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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231624/targets-and-mechanisms-in-prevention-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-immunomodulatory-treatments
#1
REVIEW
Marianne von Euler Chelpin, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, however, there is no cure for it. Current treatments only relieve some of the symptoms, without ceasing the disease, and lose efficacy with prolonged treatment. Considerable evidence shows that persistent inflammatory responses, involving T cell infiltration and glial cell activation, are common characteristics of human patients and play a crucial role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, it is important to develop therapeutic strategies that can impede or halt the disease through the modulation of the peripheral immune system by aiming at controlling the existing neuroinflammation...
February 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231588/checkpoint-inhibition-in-head-and-neck-cancer-immune-therapeutic-options-limitations-and-beyond
#2
Bastian Höchst, Percy A Knolle
The immune system functions to defend the organism against infectious microorganisms but also against transformed cells. This key role of the immune system, in particular cancer-specific T cells, in eliminating cancer cells is compromised by various immune escape strategies employed by cancer cells and the cancer microenvironment. Here, we review the current knowledge about the immune escape mechanisms of cancer and the attempts to reconstitute cancer-specific immunity by using checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231392/from-dendritic-cells-to-b-cells-dysfunctions-during-hiv-1-infection-tfh-at-the-cross-road
#3
REVIEW
Nicolas Ruffin, Lylia Hani, Nabila Seddiki
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for B cell differentiation and the subsequent antibody responses. Their numbers and functions are altered during human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infections. In lymphoid tissues, Tfh cells are present in germinal center, where they are the main source of replicative HIV-1 and represent a major reservoir. Paradoxically, Tfh numbers are increased in chronically infected individuals. Understanding the fate of Tfh cells in the course of HIV-1 infection is essential for the design of efficient strategies toward a protective HIV vaccine or a cure...
February 23, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230720/role-of-vitamin-a-retinoic-acid-in-regulation-of-embryonic-and-adult-hematopoiesis
#4
REVIEW
Ana Cañete, Elena Cano, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, Rita Carmona
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230171/impact-of-genetic-variation-on-human-camkk2-regulation-by-ca-2-calmodulin-and-multisite-phosphorylation
#5
Matthew T O'Brien, Jonathan S Oakhill, Naomi X Y Ling, Christopher G Langendorf, Ashfaqul Hoque, Toby A Dite, Anthony R Means, Bruce E Kemp, John W Scott
The Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase-2 (CaMKK2) is a key regulator of neuronal function and whole-body energy metabolism. Elevated CaMKK2 activity is strongly associated with prostate and hepatic cancers, whereas reduced CaMKK2 activity has been linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disease in humans. Here we report the functional effects of nine rare-variant point mutations that were detected in large-scale human genetic studies and cancer tissues, all of which occur close to two regulatory phosphorylation sites and the catalytic site on human CaMKK2...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228650/haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-autoimmune-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Joost F Swart, Eveline M Delemarre, Femke van Wijk, Jaap-Jan Boelens, Jürgen Kuball, Jacob M van Laar, Nico M Wulffraat
Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment that is able to induce long-term, drug-free and symptom-free remission in several refractory autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Over 3,000 HSCT procedures for rheumatic and nonrheumatic severe autoimmune diseases have been performed worldwide. Specific conditioning regimens are currently used to eradicate the autoreactive immunological memory of patients. Although in vivo immune cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin or anti-CD52 is the norm for many regimens, ex vivo selection of CD34(+) stem cells from the graft is controversial...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228558/the-ribosomal-protein-s19-suppresses-antitumor-immune-responses-via-the-complement-c5a-receptor-1
