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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722019/sustained-accumulation-of-antigen-presenting-cells-after-infection-promotes-local-t-cell-immunity
#1
Nicholas Collins, Katharina Hochheiser, Francis R Carbone, Thomas Gebhardt
Antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages are critical for T cell-mediated immunity. While it is established that memory T cells accumulate and persist in peripheral tissues after the resolution of infection, whether this is also the case for APC remains unclear. Here, we report that CCR2-dependent cells infiltrate skin during acute infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and subsequently give rise to localized populations of dendritic cells and macrophages. These APC are found at elevated numbers at sites of resolved infection or inflammation compared to unaffected regions of skin...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721503/salinity-drives-the-virioplankton-abundance-but-not-production-in-tropical-coastal-lagoons
#2
Pedro C Junger, André M Amado, Rodolfo Paranhos, Anderson S Cabral, Saulo M S Jacques, Vinicius F Farjalla
Viruses are the most abundant components of microbial food webs and play important ecological and biogeochemical roles in aquatic ecosystems. Virioplankton is regulated by several environmental factors, such as salinity, turbidity, and humic substances. However, most of the studies aimed to investigate virioplankton regulation were conducted in temperate systems combining a limited range of environmental variables. In this study, virus abundance and production were determined and their relation to bacterial and limnological variables was assessed in 20 neighboring shallow tropical coastal lagoons that present wide environmental gradients of turbidity (2...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719504/severe-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-caused-by-human-bocavirus-1-in-an-infant
#3
Vesa Eskola, Man Xu, Maria Söderlund-Venermo
We report a case of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) bronchiolitis that led to life-threatening respiratory failure in a 9-month-old boy with no other pathogens detected. The virus-specific diagnosis was confirmed with the detection of HBoV1 DNA in respiratory samples and both DNA and immunoglobulins M and G to HBoV1 in serum samples.
July 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718002/infectious-pathogens-may-trigger-specific-allo-hla-reactivity-via-multiple-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Lloyd D'Orsogna, Heleen van den Heuvel, Cees van Kooten, Sebastiaan Heidt, Frans H J Claas
Transplant recipients can be sensitized against allo-HLA antigens by previous transplantation, blood transfusion, or pregnancy. While there is growing awareness that multiple components of the immune system can act as effectors of the alloresponse, the role of infectious pathogen exposure in triggering sensitization and allograft rejection has remained a matter of much debate. Here, we describe that exposure to pathogens may enhance the immune response to allogeneic HLA antigens via different pathways. The potential role of allo-HLA cross-reactivity of virus-specific memory T cells, activation of innate immunity leading to a more efficient induction of the adaptive alloimmune response by antigen-presenting cells, and bystander activation of existing memory B cell activation will be discussed in this review...
July 17, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714979/translation-is-actively-regulated-during-the-differentiation-of-cd8-effector-t-cells
#5
Koichi Araki, Masahiro Morita, Annelise G Bederman, Bogumila T Konieczny, Haydn T Kissick, Nahum Sonenberg, Rafi Ahmed
Translation is a critical process in protein synthesis, but translational regulation in antigen-specific T cells in vivo has not been well defined. Here we have characterized the translatome of virus-specific CD8(+) effector T cells (Teff cells) during acute infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Antigen-specific T cells exerted dynamic translational control of gene expression that correlated with cell proliferation and stimulation via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). The translation of mRNAs that encode translation machinery, including ribosomal proteins, was upregulated during the T cell clonal-expansion phase, followed by inhibition of the translation of those transcripts when the CD8(+) Teff cells stopped dividing just before the contraction phase...
