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Regulatory T cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545251/oxidative-stress-promoter-of-allergic-sensitization-to-protease-allergens
#1
REVIEW
Leonie S van Rijt, Lara Utsch, René Lutter, Ronald van Ree
Allergies arise from aberrant T helper type 2 responses to allergens. Several respiratory allergens possess proteolytic activity, which has been recognized to act as an adjuvant for the development of a Th2 response. Allergen source-derived proteases can activate the protease-activated receptor-2, have specific effects on immune cells by cleaving cell membrane-bound regulatory molecules, and can disrupt tight junctions. The protease activity can induce a non-allergen-specific inflammatory response in the airways, which will set the stage for an allergen-specific Th2 response...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544686/regulatory-t-cells-and-ctla-4-in-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#2
Shoji Tsuji, Takahisa Kimata, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Tetsuya Kitao, Jiro Kino, Chikushi Suruda, Kazunari Kaneko
The pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) remains unknown. Recently, it was postulated that suppression of regulatory T cells (Treg) leads to massive proteinuria in INS, although there is some controversy. Considering the important role of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) in Treg-mediated immune suppression, the aim of this study was therefore to clarify the involvement of Treg and CTLA-4 in the pathogenesis of INS. Fifteen patients with INS were enrolled. Their blood was sampled twice, once at onset and once at remission induced by glucocorticoid...
May 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543977/abnormal-ratio-of-cd57-cells-to-cd56-cells-in-women-with-recurrent-implantation-failure
#3
Ruiwei Jiang, Guijun Yan, Jun Xing, Zhilong Wang, Yong Liu, Hongyan Wu, Xiangshan Fan, Jianjun Zhou, Lijun Ding, Haixiang Sun
PROBLEM: To define a more precise parameter for a better understanding of natural killer (NK) cells and its relation with regulatory T cells (Tregs) in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). METHOD OF STUDY: The percentages of CD56+ cells, CD57+ cells and Foxp3+ cells in the endometrium and blood from 23 normal controls and 32 women with RIF were measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Women with RIF had significantly increased ratio of CD57+ cells to CD56+ cells in both the endometrium (P<...
May 20, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543637/evidence-of-the-immunomodulatory-role-of-dual-pi3k-mtor-inhibitors-in-graft-survival
#4
Valery Vilchez, Lilia Turcios, D Allan Butterfield, Mihail I Mitov, Cristin L Coquillard, Anthony J Brandon, Virgilius Cornea, Roberto Gedaly, Francesc Marti
The PI3K/mTOR signaling cascade is fundamental in T-cell activation and fate decisions. We showed the distinct regulation of PI3K/mTOR in regulatory and effector T-cells and proposed the potential therapeutic benefit of targeting this pathway to control the balance between effector and regulatory T-cell activities. Substantial adverse effects in long-term clinical usage of Rapamycin suggest the use of alternative treatments in restraining effector T-cell function in transplant patients. We hypothesize that dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors may represent an immunosuppressant alternative...
May 24, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542921/cd40-mediated-signaling-influences-trafficking-tcr-expression-and-t-cell-pathogenesis-in-the-nod-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#5
Gisela M Vaitaitis, Dan M Waid, Martin G Yussman, David H Wagner
CD40 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The mechanism of action however is undetermined, likely because CD40 expression has been grossly underestimated. CD40 is expressed on numerous cell types that now include T cells and pancreatic β cells. CD40(+) CD4(+) cells (TH40) prove highly pathogenic in NOD mice and in translational human T1D studies. We generated BDC2.5.CD40(-/-) and re-derived NOD.CD154(-/-) mice to better understand CD40 mechanism of action. Fully functional CD40 expression is required not only for T1D development but for insulitis...