#7
Maciej M Markiewski, Surya Kumari Vadrevu, Sharad K Sharma, Navin Kumar Chintala, Shanawaz Ghouse, Jun-Hung Cho, David P Fairlie, Yvonne Paterson, Aristotelis Astrinidis, Magdalena Karbowniczek
Relatively little is known about factors that initiate immunosuppression in tumors and act at the interface between tumor cells and host cells. In this article, we report novel immunosuppressive properties of the ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), which is upregulated in human breast and ovarian cancer cells and released from apoptotic tumor cells, whereupon it interacts with the complement C5a receptor 1 expressed on tumor infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells. This interaction promotes tumor growth by facilitating recruitment of these cells to tumors...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228556/activation-and-functional-specialization-of-regulatory-t-cells-lead-to-the-generation-of-foxp3-instability
#8
Zhongmei Zhang, Wei Zhang, Jie Guo, Qianchong Gu, Xueping Zhu, Xuyu Zhou
Accumulating evidence suggests that Foxp3(+) cells can downregulate the expression of Foxp3, but whether thymically derived regulatory T cells (tTregs; especially committed tTregs) are capable of downregulating Foxp3 expression and being reprogrammed into other T effector cells remains controversial. Using a novel tTreg lineage-tracing mouse line, we were able to label epigenetically stable Foxp3(+) cells derived from the thymus and demonstrate that mature tTregs are stable under homeostatic conditions. However, TCR engagement and sequential functional specialization of tTregs led to the generation of Foxp3 instability and reprogramming into the Th lineage...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228426/probiotics-lactobacillus-gasseri-ks-13-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-and-bifidobacterium-longum-mm-2-improve-rhinoconjunctivitis-specific-quality-of-life-in-individuals-with-seasonal-allergies-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#9
Jennifer C Dennis-Wall, Tyler Culpepper, Carmelo Nieves, Cassie C Rowe, Alyssa M Burns, Carley T Rusch, Ashton Federico, Maria Ukhanova, Sheldon Waugh, Volker Mai, Mary C Christman, Bobbi Langkamp-Henken
Background: Rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life is often reduced during seasonal allergies. The Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MRQLQ) is a validated tool used to measure quality of life in people experiencing allergies (0 = not troubled to 6 = extremely troubled). Probiotics may improve quality of life during allergy season by increasing the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and inducing tolerance.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether consuming Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and B...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228284/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infects-regulatory-b-cells-in-human-neonates-via-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1-and-promotes-lung-disease-severity
#10
Dania Zhivaki, Sébastien Lemoine, Annick Lim, Ahsen Morva, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Liliane Schandene, Nicoletta Casartelli, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Edith Dériaud, Benoit Beitz, Maryline Ripaux-Lefevre, Jordi Miatello, Brigitte Lemercier, Valerie Lorin, Delphyne Descamps, Jenna Fix, Jean-François Eléouët, Sabine Riffault, Olivier Schwartz, Fabrice Porcheray, Françoise Mascart, Hugo Mouquet, Xiaoming Zhang, Pierre Tissières, Richard Lo-Man
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and is characterized by pulmonary infiltration of B cells in fatal cases. We analyzed the B cell compartment in human newborns and identified a population of neonatal regulatory B lymphocytes (nBreg cells) that produced interleukin 10 (IL-10) in response to RSV infection. The polyreactive B cell receptor of nBreg cells interacted with RSV protein F and induced upregulation of chemokine receptor CX3CR1. CX3CR1 interacted with RSV glycoprotein G, leading to nBreg cell infection and IL-10 production that dampened T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine production...