July 17, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713857/a-new-clade-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-from-australian-anopheles-mosquitoes-displays-species-specific-host-restriction
#6
Agathe M G Colmant, Jody Hobson-Peters, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Weng Kong Chow, Cheryl A Johansen, Jelke Fros, Peter Simmonds, Daniel Watterson, Chris Cazier, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari, Benjamin L Schulz, Nigel Beebe, Laura J Vet, Thisun B H Piyasena, Hong-Duyen Nguyen, Ross T Barnard, Roy A Hall
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses found worldwide and are responsible for significant human and veterinary diseases, including dengue, Zika, and West Nile fever. Some flaviviruses are insect specific and replicate only in mosquitoes. We report a genetically divergent group of insect-specific flaviviruses from Anopheles mosquitoes that do not replicate in arthropod cell lines or heterologous Anopheles species, exhibiting unprecedented specialization for their host species. Determination of the complete sequences of the RNA genomes of three of these viruses, Karumba virus (KRBV), Haslams Creek virus, and Mac Peak virus (McPV), that are found in high prevalence in some Anopheles mosquito populations and detection of virus-specific proteins, replicative double-stranded RNA, and small interfering RNA responses in the host mosquito species provided strong evidence of a functional replicating virus in the mosquito midgut...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705903/an-immunocompetent-patient-with-a-recurrence-free-ebv-positive-plasmacytoma-possesses-robust-epstein-barr-virus-specific-t-cell-responses
#7
Bithi Chatterjee, Laura Sahli, Obinna Chijioke, Philip Went, Christian Munz, Andreas Trojan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701399/selective-expression-of-ccr10-and-cxcr3-by-circulating-human-hsv-specific-cd8-t-cells
#8
Michael T Hensel, Tao Peng, Anqi Cheng, Stephen C De Rosa, Anna Wald, Kerry J Laing, Lichen Jing, Lichun Dong, Amalia S Magaret, David M Koelle
Herpes simplex virus type (HSV) infection is restricted to epithelial cells and neurons and is controlled by CD8 T-cells. These cells both traffic to epithelial sites of recurrent lytic infection and to ganglia, and persist at the dermal-epidermal junction for up to 12 weeks after lesion resolution. We previously showed that cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA), a functional E-selectin ligand (ESL), is selectively expressed on circulating HSV-2-specific CD8 T-cells. CLA/ESL mediates adhesion of T-cells to inflamed vascular endothelium...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691663/quantitative-trait-loci-in-pepper-control-the-effective-population-size-of-two-rna-viruses-at-inoculation
#9
Lucie Tamisier, Elsa Rousseau, Sebastien Barraillé, Ghislaine Nemouchi, Marion Szadkowski, Ludovic Mailleret, Frederic Grognard, Frederic Fabre, Benoit Moury, Alain Palloix
Infection of plants by viruses is a complex process involving several steps: inoculation into plant cells, replication in inoculated cells and plant colonization. The success of the different steps depends, in part, on the viral effective population size (Ne), defined as the number of individuals passing their genes to the next generation. During infection, the virus population will undergo bottlenecks, leading to drastic reductions in Ne and, potentially, to the loss of the fittest variants. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand how plants affect Ne...
July 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686617/dengue-virus-specific-igy-provides-protection-following-lethal-dengue-virus-challenge-and-is-neutralizing-in-the-absence-of-inducing-antibody-dependent-enhancement
#10
Ashley L Fink, Katherine L Williams, Eva Harris, Travis D Alvine, Thomas Henderson, James Schiltz, Matthew L Nilles, David S Bradley
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are severe disease manifestations that can occur following sequential infection with different dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4). At present, there are no licensed therapies to treat DENV-induced disease. DHF and DSS are thought to be mediated by serotype cross-reactive antibodies that facilitate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) by binding to viral antigens and then Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on target myeloid cells. Using genetically engineered DENV-specific antibodies, it has been shown that the interaction between the Fc portion of serotype cross-reactive antibodies and FcγR is required to induce ADE...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686568/comparing-viral-metagenomic-extraction-methods
#11
Jeanette Klenner, Claudia Kohl, Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski, Andreas Nitsche
A crucial step in the molecular detection of viruses in clinical specimens is the efficient extraction of viral nucleic acids. The total yield of viral nucleic acid from a clinical specimen is dependent on the specimen's volume, the initial virus concentration and the effectiveness provided by the extraction method. Recent Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based diagnostic approaches (i.e. metagenomics) provide a molecular 'open view' into the sample, as they theoretically generate sequence reads of any nucleic acid present in a specimen in a statistically representative manner...
July 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685417/the-lymph-node-in-hiv-pathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Yiannis Dimopoulos, Eirini Moysi, Constantinos Petrovas
Lymph nodes play a central role in the development of adaptive immunity against pathogens and particularly the generation of antigen-specific B cell responses in specialized areas called germinal centers (GCs). Lymph node (LN) pathology was recognized as an important consequence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Investigation into the structural and functional alterations induced by HIV and Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has further cemented the central role that lymphoid tissue plays in HIV/SIV pathogenesis...
July 7, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679986/virus-specific-cytotoxic-t-cells-in-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-infection
#13
Haruna Shibayama, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Erika Onozawa, Akiho Tsuzura, Osamu Miura, Takatoshi Koyama, Ayako Arai
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a disease characterized by clonally proliferating and activated EBV-infected T or NK cells accompanied by chronic inflammation and T- or NK-cell neoplasms. However, the mechanism for developing CAEBV has not been clarified to date. Because the decreased number or inactivation of EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) resulted in the development of EBV-positive B-cell neoplasms, we investigated the number of CTLs in CAEBV patients using the tetrameric complexes of HLA-restricted EBV-specific peptides...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674537/increased-il-15-production-and-accumulation-of-highly-differentiated-cd8-effector-memory-t-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-of-persons-with-cytomegalovirus
#14
Luca Pangrazzi, Erin Naismith, Andreas Meryk, Michael Keller, Brigitte Jenewein, Klemens Trieb, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been described as a contributor to immunosenescence, thus exacerbating age-related diseases. In persons with latent CMV infection, the CD8(+) T cell compartment is irreversibly changed, leading to the accumulation of highly differentiated virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in the peripheral blood. The bone marrow (BM) has been shown to play a major role in the long-term survival of antigen-experienced T cells. Effector CD8(+) T cells are preferentially maintained by the cytokine IL-15, the expression of which increases in old age...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671533/identification-of-immediate-early-gene-products-of-bovine-herpes-virus-1-bhv-1-as-dominant-antigens-recognized-by-cd8-t-cells-in-immune-cattle
#15
Jane Hart, Niall D MacHugh, Tara Sheldrake, Morten Nielsen, W Ivan Morrison
In common with other herpes viruses, bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) induces strong virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses. However, there is a paucity of information on the antigenic specificity of the responding T-cells. The development of a system to generate virus-specific CD8 T-cell lines from BHV-1-immune cattle, employing Theileria-transformed cell lines for antigen presentation, has enabled us to address this issue. Use of this system allowed the study to screen for CD8 T-cell antigens that are efficiently presented on the surface of virus-infected cells...
