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Regulatory T cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352287/ifn%C3%AE-inhibits-g-csf-induced-neutrophil-expansion-and-invasion-of-the-cns-to-prevent-viral-encephalitis
#1
Chandran Ramakrishna, Edouard M Cantin
Emergency hematopoiesis facilitates the rapid expansion of inflammatory immune cells in response to infections by pathogens, a process that must be carefully regulated to prevent potentially life threatening inflammatory responses. Here, we describe a novel regulatory role for the cytokine IFNγ that is critical for preventing fatal encephalitis after viral infection. HSV1 encephalitis (HSE) is triggered by the invasion of the brainstem by inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In mice lacking IFNγ (GKO), we observed unrestrained increases in G-CSF levels but not in GM-CSF or IL-17...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352088/an-archaeal-fluoride-responsive-riboswitch-provides-an-inducible-expression-system-for-hyperthermophiles
#2
Michael Clayton Speed, Brett W Burkhart, Jonathan W Picking, Thomas J Santangelo
Robust genetic systems for the hyperthermophilic Thermococcales have facilitated overexpression of native genes, allowed for the addition of sequences encoding secretion signals, epitope, and affinity tags to coding regions, and permitted the introduction of sequences encoding new proteins in these fast growing fermentative heterotrophs. Tightly controlled and easily manipulated systems permitting regulated gene expression are however limited for these hosts. Here we describe an alternative method for regulatory control reliant on a cis-encoded functional riboswitch in the model archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis Despite the hyperthermophilic growth temperatures, the proposed structure of the riboswitch conforms to a fluoride-responsive riboswitch encoded in many bacteria, and similarly functions to regulate a component conserved fluoride export pathway...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352001/keap1-editing-using-crispr-cas9-for-therapeutic-nrf2-activation-in-primary-human-t-lymphocytes
#3
Sanjeev Noel, Sul A Lee, Mohanraj Sadasivam, Abdel R A Hamad, Hamid Rabb
Oxidant stress modifies T lymphocyte activation and function. Previous work demonstrated that murine T cell-specific kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) deletion enhances antioxidant capacity and protects from experimental acute kidney injury. In this study, we used CRISPR technology to develop clinically translatable human T cell-specific KEAP1 deletion. Delivery of KEAP1 exon 2 specific Cas9:guide RNA in Jurkat T cells led to significant (∼70%) editing and upregulation of NRF2-regulated antioxidant genes NADPH dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1) (up to 11-fold), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) (up to 11-fold), and GCLM (up to 2-fold)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351846/dual-strategies-for-argonaute2-mediated-biogenesis-of-erythroid-mirnas-underlie-conserved-requirements-for-slicing-in-mammals
#4
David Jee, Jr-Shiuan Yang, Sun-Mi Park, D'Juan T Farmer, Jiayu Wen, Timothy Chou, Arthur Chow, Michael T McManus, Michael G Kharas, Eric C Lai
While Slicer activity of Argonaute is central to RNAi, conserved roles of slicing in endogenous regulatory biology are less clear, especially in mammals. Biogenesis of erythroid Dicer-independent mir-451 involves Ago2 catalysis, but mir-451-KO mice do not phenocopy Ago2 catalytic-dead (Ago2-CD) mice, suggesting other needs for slicing. Here, we reveal mir-486 as another dominant erythroid miRNA with atypical biogenesis. While it is Dicer dependent, it requires slicing to eliminate its star strand. Thus, in Ago2-CD conditions, miR-486-5p is functionally inactive due to duplex arrest...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350886/the-cell-biology-and-molecular-genetics-of-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-development
#5
REVIEW
Zahida Yesmin Roly, Brendan Backhouse, Andrew Cutting, Tiong Yang Tan, Andrew H Sinclair, Katie L Ayers, Andrew T Major, Craig A Smith
The Müllerian ducts are part of the embryonic urogenital system. They give rise to mature structures that serve a critical function in the transport and development of the oocyte and/or embryo. In most vertebrates, both sexes initially develop Müllerian ducts during embryogenesis, but they regress in males under the influence of testis-derived Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH). A number of regulatory factors have been shown to be essential for proper duct development, including Bmp and Wnt signaling molecules, together with homeodomain transcription factors such as PAX2 and LIM1...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349763/immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-breast-cancer
#6
April Swoboda, Rita Nanda
An effective antitumor immune response requires interaction between cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. Three key elements are required: generation of activated tumor-directed T cells, infiltration of activated T cells into the tumor microenvironment, and killing of tumor cells by activated T cells. Tumor immune evasion can occur as a result of the disruption of each of these three key T cell activities, resulting in three distinct cancer-immune phenotypes. The immune inflamed phenotype, characterized by the presence of a robust tumor immune infiltrate, suggests impaired activated T cell killing of tumor cells related to the presence of inhibitory factors...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349658/the-il-10-producing-regulatory-b-cells-b10-cells-and-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#7
Eun Bin Cho, Hye-Jin Cho, Jin Myoung Seok, Ju-Hong Min, Eun-Suk Kang, Byoung Joon Kim
B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by producing Aquaporin 4-specific autoantibodies (AQP4-ab); on the other hand, there are certain B cells that suppress immune responses by producing regulatory cytokines, such as IL-10. In this study, we investigated the presence of IL-10-producing Breg cells among lymphocyte subsets. Twenty-two seropositive NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients (29 samples) and 13 healthy controls (HCs) (14 samples) were enrolled. All NMOSD patients have received one or more immunosuppressive drugs...