February 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228257/t-regulatory-cells-support-plasma-cell-populations-in-the-bone-marrow
#11
Arielle Glatman Zaretsky, Christoph Konradt, Fabien Dépis, James B Wing, Radhika Goenka, Daniela Gomez Atria, Jonathan S Silver, Sunglim Cho, Amaya I Wolf, William J Quinn, Julie B Engiles, Dorothy C Brown, Daniel Beiting, Jan Erikson, David Allman, Michael P Cancro, Shimon Sakaguchi, Li-Fan Lu, Christophe O Benoist, Christopher A Hunter
Long-lived plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM) are a critical source of antibodies after infection or vaccination, but questions remain about the factors that control PCs. We found that systemic infection alters the BM, greatly reducing PCs and regulatory T (Treg) cells, a population that contributes to immune privilege in the BM. The use of intravital imaging revealed that BM Treg cells display a distinct behavior characterized by sustained co-localization with PCs and CD11c-YFP(+) cells. Gene expression profiling indicated that BM Treg cells express high levels of Treg effector molecules, and CTLA-4 deletion in these cells resulted in elevated PCs...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225866/circulating-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-predict-disease-activity-and-treatment-response-in-patients-with-immune-thrombocytopenia
#12
J Zhou, Y Zhou, J Wen, X Sun, X Zhang
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disease characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. Abnormal effector T cell activation is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of ITP. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have a strong immunosuppressive function for T cell activation and their importance in the pathophysiology and clinical treatment of ITP has been confirmed. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are other immunosuppressive cells, which can also suppress T cell activation by secreting arginase, iNOS and ROS, and are essential for Treg cells' differentiation and maturation...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225764/cynomolgus-macaques-naturally-infected-with-trypanosoma-cruzi-i-exhibit-an-overall-mixed-pro-inflammatory-modulated-cytokine-signature-characteristic-of-human-chagas-disease
#13
Danielle Marquete Vitelli-Avelar, Renato Sathler-Avelar, Armanda Moreira Mattoso-Barbosa, Nicolas Gouin, Marcelo Perdigão-de-Oliveira, Leydiane Valério-Dos-Reis, Ronaldo Peres Costa, Silvana Maria Elói-Santos, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Edward J Dick, Gene B Hubbard, Jane F VandeBerg, John L VandeBerg
BACKGROUND: Non-human primates have been shown to be useful models for Chagas disease. We previously reported that natural T. cruzi infection of cynomolgus macaques triggers clinical features and immunophenotypic changes of peripheral blood leukocytes resembling those observed in human Chagas disease. In the present study, we further characterize the cytokine-mediated microenvironment to provide supportive evidence of the utility of cynomolgus macaques as a model for drug development for human Chagas disease...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225209/association-of-the-il-10-receptor-a536g-s138g-loss-of-function-variant-with-multiple-sclerosis-in-tunisian-patients
#14
Nadia Ben Fredj, Mouna Aissi, Walid Ben Selma, Imen Mahmoud, Faten Nefzi, Mahbouba Frih-Ayed, Jalel Boukadida, Mahjoub Aouni
Interleukin-10 (IL-10), a potent anti-inflammatory T-cell cytokine, has been shown to be a regulatory cytokine that is associated with disease remission in multiple sclerosis (MS) and exerts its activity through its cognate cell surface receptor complex, IL-10 receptor 1 (IL-10R1) and IL-10R2. The purpose of this study was to investigate the IL-10R1 S138G loss-of-function polymorphism (A536G: rs3135932) for possible influence on susceptibility and outcome of MS in Tunisian patients. A total of 103 Tunisian MS patients and 160 control subjects were studied...
February 22, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224733/nk1-1-cd4-nkg2d-t-cells-suppress-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-through-production-of-tgf-%C3%AE
#15
Xingxing Qian, Chunxia Hu, Sen Han, Zhijie Lin, Weiming Xiao, Yanbing Ding, Yu Zhang, Li Qian, Xiaoqing Jia, Guoqiang Zhu, Weijuan Gong
CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells are associated with tumour, infection and autoimmune diseases. Some CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells secrete IFN-γ and TNF-α to promote inflammation, but others produce TGF-β and FasL to facilitate tumour evasion. Here, murine CD4(+) NKG2D(+) T cells were further classified into NK1.1(-) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) and NK1.1(+) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) subpopulations. The frequency of NK1.1(-) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) cells decreased in inflamed colons, whereas more NK1.1(+) CD4(+) NKG2D(+) cells infiltrated into colons of mice with DSS-induced colitis...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224721/progesterone-driven-local-regulatory-t-cell-induction-does-not-prevent-fetal-loss-in-the-cba-j%C3%A3-dba-2j-abortion-prone-model
#16
Anne Schumacher, Dominique Dauven, Ana C Zenclussen
PROBLEM: Best known for its endocrine and immunologic properties, progesterone (P4) is a pivotal player for pregnancy success. However, the immunologic actions underlying P4 protection are not completely understood. Here, we investigated whether P4 application in a murine abortion-prone combination regulates regulatory T cells (Treg) and dendritic cells (DCs) and thereby affects pregnancy outcome. METHOD OF STUDY: Progesterone or vehicle was applied to DBA/2J-mated CBA/J abortion-prone animals in early pregnancy...
