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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776424/impaired-cd8-t-cell-antiviral-immunity-following-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Diana M Norden, John R Bethea, Jiu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts essential neuroimmune communication, leading to severe immune depression. Previous studies confirmed immune dysfunction in mice with chronic SCI and following high thoracic level injury where sympathetic innervation of the spleen is disrupted. Here, we induced a mid-thoracic injury where integrity of the sympathetic response is maintained and investigated the antiviral T cell response to influenza virus after acute SCI. METHODS: One week following a contusion SCI at thoracic level T9, mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762692/overarching-immunodominance-patterns-and-substantial-diversity-in-specificity-and-functionality-in-the-circulating-human-influenza-a-and-b-cd4-t-cell-repertoire
#2
Katherine A Richards, John J Treanor, Jennifer L Nayak, Andrea J Sant
There is limited information on the antigen specificity and functional potential of the influenza-specific CD4 T cell repertoire in humans. Here, ELISPOT assays were used to examine circulating CD4 T cell influenza specificities directly ex vivo in healthy adults.  Our studies revealed CD4 T cell reactivity to multiple influenza proteins, including hemagglutinins, NA, M1 and NP. Unexpectedly, the immunodominance hierarchies and functional potential of cells reactive toward influenza A were distinct from influenza B...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758333/hepatitis-b-virus-specific-t-cell-responses-after-stopping-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-in-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b
#3
Franziska Rinker, Christine L Zimmer, Christoph Höner Zu Siederdissen, Michael P Manns, Anke R M Kraft, Heiner Wedemeyer, Niklas K Björkström, Markus Cornberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) leads to HBV DNA suppression in most patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but HBsAg loss rates are low. Upon NA discontinuation, HBV DNA can return rapidly with ensuing ALT flares and induction of cytokines. Several studies reported higher HBsAg loss rates after stopping therapy, but at present, it is unclear if cell-mediated immune responses are altered after treatment discontinuation. The aim of this study was to characterise T cell responses during the early phase of virological relapse following discontinuation of NA therapy in HBeAg-negative patients...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754771/epstein-barr-virus-specific-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-for-treatment-of-epstein-barr-virus-related-malignant-lymphoma
#4
Lisa-Marie Pfeffermann, Verena Pfirrmann, Sabine Huenecke, Melanie Bremm, Halvard Bonig, Hans-Michael Kvasnicka, Thomas Klingebiel, Peter Bader, Eva Rettinger
BACKGROUND: Prolonged immunosuppression or delayed T-cell recovery may favor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which can lead to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and high-grade malignant B-cell lymphoma. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells with dual specific anti-tumor and virus-specific cellular immunity may be applied in this context. METHODS: CIK cells with EBV-specificity were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), expanded in the presence of interferon-γ, anti-CD3, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15 and were pulsed twice with EBV consensus peptide pool...
May 10, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753360/prediction-of-health-utility-scores-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-using-the-chronic-liver-disease-questionnaire-hepatitis-c-version-cldq-hcv
#5
Maria Stepanova, Issah Younossi, Andrei Racila, Zobair M Younossi
BACKGROUND: Preference-based health utilities are used in economic analyses of disease burden and health care interventions. When specifically designed instruments cannot be applied, mapping algorithms for non-preference-based instruments can be used for prediction of health utility scores. OBJECTIVES: To develop a mapping algorithm for the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire-Hepatitis C Version (CLDQ-HCV), the hepatitis C virus-specific quality-of-life instrument...
May 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753156/antiviral-t-cells-for-adenovirus-in-the-pre-transplant-period-a-bridge-therapy-for-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#6
Holly K Miller, Patrick J Hanley, Haili Lang, Christopher A Lazarski, Elizabeth A Chorvinsky, Sarah McCormack, Lauren Roesch, Shuroug Albihani, Marcus Dean, Fahmida Hoq, Roberta H Adams, Catherine Bollard, Michael D Keller
Viral infections can be life-threatening in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and other forms of profound primary immunodeficiency disorders both before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific T-cells (VST) has been utilized in many patients in the setting of HSCT, but has very rarely been attempted for treatment of viral infections before HSCT. Here we describe the use of VSTs in an infant with RAG1 SCID who had developed disseminated adenovirus which failed to improve on cidofovir...
May 9, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752943/distinct-notch-signaling-expression-patterns-between-nucleoside-and-nucleotide-analogues-treatment-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#7
Zijing Wang, Kazunori Kawaguchi, Masao Honda, Yoshio Sakai, Tatsuya Yamashita, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Shuichi Kaneko
Nucleos(t)ide analogues therapies are currently approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which effectively suppress HBV replication and correlate with the anti-HBV-specific immune response. Notch signaling serves pleiotropic roles in the immune system that also contribute to virus-specific immunity. In this study, we assessed Notch signal-related gene expression after administrating nucleoside or nucleotide analogues to HBV-replicating cells and clinical liver tissues. We found distinct Notch signaling expression patterns under nucleos(t)ide analogues therapies, with high expression for nucleotide analogues (adefovir pivoxil or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) and low expression for nucleoside analogues (lamivudine or entecavir) in the presence of HBV infection...
