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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301559/synergy-between-the-classical-and-alternative-pathways-of-complement-is-essential-for-conferring-effective-protection-against-the-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-2009-virus-infection
#1
Ajitanuj Rattan, Shailesh D Pawar, Renuka Nawadkar, Neeraja Kulkarni, Girdhari Lal, Jayati Mullick, Arvind Sahu
The pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide thus necessitating the need to understand the host factors that influence its control. Previously, the complement system has been shown to provide protection during the seasonal influenza virus infection, however, the role of individual complement pathways is not yet clear. Here, we have dissected the role of intact complement as well as of its individual activation pathways during the pandemic influenza virus infection using mouse strains deficient in various complement components...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300196/recombinant-mycobacterium-smegmatis-with-a-pmyong2-vector-expressing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-i-gag-can-induce-enhanced-virus-specific-immune-responses
#2
Byoung-Jun Kim, Jeong-Ryeol Gong, Ga-Na Kim, Bo-Ram Kim, So-Young Lee, Yoon-Hoh Kook, Bum-Joon Kim
Recently, we have developed a novel Mycobacterium-Escherichia coli shuttle vector system using pMyong2, which can provide an enhanced expression of heterologous genes in recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (rSmeg). To investigate the usefulness of rSmeg using pMyong2 in vaccine application, we vaccinated M. smegmatis with pMyong2 system expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1) Gag p24 antigen (rSmeg-pMyong2-p24) into mice and examined its cellular and humoral immune responses against HIV gag protein...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299681/screen-printed-all-polymer-aptasensor-for-impedance-based-detection-of-influenza-a-virus
#3
Julie Kirkegaard, Noemi Rozlosnik
In this chapter a detailed description of the fabrication and testing of an aptasensor for influenza A virus detection is given. The sensor chip is an all-polymer chip fabricated with screen-printed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. Chip substrates are made by CO2 laser cutting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets. Influenza A virus specific aptamers are immobilized onto the electrodes by UV cross-linking. Impedance based measurements at a single frequency, measured over time, are used to detect the virus in a buffer solution...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298605/cxcr5-dependent-entry-of-cd8-t-cells-into-rhesus-macaque-b-cell-follicles-achieved-through-t-cell-engineering
#4
Victor I Ayala, Claire Deleage, Matthew T Trivett, Sumiti Jain, Lori V Coren, Matthew W Breed, Joshua A Kramer, James A Thomas, Jacob D Estes, Jeffrey D Lifson, David E Ott
Follicular helper CD4 T cells, TFH, residing in B-cell follicles within secondary lymphoid tissues, are readily infected by AIDS viruses and are a major source of persistent virus despite relative control of viral replication. This persistence is due at least in part to a relative exclusion of effective antiviral CD8 T cells from B-cell follicles. To determine whether CD8 T cells could be engineered to enter B-cell follicles, we genetically modified unselected CD8 T cells to express CXCR5, the chemokine receptor implicated in cellular entry into B-cell follicles...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295453/low-hepatitis-b-virus-specific-t-cell-response-in-males-correlates-with-high-regulatory-t-cell-numbers-in-murine-models
#5
Anna D Kosinska, Leila Pishraft-Sabet, Weimin Wu, Zhong Fang, Marzena Lenart, Jieliang Chen, Kirsten K Dietze, Cong Wang, Thekla Kemper, Yong Lin, Shiou-Hwei Yeh, Jia Liu, Ulf Dittmer, Zhenghong Yuan, Michael Roggendorf, Mengji Lu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection shows significant gender-related differences in pathogenesis, disease progression, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The gender-associated differences in HBV replication and viral protein levels may be associated with distinct HBV-specific immune responses in the host. In the present study, we examined the impact of gender on HBV-specific immune responses in two different mouse models representing transient and persistent hepadnaviral infection; hydrodynamic injection (HI) with the HBV genome mimicked acute HBV infection, whereas the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination was studied in the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) transgenic (Tg) mouse model...