January 19, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348685/overexpression-of-adhesion-molecules-and-barrier-molecules-is-associated-with-differential-infiltration-of-immune-cells-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Young Kwang Chae, Wooyoung M Choi, William H Bae, Jonathan Anker, Andrew A Davis, Sarita Agte, Wade T Iams, Marcelo Cruz, Maria Matsangou, Francis J Giles
Immunotherapy is emerging as a promising option for lung cancer treatment. Various endothelial adhesion molecules, such as integrin and selectin, as well as various cellular barrier molecules such as desmosome and tight junctions, regulate T-cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. However, little is known regarding how these molecules affect immune cells in patients with lung cancer. We demonstrated for the first time that overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecules and cellular barrier molecule genes was linked to differential infiltration of particular immune cells in non-small cell lung cancer...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348660/generation-and-characterization-of-alloantigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells-for-clinical-transplant-tolerance
#9
James M Mathew, Jessica H Voss, Scott T McEwen, Iwona Konieczna, Arjun Chakraborty, Xuemei Huang, Jie He, Lorenzo Gallon, Richard S Kornbluth, Joseph R Leventhal
Donor-specific CD4+CD127-CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (AgTregs) have the potential to induce clinical transplant tolerance; however, their expansion ex vivo remains challenging. We optimized a novel expansion protocol to stimulate donor-specific Tregs using soluble 4-trimer CD40 ligand (CD40L)-activated donor B cells that expressed mature antigen-presenting cell markers. This avoided the use of CD40L-expressing stimulator cells that might otherwise result in potential cellular contamination. Purified allogeneic "recipient" CD4+CD25+ Tregs were stimulated on days 0 and 7 with expanded "donor" B cells in the presence of IL-2, TGFβ and sirolimus (SRL)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347949/effects-of-surgery-and-anesthetic-choice-on-immunosuppression-and-cancer-recurrence
#10
REVIEW
Ryungsa Kim
BACKGROUND: The relationship between surgery and anesthetic-induced immunosuppression and cancer recurrence remains unresolved. Surgery and anesthesia stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to cause immunosuppression through several tumor-derived soluble factors. The potential impact of surgery and anesthesia on cancer recurrence was reviewed to provide guidance for cancer surgical treatment. METHODS: PubMed was searched up to December 31, 2016 using search terms such as, "anesthetic technique and cancer recurrence," "regional anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "local anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "anesthetic technique and immunosuppression," and "anesthetic technique and oncologic surgery...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346764/sgk1-governs-the-reciprocal-development-of-th17-and-regulatory-t-cells
#11
Chuan Wu, Zuojia Chen, Sheng Xiao, Theresa Thalhamer, Asaf Madi, Timothy Han, Vijay Kuchroo
A balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells is critical for immune homeostasis and tolerance. Our previous work has shown Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) is critical for the development and function of Th17 cells. Here, we show that SGK1 restrains the function of Treg cells and reciprocally regulates development of Th17/Treg balance. SGK1 deficiency leads to protection against autoimmunity and enhances self-tolerance by promoting Treg cell development and disarming Th17 cells. Treg cell-specific deletion of SGK1 results in enhanced Treg cell-suppressive function through preventing Foxo1 out of the nucleus, thereby promoting Foxp3 expression by binding to Foxp3 CNS1 region...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346656/host-responses-to-intestinal-nematodes
#12
Koubun Yasuda, Kenji Nakanishi
Helminth infection remains common in developing countries, where residents who suffer from the consequences of such infections can develop serious physical and mental disorders and often persist in the face of serious economic problems. Intestinal nematode infection induces the development of Th2-type immune responses including the B cell IgE response; additionally, this infection induces an increase in the numbers and activation of various types of effector cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, as well as the induction of goblet cell hyperplasia, antimicrobial peptide production and smooth muscle contraction, all of which contribute to expel nematodes...