July 3, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659925/immune-checkpoint-function-of-cd85j-in-cd8-t-cell-differentiation-and-aging
#16
Claire E Gustafson, Qian Qi, Jessica Hutter-Saunders, Sheena Gupta, Rohit Jadhav, Evan Newell, Holden Maecker, Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
Aging is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection and a failure to control latent viruses thought to be driven, at least in part, by alterations in CD8 T cell function. The aging T cell repertoire is characterized by an accumulation of effector CD8 T cells, many of which express the negative regulatory receptor CD85j. To define the biological significance of CD85j expression on CD8 T cells and to address the question whether presence of CD85j in older individuals is beneficial or detrimental for immune function, we examined the specific attributes of CD8 T cells expressing CD85j as well as the functional role of CD85j in antigen-specific CD8 T cell responses during immune aging...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650973/interferon-signaling-in-peromyscus-leucopus-confers-a-potent-and-specific-restriction-to-vector-borne-flaviviruses
#17
Adaeze O Izuogu, Kristin L McNally, Stephen E Harris, Brian H Youseff, John B Presloid, Christopher Burlak, Jason Munshi-South, Sonja M Best, R Travis Taylor
Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs), including Powassan virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus cause encephalitis or hemorrhagic fevers in humans with case-fatality rates ranging from 1-30%. Despite severe disease in humans, TBFV infection of natural rodent hosts has little noticeable effect. Currently, the basis for resistance to disease is not known. We hypothesize that the coevolution of flaviviruses with their respective hosts has shaped the evolution of potent antiviral factors that suppress virus replication and protect the host from lethal infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650258/helper-t-cell-responses-to-respiratory-viruses-in-the-lung-development-virus-suppression-and-pathogenesis
#18
Kosuke Miyauchi
The lung is an important line of defense that is exposed to respiratory infectious pathogens, including viruses. Lung epithelial cells and/or alveolar macrophages are initially targeted by respiratory viruses. Once respiratory viruses invade the cells of the lung, innate immunity is activated to inhibit viral replication. Innate immune signaling also activates virus-specific adaptive immune responses. The helper T cells play pivotal roles in the humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. Helper T cells are categorized into several distinct subsets (e...
July 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643847/ncr1-deficiency-diminishes-the-generation-of-protective-murine-cytomegalovirus-antibodies-by-limiting-follicular-helper-t-cell-maturation
#19
Antonija Miletic, Maja Lenartic, Branka Popovic, Ilija Brizic, Tihana Trsan, Karmela Miklic, Ofer Mandelboim, Astrid Krmpotic, Stipan Jonjic
NKp46/NCR1 is an activating NK-cell receptor implicated in the control of various viral and bacterial infections. Recent findings also suggest that it plays a role in shaping the adaptive immune response to pathogens. Using NCR1-deficient (NCR1(gfp/gfp) ) mice we provide evidence for the role of NCR1 in antibody response to mouse cytomegalovirus infection (MCMV). The absence of NCR1 resulted in impaired maturation, function and NK-cell migration to regional lymph nodes. In addition, CD4(+) T-cell activation and follicular helper T-cell (Tfh) generation were reduced, leading to inferior germinal center (GC) B-cell maturation...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642758/time-and-antigen-stimulation-history-influence-memory-cd8-t-cell-bystander-responses
#20
Matthew D Martin, Qiang Shan, Hai-Hui Xue, Vladimir P Badovinac
Memory CD8 T cells can be activated and induced to produce cytokines and increase stores of cytolytic proteins not only in response to cognate antigen (Ag) but also in response to inflammatory cytokines (bystander responses). Importantly, bystander memory CD8 T cell functions have been shown to be dependent upon memory CD8 T cell fitness, since exhausted CD8 T cells have diminished capacity to respond to inflammatory cues. While it is known that memory CD8 T cell functional abilities, including ability to produce cytokines in response to cognate Ag, change with time after initial Ag encounter and upon multiple Ag stimulations (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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