March 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287115/efficient-control-of-chronic-lcmv-infection-by-a-cd4-t-cell-epitope-based-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccination-in-a-murine-model
#6
Ran He, Xinxin Yang, Cheng Liu, Xiangyu Chen, Lin Wang, Minglu Xiao, Jianqiang Ye, Yuzhang Wu, Lilin Ye
CD4(+) T cells are essential for sustaining CD8(+) T cell responses during a chronic infection. The adoptive transfer of virus-specific CD4(+) T cells has been shown to efficiently rescue exhausted CD8(+) T cells. However, the question of whether endogenous virus-specific CD4(+) T cell responses can be enhanced by certain vaccination strategies and subsequently reinvigorate exhausted CD8(+) T cells remains unexplored. In this study, we developed a CD4(+) T cell epitope-based heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy and examined the efficacy of this strategy using a mouse model of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection...
March 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286143/detection-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-specific-igg-antibodies-in-ruminants-residing-in-central-and-western-macedonia-greece
#7
Isolde Schuster, Serafeim C Chaintoutis, Chrysostomos I Dovas, Martin H Groschup, Marc Mertens
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus which causes lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Although, several reports regarding CCHFV antibody prevalence in humans exist in Greece, information about the current distribution is limited. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle and sheep in Macedonia-Greece. The samplings were performed during spring 2013, in 5 regional units of Central Macedonia (Chalkidiki, Imathia, Kilkis, Pella and Thessaloniki) and in the 4 regional units of Western Macedonia (Grevena, Florina, Kastoria and Kozani)...
March 3, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285982/evaluation-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccines-for-h1n1pdm09-and-type-b-viruses-based-on-a-replication-incompetent-pb2-ko-virus
#8
Hiroki Ui, Seiya Yamayoshi, Ryuta Uraki, Maki Kiso, Kohei Oishi, Shin Murakami, Shigetaka Mimori, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Vaccination is the first line of protection against influenza virus infection in humans. Although inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines are available, each vaccine has drawbacks in terms of immunogenicity and safety. To overcome these issues, our group has developed a replication-incompetent PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) influenza virus that replicates only in PB2-expressing cells. Here we generated PB2-KO viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments from H1N1pdm09 or type B viruses and tested their vaccine potential...
March 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279563/a-small-molecule-irf3-agonist-functions-as-an-influenza-vaccine-adjuvant-by-modulating-the-antiviral-immune-response
#9
Peter Probst, John B Grigg, Myra Wang, Ernesto Muñoz, Yueh-Ming Loo, Renee C Ireton, Michael Gale, Shawn P Iadonato, Kristin M Bedard
Vaccine adjuvants are essential to drive a protective immune response in cases where vaccine antigens are weakly immunogenic, where vaccine antigen is limited, or where an increase in potency is needed for a specific population, such as the elderly. To discover novel vaccine adjuvants, we used a high-throughput screen (HTS) designed to identify small-molecule agonists of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway leading to interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation. RLRs are a group of cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors that are essential for the recognition of viral nucleic acids during infection...
March 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261185/metagenomic-sequencing-for-surveillance-of-food-and-waterborne-viral-diseases
#10
David F Nieuwenhuijse, Marion P G Koopmans
A plethora of viruses can be transmitted by the food- and waterborne route. However, their recognition is challenging because of the variety of viruses, heterogeneity of symptoms, the lack of awareness of clinicians, and limited surveillance efforts. Classical food- and waterborne viral disease outbreaks are mainly caused by caliciviruses, but the source of the virus is often not known and the foodborne mode of transmission is difficult to discriminate from human-to-human transmission. Atypical food- and waterborne viral disease can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A and hepatitis E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256402/viral-epitope-specific-t-cell-responses-induced-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients
#11
Loren D Fast, Sasmita Mishra, Kittichai Promrat, Phyllis T Losikoff, Stephen H Gregory
BACKGROUND: Approximate 180 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Historically, vaccination has been the most effective strategy for controlling infections of such major health concern. Therapeutic vaccine strategies for HCV, however, have demonstrated negligible success. AIM: Demonstrate the ability of highly-conserved viral epitopes to overcome the immune dysfunction often associated with chronic HCV infections. METHODS: T cells from five chronic, HCV-infected patients were immunophenotyped by flow cytometry...