May 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751200/biosensor-based-selective-detection-of-zika-virus-specific-antibodies-in-infected-individuals
#8
Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Ana R Cardoso, Luis C S Ferreira, M Goreti F Sales, Martin F Bachmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) recently emerged as a global threat subsequent to its global spread because it induces microencephaly and other brain damages in infants born to infected mothers. Epidemiological monitoring of infection has been hampered by the absence of reliable serological tests capable to distinguish between ZIKV and other Flavivirus infections, in particular Dengue virus (DENV). As both viruses are transmitted by the same mosquito-species, their distributions largely overlap and reliable serological distinction between the viruses is essential...
May 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750672/infusion-of-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-for-the-treatment-of-viral-infections-in-hematopoetic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#9
Katherine A Baugh, Ifigeneia Tzannou, Ann M Leen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has proven curative for a range of malignant and nonmalignant disorders. However, the clinical success of this therapy is marred by the morbidity associated with viral infections, which are frequent (cytomegalovirus 15.6-28%, adenovirus 3-21%, BK virus 18.5-20.7%) post-transplant. These infections occur as a consequence of transplant conditioning regimens designed to eliminate not only malignant cells but also host immune cells that might interfere with stem cell engraftment...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743075/clinical-grade-generation-of-peptide-stimulated-cmv-ebv-specific-t-cells-from-g-csf-mobilized-stem-cell-grafts
#10
Regina Gary, Michael Aigner, Stephanie Moi, Stefanie Schaffer, Anja Gottmann, Stefanie Maas, Robert Zimmermann, Jürgen Zingsem, Julian Strobel, Andreas Mackensen, Josef Mautner, Andreas Moosmann, Armin Gerbitz
BACKGROUND: A major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aSCT) is the reactivation of herpesviruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Both viruses cause significant mortality and compromise quality of life after aSCT. Preventive transfer of virus-specific T cells can suppress reactivation by re-establishing functional antiviral immune responses in immunocompromised hosts. METHODS: We have developed a good manufacturing practice protocol to generate CMV/EBV-peptide-stimulated T cells from leukapheresis products of G-CSF mobilized and non-mobilized donors...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738825/the-fifth-influenza-a-h7n9-epidemic-a-family-cluster-of-infection-in-suzhou-city-of-china-2016
#11
Jiajia Wang, Nan Su, Zefeng Dong, Cheng Liu, Pengwei Cui, Jian-An Huang, Cheng Chen, Yehan Zhu, Liling Chen
OBJECTIVE: Influenza A(H7N9) virus is known for its high pathogenicity in human. A family cluster of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection was identified in Suzhou, China. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of human-to-human transmission of the virus and examine the virologic features of this family cluster. METHODS: The clinical and epidemiologic data of two patients in the family cluster of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection were collected. Viral RNA in samples derived from the two patients, their close contacts, and the environments with likely influenza A(H7N9) virus transmission were tested by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735483/inability-to-detect-cross-reactive-memory-t-cells-challenges-the-frequency-of-heterologous-immunity-among-common-viruses
#12
Louise C Rowntree, Thi H O Nguyen, Hanim Halim, Anthony W Purcell, Jamie Rossjohn, Stephanie Gras, Tom C Kotsimbos, Nicole A Mifsud
Human memory T cells that cross-react with epitopes from unrelated viruses can potentially modulate immune responses to subsequent infections by a phenomenon termed heterologous immunity. However, it is unclear whether similarities in structure rather than sequence underpin heterologous T cell cross-reactivity. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of heterologous immunity involving immunodominant epitopes derived from common viruses restricted to high-frequency HLA allotypes (HLA-A*02:01, -B*07:02, and -B*08:01)...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734366/induction-of-otud1-by-rna-viruses-potently-inhibits-innate-immune-responses-by-promoting-degradation-of-the-mavs-traf3-traf6-signalosome
#13
Liting Zhang, Jin Liu, Liping Qian, Qian Feng, Xiaofang Wang, Yukang Yuan, Yibo Zuo, Qiao Cheng, Ying Miao, Tingting Guo, Xiaofeng Zheng, Hui Zheng
During RNA virus infection, the adaptor protein MAVS recruits TRAF3 and TRAF6 to form a signalosome, which is critical to induce the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. While activation of the MAVS/TRAF3/TRAF6 signalosome is well studied, the negative regulation of the signalosome remains largely unknown. Here we report that RNA viruses specifically promote the deubiquitinase OTUD1 expression by NF-κB-dependent mechanisms at the early stage of viral infection. Furthermore, OTUD1 upregulates protein levels of intracellular Smurf1 by removing Smurf1 ubiquitination...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734023/influenza-vaccines-tailor-made-or-one-fits-all
#14
REVIEW
Giulietta Saletti, Thomas Gerlach, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Currently used inactivated influenza vaccines aim at the induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies directed to the variable head domain of the viral hemagglutinin. Although these vaccines are effective against antigenically matching virus strains, they offer little protection against antigenically distinct drift variants or potentially pandemic viruses of alternative subtypes. In the last decades, the threat of novel influenza pandemics has sparked research efforts to develop vaccines that induce more broadly protective immunity...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723594/a-single-exercise-bout-augments-adenovirus-specific-t-cell-mobilization-and-function
#15
Hawley E Kunz, Guillaume Spielmann, Nadia H Agha, Daniel P O'Connor, Catherine M Bollard, Richard J Simpson
Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T-cells (VSTs) effectively treats viral infections following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), but logistical difficulties have limited widespread availability of VSTs as a post-transplant therapeutic. A single exercise bout mobilizes VSTs specific for latent herpesviruses (i.e. CMV and EBV) to peripheral blood and augments their ex vivo expansion. We investigated whether exercise exerts similar effects on T-cells specific for a NON-latent virus such as adenovirus, which is a major contributor to infection-related morbidity and mortality after alloHSCT...