March 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224680/aberrant-expressions-of-endometrial-id3-and-ctla-4-are-associated-with-unexplained-repeated-implantation-failure-and-recurrent-miscarriage
#17
Jin-Li Ding, Liang-Hui Diao, Tai-Lang Yin, Chun-Yu Huang, Biao Yin, Cong Chen, Yi Zhang, Jie Li, Yan-Xiang Cheng, Yong Zeng, Jing Yang
Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 3 (Id3) is required for tumor angiogenesis and regulatory T-cell generation. However, the involvement of Id3 in unexplained repeated implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriage (RM) remains poorly understood. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Id3, CD34, CTLA-4, and FOXP3 in the endometrium taken from the women with RIF (n=16), RM (n=16) and matched controls (n=8). The images were acquired and analyzed by the Vectra(®) automated quantitative pathology imaging system...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224362/analysis-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cell-subpopulations-in-peripheral-blood-and-tissue-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Angelika Schmidt, Cosima C Rieger, Ram Kumar Venigalla, Szabolcs Éliás, Regina Max, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Peter H Krammer, Annegret Kuhn
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical mediators of immune tolerance, yet their involvement in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is incompletely understood. We analyzed CD4(+) T cell subpopulations with Treg-related phenotypes and their association with disease activity in peripheral blood (PB) and tissues of patients with SLE. In detail, we quantified subpopulations regarding CD25, FOXP3, CD62L, CCR6, CD27, CD45RA, and CD45RO expression in PB from 31 patients with SLE divided into two disease activity groups and 32 healthy controls using flow cytometry...
February 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224210/tumor-specific-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-of-breast-cancer-patients-selectively-upregulate-the-emigration-receptor-s1p1
#19
Anchana Rathinasamy, Christoph Domschke, Yingzi Ge, Hans-Henning Böhm, Steffen Dettling, David Jansen, Felix Lasitschka, Ludmila Umansky, Markus H Gräler, Jennifer Hartmann, Christel Herold-Mende, Florian Schuetz, Philipp Beckhove
Regulatory T cells (Treg) hamper anti-tumor T-cell responses resulting in reduced survival and failure of cancer immunotherapy. Among lymphoid organs, the bone marrow (BM) is a major site of Treg residence and recirculation. However, the process governing the emigration of Treg from BM into the circulation remains elusive. We here show that breast cancer patients harbour reduced Treg frequencies in the BM as compared to healthy individuals or the blood. This was particularly the case for tumor antigen-specific Treg which were quantified by MHCII tumor peptide loaded tetramers...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223983/b-cell-homeostasis-and-functional-properties-are-altered-in-an-hypochlorous-acid-induced-murine-model-of-systemic-sclerosis
#20
Sébastien Sanges, Manel Jendoubi, Niloufar Kavian, Carine Hauspie, Silvia Speca, Jean-Charles Crave, Thomas Guerrier, Guillaume Lefèvre, Vincent Sobanski, Ariel Savina, Eric Hachulla, Pierre-Yves Hatron, Myriam Labalette, Frédéric Batteux, Sylvain Dubucquoi, David Launay
INTRODUCTION: During systemic sclerosis (SSc), peripheral B cells display alterations in subset homeostasis and functional properties and are a promising therapeutic target. However, there is only few data regarding whether these anomalies are accurately reproduced in animal models of SSc. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we assessed the B cell homeostasis modifications in an experimental model of SSc [hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced mouse], both at a phenotypic and functional level, during the course of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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