February 14, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249841/b-cell-responses-to-intramuscular-administration-of-a-bivalent-virus-like-particle-human-norovirus-vaccine
#12
Sasirekha Ramani, Frederick H Neill, Jennifer Ferreira, John J Treanor, Sharon E Frey, David J Topham, Robert R Goodwin, Astrid Borkowski, Frank Baehner, Paul M Mendelman, Mary K Estes, Robert L Atmar
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. A virus-like particle (VLP) candidate vaccine induces the production of serum histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking antibodies, the first identified correlate of protection from HuNoV gastroenteritis. Recently, virus-specific IgG memory B-cells were identified as another potential correlate of protection against HuNoV gastroenteritis. We assessed B-cell responses following intramuscular administration of a bivalent (GI.1/GII...
March 1, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246125/zmpste24-defends-against-influenza-and-other-pathogenic-viruses
#13
Bishi Fu, Lingyan Wang, Shitao Li, Martin E Dorf
Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is a transmembrane metalloprotease whose catalytic activity is critical for processing lamin A on the inner nuclear membrane and clearing clogged translocons on the endoplasmic reticulum. We now report ZMPSTE24 is a virus-specific effector that restricts enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A, Zika, Ebola, Sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, cowpox, and vaccinia, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. ZMPSTE24-mediated antiviral action is independent of protease activity...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240600/the-antiviral-restriction-factor-ifn-induced-transmembrane-protein-3-prevents-cytokine-driven-cmv-pathogenesis
#14
Maria A Stacey, Simon Clare, Mathew Clement, Morgan Marsden, Juneid Abdul-Karim, Leanne Kane, Katherine Harcourt, Cordelia Brandt, Ceri A Fielding, Sarah E Smith, Rachael S Wash, Silvia Gimeno Brias, Gabrielle Stack, George Notley, Emma L Cambridge, Christopher Isherwood, Anneliese O Speak, Zoë Johnson, Walter Ferlin, Simon A Jones, Paul Kellam, Ian R Humphreys
The antiviral restriction factor IFN-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits cell entry of a number of viruses, and genetic diversity within IFITM3 determines susceptibility to viral disease in humans. Here, we used the murine CMV (MCMV) model of infection to determine that IFITM3 limits herpesvirus-associated pathogenesis without directly preventing virus replication. Instead, IFITM3 promoted antiviral cellular immunity through the restriction of virus-induced lymphopenia, apoptosis-independent NK cell death, and loss of T cells...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237728/recognition-of-viral-and-self-antigens-by-th1-and-th1-th17-central-memory-cells-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-reveals-distinct-roles-in-immune-surveillance-and-relapses
#15
Moira Paroni, Virginia Maltese, Marco De Simone, Valeria Ranzani, Paola Larghi, Chiara Fenoglio, Anna M Pietroboni, Milena A De Riz, Maria C Crosti, Stefano Maglie, Monica Moro, Flavio Caprioli, Riccardo Rossi, Grazisa Rossetti, Daniela Galimberti, Massimiliano Pagani, Elio Scarpini, Sergio Abrignani, Jens Geginat
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is caused by autoreactive T cells and associated with viral infections. However, the phenotype of pathogenic T cells in peripheral blood remains to be defined, and how viruses promote MS is debated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and characterize potentially pathogenic autoreactive T cells, as well as protective antiviral T cells, in patients with MS...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230645/clinical-scale-rapid-autologous-bk-virus-specific-t-cell-line-generation-from-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-active-viremia-for-adoptive-immunotherapy
#16
Caroline Lamarche, Julie Orio, Victoria Georges-Tobar, Thomas Pincez, Mathieu Goupil, Amina Dahmani, Cedric Carli C, Ann Brasey, Lambert Busque, Jean-Sébastien Delisle
BACKGROUND: Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) following BK virus reactivation in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) can compromise graft survival. Lowering immunosuppression is the only established approach to prevent or treat PVAN but nonspecifically increasing host immune competence also augments rejection risk. Ex vivo T cell stimulation/expansion offers the possibility to generate BK-specific T cell lines for adoptive immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a clinical scale protocol to generate BK-specific T cell lines from viremic KTR...