May 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542882/butyrate-and-retinoic-acid-synergistically-imprint-mucosal-like-dendritic-cell-development-from-bone-marrow-cells
#6
Yetao Qiang, Jie Xu, Cheng Yan, Huimin Jin, Tengfei Xiao, Nannan Yan, Liping Zhou, Huazhang An, Xiaoming Zhou, Qixiang Shao, Sheng Xia
Accumulating data show that the phenotypes and functions of distinctive mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) in the gut are regulated by retinoic acid (RA). Unfortunately, the exact role of butyrate in RA mediated mucosal DC differentiation has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Mucosal like dendritic cell differentiation was completed in vitro by culturing bone marrow cells with growth factors (GM-CSF/IL-4), RA and/or butyrate. The phenotypes, cytokine secretion, immune functions and levels of retinal dehydrogenase of different DCs were detected using qPCR, ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542701/two-separate-effects-contribute-to-regulatory-t-cell-defect-in-sle-patients-and-their-unaffected-relatives
#7
Nuno Costa, Oriana Marques, Sandra I Godinho, Cláudia Carvalho, Barbara Leal, Ana M Figueiredo, Carlos Vasconcelos, António Marinho, Maria F Moraes-Fontes, António Gomes da Costa, Cristina Ponte, Raquel Campanilho-Marques, Telma Cóias, Ana R Martins, João F Viana, Margarida Lima, Berta Martins, Constantin Fesel
FOXP3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are functionally deficient in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), characterized by reduced surface CD25 (the IL-2 receptor alpha chain). Low-dose IL-2 therapy is a promising current approach to correct this defect. To elucidate the origins of the SLE Treg phenotype, we studied its role through developmentally defined Treg subsets in 45 SLE patients, 103 SLE-unaffected first-degree relatives and 61 unrelated healthy control subjects, and genetic association with the CD25-encoding IL2RA locus...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542586/antigen-delivery-to-dendritic-cells-shapes-human-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-memory-responses-to-staphylococcus-aureus
#8
Julia Uebele, Christoph Stein, Minh-Thu Nguyen, Anja Schneider, Franziska Kleinert, Olga Tichá, Gabriele Bierbaum, Friedrich Götz, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
Intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus favors bacterial spread and chronic infections. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell memory against staphylococcal antigens. Notably, the latter could provide a missing link in our understanding of immune control of intracellular S. aureus. The analyses showed that pulsing of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) with native staphylococcal protein antigens induced release of Th2-associated cytokines and mediators linked to T regulatory cell development (G-CSF, IL-2 and IL-10) from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, thus revealing a state of tolerance predominantly arising from preformed memory T cells...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542128/hmg-coa-reductase-promotes-protein-prenylation-and-therefore-is-indispensible-for-t-cell-survival
#9
Sonja M Lacher, Julia Bruttger, Bettina Kalt, Jean Berthelet, Krishnaraj Rajalingam, Simone Wörtge, Ari Waisman
Statins are a well-established family of drugs that lower cholesterol levels via the competitive inhibition of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). In addition, the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins on T cells make them attractive as therapeutic drugs in T-cell-driven autoimmune disorders. Since statins do not exclusively target HMGCR and thus might have varying effects on different cell types, we generated a new mouse strain allowing for the tissue-specific deletion of HMGCR...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541302/the-long-noncoding-rna-lnc-egfr-stimulates-t-regulatory-cells-differentiation-thus-promoting-hepatocellular-carcinoma-immune-evasion
#10
Runqiu Jiang, Junwei Tang, Yun Chen, Lei Deng, Jie Ji, Yu Xie, Ke Wang, Wei Jia, Wen-Ming Chu, Beicheng Sun
Long noncoding RNAs play a pivotal role in T-helper cell development but little is known about their roles in Treg differentiation and functions during the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we show that lnc-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) upregulation in Tregs correlates positively with the tumour size and expression of EGFR/Foxp3, but negatively with IFN-γ expression in patients and xenografted mouse models. Lnc-EGFR stimulates Treg differentiation, suppresses CTL activity and promotes HCC growth in an EGFR-dependent manner...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541089/decreased-frequency-of-peripheral-blood-cd8-cd25-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-correlates-with-il-33-levels-in-pre-eclampsia
#11
Jianxiu Yu, Lei Qian, Fenghui Wu, Ming Li, Wei Chen, Hongyou Wang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role of CD8(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)regulatory T (Treg) cells in pre-eclampsia (PE). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 46 patients with PE and 24 normotensive women within the third trimester of gestation. We analyzed the percentages of CD8(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells in peripheral blood using flow cytometry and the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A, IL-10, TGF-β1, IL-1β, and IL-33 by Luminex 200. RESULTS: We found that patients with PE had lower percentages of CD8(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells than normotensive pregnant women...
May 25, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540653/il-2-and-il-15-dependent-thymic-development-of-foxp3-expressing-regulatory-t-lymphocytes
#12
REVIEW
Cécile Apert, Paola Romagnoli, Joost P M van Meerwijk
Immunosuppressive regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 play a vital role in the maintenance of tolerance of the immune-system to self and innocuous non-self. Most Treg that are critical for the maintenance of tolerance to self, develop as an independent T-cell lineage from common T cell precursors in the thymus. In this organ, their differentiation requires signals from the T cell receptor for antigen, from co-stimulatory molecules, as well as from cytokine-receptors. Here we focus on the cytokines implicated in thymic development of Treg, with a particular emphasis on the roles of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15...
May 24, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540499/cell-based-therapies-with-t-regulatory-cells
#13
REVIEW
Mateusz Gliwiński, Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Piotr Trzonkowski
CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) are immunodominant suppressors in the immune system. Tregs use various mechanisms to control immune responses. Preclinical data from animal models have confirmed the huge therapeutic potential of Tregs in many immune-mediated diseases. Hence, these cells are now on the road to translation to cell therapy in the clinic as the first clinical trials are accomplished. To date, clinical research has involved mainly hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, solid organ transplantations, and autoimmunity...
