for-affinity-maturation-and-antibody-diversification
#10
REVIEW
Oliver Bannard, Jason G Cyster
The seminal discovery by Eisen that antibodies undergo improvements in antigen-binding affinity over the course of an immune response led to a long running search for the underlying mechanism. Germinal centers in lymphoid organs are now recognized to be critically involved in this phenomenon, known as antibody affinity maturation. As well as improving in affinity for specific epitopes, some antibody responses maintain or even increase their breadth of antigen-recognition over time. This has led to another intense line of research aimed at understanding how broadly neutralizing anti-pathogen responses are generated...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079103/erratum-antigen-affinity-controls-pre-germinal-center-b-cell-selection-by-promoting-mcl-1-induction-through-baff-receptor-signaling
#11
Felix M Wensveen, Erik Slinger, Martijn Ha van Attekum, Robert Brink, Eric Eldering
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078413/establishment-of-a-sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-specific-detection-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-bt-cry1ab-toxin-utilizing-a-monoclonal-antibody-produced-with-a-novel-hapten-designed-with-molecular-model
#12
Sa Dong, Xiao Zhang, Yuan Liu, Cunzheng Zhang, Yajing Xie, Jianfeng Zhong, Chongxin Xu, Xianjin Liu
Cry1Ab toxin is commonly expressed in genetically modified crops in order to control chewing pests. At present, the detection method with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on monoclonal antibody cannot specifically detect Cry1Ab toxin for Cry1Ab's amino acid sequence and spatial structure are highly similar to Cry1Ac toxin. In this study, based on molecular design, a novel hapten polypeptide was synthesized and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Then, through animal immunization with this antigen, a monoclonal antibody named 2C12, showing high affinity to Cry1Ab and having no cross reaction with Cry1Ac, was produced...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077698/detection-of-antigenic-variants-of-swine-subtype-h3-influenza-a-viruses-from-clinical-samples
#13
Brigitte E Martin, Andrew S Bowman, Lei Li, Jacqueline M Nolting, David R Smith, Larry A Hanson, Xiu-Feng Wan
A large population of genetically and antigenically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) are circulating among the swine population, playing an important role in influenza ecology. Swine IAVs not only cause outbreaks among swine, but they can also be transmitted to humans, causing sporadic infections and even pandemic outbreaks. Antigenic characterization of swine IAVs are key to understanding the natural history of these viruses in swine and to selecting strains for effective vaccines. However, influenza outbreaks generally spread rapidly among swine, and the conventional methods for antigenic characterization require virus propagation, a time-consuming process that can significantly reduce the effectiveness of vaccination programs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077656/hierarchical-and-redundant-roles-of-activating-fc%C3%AE-rs-in-protection-against-influenza-disease-by-m2e-specific-igg1-and-igg2a-antibodies
#14
Silvie Van den Hoecke, Katrin Ehrhardt, Annasaheb Kolpe, Karim El Bakkouri, Lei Deng, Hendrik Grootaert, Steve Schoonooghe, Anouk Smet, Mostafa Bentahir, Kenny Roose, Michael Schotsaert, Bert Schepens, Nico Callewaert, Falk Nimmerjahn, Peter Staeheli, Hartmut Hengel, Xavier Saelens
: The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 is a universal influenza A vaccine candidate that provides protection through antibody-dependent effector mechanisms. Here we compared the functional engagement of Fcγ Receptor family members by two M2e-specific monoclonal antibodies: mAb 37 (IgG1) and mAb 65 (IgG2a), which recognize a similar epitope in M2e with similar affinity. Binding of mAb 65 to influenza A virus-infected cells triggered all three activating mouse Fcγ receptors in vitro, whereas mAb 37 only activated FcγRIII...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073635/pcna-dependent-cellular-activities-tolerate-dramatic-perturbations-in-pcna-client-interactions
#15
Rosemary H C Wilson, Antonio J Biasutto, Lihao Wang, Roman Fischer, Emma L Baple, Andrew H Crosby, Erika J Mancini, Catherine M Green
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an essential cofactor for DNA replication and repair, recruiting multiple proteins to their sites of action. We examined the effects of the PCNA(S228I) mutation that causes PCNA-associated DNA repair disorder (PARD). Cells from individuals affected by PARD are sensitive to the PCNA inhibitors T3 and T2AA, showing that the S228I mutation has consequences for undamaged cells. Analysis of the binding between PCNA and PCNA-interacting proteins (PIPs) shows that the S228I change dramatically impairs the majority of these interactions, including that of Cdt1, DNMT1, PolD3(p66) and PolD4(p12)...