February 23, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228595/hepatitis-c-virus-specific-t-cell-receptor-mrna-engineered-human-t-cells-impact-of-antigen-specificity-on-functional-properties
#17
Anangi Balasiddaiah, Haleh Davanian, Soo Aleman, Anna Pasetto, Lars Frelin, Matti Sällberg, Volker Lohmann, Sarene Koh, Antonio Bertoletti, Margaret Chen
Therapy with genetically modified autologous T cells has shown great promise in cancer therapy. For an efficient control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, cytotoxic T cells (CTL) are pivotal but persistence of activated T cells may lead to liver toxicity. Here, anti-HCV T cell receptors (TCRs) recognising the HCV non-structural (NS) NS3 or NS5 viral peptide target were examined by mRNA transfection of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) derived from healthy donors as well as chronically infected HCV patients...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222215/epstein-barr-virus-specific-adoptive-immunotherapy-for-recurrent-metastatic-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#18
Julian Huang, Mark Fogg, Lori J Wirth, Heather Daley, Jerome Ritz, Marshall R Posner, Fred C Wang, Jochen H Lorch
BACKGROUND: Early-stage and intermediate stage nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) generally carry a good prognosis, but for patients with recurrent, metastatic disease, options are limited. In the current study, the authors present a phase 1/2 study to evaluate the efficacy of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-stimulated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (EBV-CTL) immunotherapy in this patient population. METHODS: Screening for patients with active, recurrent, metastatic EBV-associated NPC began in February 2007, and the study was closed to accrual in January 2012...
February 21, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210631/immunogenicity-and-cross-protection-in-mice-afforded-by-pandemic-h1n1-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-containing-wild-type-nucleoprotein
#19
Andrey Rekstin, Irina Isakova-Sivak, Galina Petukhova, Daniil Korenkov, Igor Losev, Tatiana Smolonogina, Tatiana Tretiak, Svetlana Donina, Svetlana Shcherbik, Tatiana Bousse, Larisa Rudenko
Since conserved viral proteins of influenza virus, such as nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 protein, are the main targets for virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), we hypothesized that introduction of the NP gene of wild-type virus into the genome of vaccine reassortants could lead to better immunogenicity and afford better protection. This paper describes in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies of two new reassortants of pandemic H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidates. One had the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/South Africa/3626/2013 H1N1 wild-type virus on the A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus backbone (6 : 2 formulation) while the second had the HA, NA, and NP genes of the wild-type virus on the same backbone (5 : 3 formulation)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207487/antibody-mediated-immune-exclusion-of-hiv
#20
Ruth M Ruprecht, Samir K Lakhashe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although approximately 90% of all HIV transmissions in humans occur through mucosal contact, the induction of mucosal anti-HIV immune responses has remained understudied. Here we summarize data demonstrating the powerful protection that is achievable at mucosal frontlines through virus-specific mucosal IgA alone or combined with IgG. RECENT FINDINGS: Passive immunization with different monoclonal antibody subclasses but identical epitope specificity (the conserved V3-loop crown of HIV gp120) has revealed that the dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) form with its open hinge can prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition in rhesus macaques at a higher rate than dIgA2...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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