April 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713918/high-seroprevalence-for-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-ruminants-in-the-absence-of-reported-human-cases-in-many-regions-of-bulgaria
#16
Iva Christova, Elitsa Panayotova, Martin H Groschup, Iva Trifonova, Simona Tchakarova, Miriam Andrada Sas
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne zoonotic disease in humans caused by CCHF virus. It has been observed in Bulgaria since 1952 and over the years more than 1600 cases have been reported in the country. Close contact with viraemic livestock was shown as one of the main causes of the infection. Detection of CCHF virus specific antibodies in livestock can be used as an indicator for virus circulation and risk assessment. CCHF seroprevalence was investigated in 843 cattle, 88 goats and 130 sheep, originating from all 28 districts of Bulgaria...
April 30, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712633/how-i-treat-t-cell-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-disease
#17
Catherine M Bollard, Jeffrey I Cohen
T cell chronic active EBV is a rare disease in which EBV is present predominantly in T cells which infiltrate the tissues; patients have high levels of EBV in the blood. If untreated, patients often develop liver failure, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, coronary artery aneurysms, EBV infiltrating T cells impairing organ function, or T cell lymphomas refractory to treatment. At present, hematopoietic stem transplantation is the only curative therapy, and it is critical to make a proper diagnosis and initiate transplantation before the disease progresses to an irreversible stage...
April 30, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710792/epigenetic-modulation-of-cd8%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-function-in-lentivirus-infections-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Mukta Nag, Kristina De Paris, Jonathan E Fogle
CD8⁺ T cells are critical for controlling viremia during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These cells produce cytolytic factors and antiviral cytokines that eliminate virally- infected cells. During the chronic phase of HIV infection, CD8⁺ T cells progressively lose their proliferative capacity and antiviral functions. These dysfunctional cells are unable to clear the productively infected and reactivated cells, representing a roadblock in HIV cure. Therefore, mechanisms to understand CD8⁺ T cell dysfunction and strategies to boost CD8⁺ T cell function need to be investigated...
April 28, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709563/characterization-and-structure-activity-relationship-analysis-of-a-class-of-antiviral-compounds-that-directly-bind-dengue-virus-capsid-protein-and-are-incorporated-into-virions
#19
Jessica L Smith, Kayla Sheridan, Christopher J Parkins, Lisa Frueh, Adriana L Jemison, Kathleya Strode, Geoffrey Dow, Aaron Nilsen, Alec J Hirsch
Dengue viruses (DENV) are endemic pathogens of tropical and subtropical regions and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a partially effective vaccine is in use in several countries in which DENV are endemic, no antiviral therapeutics are approved for combating DENV-associated disease. Herein, we report the characterization of novel small molecule inhibitors of DENV replication, VGTI-A3 and VGTI-A3-03, as well as structure-activity relationship analysis of the molecules using a panel of chemical analogs...
April 27, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709026/immunophenotypic-characterization-of-csf-b-cells-in-virus-associated-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#20
Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Shila Azodi, Bryan R Smith, Bridgette Jeanne Billioux, Ashley Vellucci, Nyater Ngouth, Yuetsu Tanaka, Joan Ohayon, Irene Cortese, Avindra Nath, Steven Jacobson
Intrathecal antibody synthesis is a well-documented phenomenon in infectious neurological diseases as well as in demyelinating diseases, but little is known about the role of B cells in the central nervous systems. We examined B cell and T cell immunophenotypes in CSF of patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) compared to healthy normal donors and subjects with the other chronic virus infection and/or neuroinflammatory diseases including HIV infection, multiple sclerosis (MS) and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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