January 13, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346571/natural-course-of-htlv-1-proviral-dna-levels-in-carriers-during-pregnancy
#13
Naoki Fuchi, Kiyonori Miura, Takashi Tsukiyama, Daisuke Sasaki, Kaori Ishihara, Kazuto Tsuruda, Hiroo Hasegawa, Shoko Miura, Katsumi Yanagihara, Hideaki Masuzaki
The measurement of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral DNA levels using polymerase chain reaction has been beneficial for confirming HTLV-1 infection during pregnancy. However, the influence of pregnancy on HTLV-1 infection and proviral DNA levels among pregnant women with HTLV-1 has not been clarified. We prospectively gathered blood samples from 36 pregnant women who were previously diagnosed as HTLV-1 carriers and sequentially measured their proviral DNA levels. The HTLV-1 proviral DNA levels remained in a plateau during pregnancy but were elevated after delivery...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346347/cd103-cd11b-mucosal-classical-dendritic-cells-initiate-long-term-switched-antibody-responses-to-flagellin
#14
A Flores-Langarica, K Müller Luda, E K Persson, C N Cook, S Bobat, J L Marshall, M W Dahlgren, K Hägerbrand, K M Toellner, M D Goodall, D R Withers, I R Henderson, B Johansson Lindbom, A F Cunningham, W W Agace
Antibody responses induced at mucosal and nonmucosal sites demonstrate a significant level of autonomy. Here, we demonstrate a key role for mucosal interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4)-dependent CD103+CD11b+ (DP), classical dendritic cells (cDCs) in the induction of T-dependent immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) following systemic immunization with soluble flagellin (sFliC). In contrast, IRF8-dependent CD103+CD11b- (SP) are not required for these responses...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346345/the-cytosolic-sensor-sting-is-required-for-intestinal-homeostasis-and-control-of-inflammation
#15
M C C Canesso, L Lemos, T C Neves, F M Marim, T B R Castro, É S Veloso, C P Queiroz, J Ahn, H C Santiago, F S Martins, J Alves-Silva, E Ferreira, D C Cara, A T Vieira, G N Barber, S C Oliveira, A M C Faria
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a cytosolic sensor for cyclic dinucleotides and also an adaptor molecule for intracellular DNA receptors. Although STING has important functions in the host defense against pathogens and in autoimmune diseases, its physiological relevance in intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. In this study, we show that STING-/- mice presented defective protective mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, including decreased number of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of secretory IgA, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346320/c-phycocyanin-and-phycocyanobilin-as-remyelination-therapies-for-enhancing-recovery-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-ischemic-stroke-a-preclinical-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Javier Marín-Prida, Viviana Falcón-Cama
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346274/irf4-mediates-the-oncogenic-effects-of-stat3-in-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphomas
#17
Cecilia Bandini, Aldi Pupuleku, Elisa Spaccarotella, Elisa Pellegrino, Rui Wang, Nicoletta Vitale, Carlotta Duval, Daniela Cantarella, Andrea Rinaldi, Paolo Provero, Ferdinando Di Cunto, Enzo Medico, Francesco Bertoni, Giorgio Inghirami, Roberto Piva
Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas which can be divided into anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive and ALK negative subgroups, based on ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways aberrantly activated in ALCL, the constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is shared by all ALK positive ALCL and has been detected in a subgroup of ALK negative ALCL. To discover essential mediators of STAT3 oncogenic activity that may represent feasible targets for ALCL therapies, we combined gene expression profiling analysis and RNA interference functional approaches...
January 18, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346060/a-combination-with-probiotic-complex-zinc-and-coenzyme-q10-attenuates-autoimmune-arthritis-by-regulation-of-th17-treg-balance
#18
Seon-Young Lee, Seung Hoon Lee, JooYeon Jhun, Hyeon-Beom Seo, Kyung Ah Jung, Chul Woo Yang, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Probiotic complex, zinc, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are recognized dietary supplements with an anti-inflammatory role. Although these supplementations are individually known to benefit rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is no evidence suggesting any synergic effect. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether probiotic complex, zinc, and CoQ10 attenuate the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The combination of probiotic complex, zinc, and CoQ10 reduced CIA severity by downregulating the levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum...
January 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345906/prediction-of-hot-spots-at-myeloid-cell-leukemia-1-inhibitors-interface-using-energy-estimation-and-alanine-scanning-mutagenesis
#19
Parthiban Marimuthu, Kalaimathy Singaravelu
Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that plays central role in apoptosis regulation. Also, Mcl1 has the potency to resist apoptotic cues resulting in up-regulation and cancer cell protection. A molecular probe that has the potential to specifically target Mcl1, and thereby provoke its down-regulatory activity is very essential. The aim of the current study is to probe the internal conformational dynamics of protein motions and potential binding mechanism in response to a series of picomolar range Mcl1 inhibitors using explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
January 18, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345851/the-immunosuppressive-effects-of-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-on-dendritic-cells-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#20
Pei-Pei Zhou, Juan Xu, Ming-Jia Dai, Yin-Yue Shi, Gui-Ping Wu, Yuan Fang, Xue-Bing Yan
The characteristics and functions of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been well defined in murine and human systems. However, the interaction or cross-talk between CD4+ CD25+ Tregs and dendritic cells (DCs) remains controversial. In this study, the effects of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) CD4+ CD25+ Tregs on the maturation and function of monocyte-derived DCs were examined. The results showed that CD4+ CD25+ render the DCs inefficient as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) despite prestimulation with CD40 ligand...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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