May 24, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539707/effector-and-regulatory-t-cell-trafficking-in-corneal-allograft-rejection
#14
REVIEW
Afsaneh Amouzegar, Sunil K Chauhan
Corneal transplantation is among the most prevalent and successful forms of solid tissue transplantation in humans. Failure of corneal allograft is mainly due to immune-mediated destruction of the graft, a complex and highly coordinated process that involves elaborate interactions between cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The migration of immune cells to regional lymphoid tissues and to the site of graft plays a central role in the immunopathogenesis of graft rejection. Intricate interactions between adhesion molecules and their counter receptors on immune cells in conjunction with tissue-specific chemokines guide the trafficking of these cells to the draining lymph nodes and ultimately to the site of graft...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539588/cooperation-of-oncolytic-herpes-virotherapy-and-pd-1-blockade-in-murine-rhabdomyosarcoma-models
#15
Chun-Yu Chen, Pin-Yi Wang, Brian Hutzen, Les Sprague, Hayley M Swain, Julia K Love, Joseph R Stanek, Louis Boon, Joe Conner, Timothy P Cripe
Oncolytic virotherapy is an effective immunotherapeutic approach for cancer treatment via a multistep process including direct tumor cell lysis, induction of cytotoxic or apoptosis-sensitizing cytokines and promotion of antitumor T cell responses. Solid tumors limit the effectiveness of immunotherapeutics in diverse ways such as secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines and expression of immune inhibitory ligands to inhibit antitumor T cell function. Blocking programmed cell death protein (PD)-1 signaling, which mediates T cell suppression via engagement of its inhibitory ligands, PD-L1 or PD-L2, is of particular interest due to recent successes in many types of cancer...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539551/suppression-of-gpi-induced-arthritis-by-oral-administration-of-transgenic-rice-seeds-expressing-altered-peptide-ligands
#16
Tomoya Hirota, Hiroto Tsuboi, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Hiromitsu Asashima, Masaru Ohta, Yuhya Wakasa, Isao Matsumoto, Fumio Takaiwa, Takayuki Sumida
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of transgenic rice seeds expressing the altered peptide ligand (APL) of human glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase (hGPI325-339) in mice model of GPI induced arthritis (GIA). METHODS: We generated transgenic rice expressing APL12 which was analog peptide of hGPI325-339. The transgenic rice seeds were orally administered prophylactically before the induction of GIA. The severity of arthritis and titers of serum anti-GPI antibodies were evaluated...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539453/epigenetic-metabolite-acetate-inhibits-class-i-ii-histone-deacetylases-promotes-histone-acetylation-and-increases-hiv-1-integration-in-cd4-t-cells
#17
Jean-François Bolduc, Laurent Hany, Corinne Barat, Michel Ouellet, Michel J Tremblay
In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4(+) T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4(+) T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with an increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration in the genome of CD4(+) T cells...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539431/selective-induction-of-homeostatic-th17-cells-in-the-murine-intestine-by-cholera-toxin-interacting-with-the-microbiota
#18
Qing Zhao, Stacey N Harbour, Raivo Kolde, Isabel J Latorre, Hein M Tun, Trenton R Schoeb, Henrietta Turner, James J Moon, Ehsan Khafipour, Ramnik J Xavier, Casey T Weaver, Charles O Elson
Th17 cells play a role as an inflammation mediator in a variety of autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, and thus are widely considered to be pathogenic. However, Th17 cells are present in the normal intestine and show a homeostatic phenotype; that is, they participate in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis rather than inducing inflammation. We observed an enlarged Th17 population in the small intestine of C57BL/6.IgA(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice, which was further amplified with cholera toxin (CT) immunization without causing intestinal inflammation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539428/cutting-edge-dual-tcr%C3%AE-expression-poses-an-autoimmune-hazard-by-limiting-regulatory-t-cell-generation
#19
Nathaniel J Schuldt, Jennifer L Auger, Justin A Spanier, Tijana Martinov, Elise R Breed, Brian T Fife, Kristin A Hogquist, Bryce A Binstadt
Despite accounting for 10-30% of the T cell population in mice and humans, the role of dual TCR-expressing T cells in immunity remains poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that dual TCR T cells pose an autoimmune hazard by allowing self-reactive TCRs to escape thymic selection. We revisited this hypothesis using the NOD murine model of type 1 diabetes. We bred NOD mice hemizygous at both TCRα and β (TCRα(+/-) β(+/-)) loci, rendering them incapable of producing dual TCR T cells. We found that the lack of dual TCRα expression skewed the insulin-specific thymocyte population toward greater regulatory T (Treg) cell commitment, resulting in a more tolerogenic Treg to conventional T cell ratio and protection from diabetes...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539427/tlr-induced-murine-dendritic-cell-dc-activation-requires-dc-intrinsic-complement
#20
Joong-Hyuk Sheen, Michael G Strainic, Jinbo Liu, Weijia Zhang, Zhengzi Yi, M Edward Medof, Peter S Heeger
Induction of proinflammatory T cell immunity is augmented by innate dendritic cell (DC) maturation commonly initiated by TLR signaling. We demonstrate that ligation of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 induces murine DC production of complement components and local production of the anaphylatoxin C5a. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo analyses show that TLR-induced DC maturation, as assessed by surface phenotype, expression profiling by gene array, and functional ability to stimulate T cell responses, requires autocrine C3a receptor and C5a receptor (C3ar1/C5ar1) signaling...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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