February 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067257/enhanced-tumor-targeting-selectivity-by-modulating-bispecific-antibody-binding-affinity-and-format-valence
#16
Yariv Mazor, Kris F Sachsenmeier, Chunning Yang, Anna Hansen, Jessica Filderman, Kathy Mulgrew, Herren Wu, William F Dall'Acqua
Bispecific antibodies are considered attractive bio-therapeutic agents owing to their ability to target two distinct disease mediators. Cross-arm avidity targeting of antigen double-positive cancer cells over single-positive normal tissue is believed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy, restrict major escape mechanisms and increase tumor-targeting selectivity, leading to reduced systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic index. However, the interplay of factors regulating target selectivity is not well understood and often overlooked when developing clinically relevant bispecific therapeutics...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067179/cd20-based-immunotherapy-of-b-cell-derived-hematologic-malignancies
#17
Dariush Shanehbandi, Jafar Majidi, Tohid Kazemi, Behzad Baradaran, Leili Aghebati-Maleki
CD20 is a surface antigen which is expressed at certain stages of B-cell differentiation. Targeting the CD20-positive B-cells with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been an effectual strategy in the treatment of hematologic malignancies such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Initial success with Rituximab (RTX) has encouraged the creation and development of more effective CD20 based therapeutics. However, treatment with conventional MAbs has not been adequate to overcome the problems such as refractory/relapsed disease...
January 9, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066900/boosting-of-post-exposure-human-t-and-b-cell-recall-responses-in-vivo-by-burkholderia-pseudomallei-related-proteins
#18
Arnone Nithichanon, Louise J Gourlay, Gregory J Bancroft, Manabu Ato, Yoshimasa Takahashi, Ganjana Lertmemongkolchai
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease with high incidence and mortality in South East Asia and Northern Australia. To date there is no protective vaccine and antibiotic treatment is prolonged and not always effective. Most people living in endemic areas have been exposed to the bacteria and have developed some immunity, which may have helped prevent disease. Here, we used a humanized mouse model (hu-PBL-SCID), reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from seropositive donors, to illustrate the potential of three known antigens (FliC, OmpA and N-PilO2) for boosting both T- and B-cell immune responses...
January 9, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062799/a-two-pronged-binding-mechanism-of-igg-to-the-neonatal-fc-receptor-controls-complex-stability-and-igg-serum-half-life
#19
Pernille Foged Jensen, Angela Schoch, Vincent Larraillet, Maximiliane Hilger, Tilman Schlothauer, Thomas Emrich, Kasper Dyrbert Rand
The success of recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) is rooted in their ability to target distinct antigens with high affinity combined with an extraordinarily long serum half-life, typically around three weeks. The pharmacokinetics of IgGs is intimately linked to the recycling mechanism of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). For long serum half-life of therapeutic IgGs, the highly pH dependent interaction with FcRn needs to be balanced to allow efficient FcRn binding and release at slightly acidic pH and physiological pH, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062646/generation-of-human-bispecific-common-light-chain-antibodies-by-combining-animal-immunization-and-yeast-display
#20
Simon Krah, Christian Schröter, Carla Eller, Laura Rhiel, Nicolas Rasche, Jan Beck, Carolin Sellmann, Ralf Günther, Lars Toleikis, Björn Hock, Harald Kolmar, Stefan Becker
Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) pave the way for novel therapeutic modes of action along with potential benefits in several clinical applications. However, their generation remains challenging due to the necessity of correct pairings of two different heavy and light chains and related manufacturability issues. We describe a generic approach for the generation of fully human IgG-like bsAbs. For this, heavy chain repertoires from immunized transgenic rats were combined with either a randomly chosen common light chain or a light chain of an existing therapeutic antibody and screened for binders against tumor-related targets CEACAM5 and CEACAM6 by yeast surface display...
January 5, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
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