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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210631/immunogenicity-and-cross-protection-in-mice-afforded-by-pandemic-h1n1-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-containing-wild-type-nucleoprotein
#1
Andrey Rekstin, Irina Isakova-Sivak, Galina Petukhova, Daniil Korenkov, Igor Losev, Tatiana Smolonogina, Tatiana Tretiak, Svetlana Donina, Svetlana Shcherbik, Tatiana Bousse, Larisa Rudenko
Since conserved viral proteins of influenza virus, such as nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 protein, are the main targets for virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), we hypothesized that introduction of the NP gene of wild-type virus into the genome of vaccine reassortants could lead to better immunogenicity and afford better protection. This paper describes in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies of two new reassortants of pandemic H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidates. One had the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/South Africa/3626/2013 H1N1 wild-type virus on the A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus backbone (6 : 2 formulation) while the second had the HA, NA, and NP genes of the wild-type virus on the same backbone (5 : 3 formulation)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207487/antibody-mediated-immune-exclusion-of-hiv
#2
Ruth M Ruprecht, Samir K Lakhashe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although approximately 90% of all HIV transmissions in humans occur through mucosal contact, the induction of mucosal anti-HIV immune responses has remained understudied. Here we summarize data demonstrating the powerful protection that is achievable at mucosal frontlines through virus-specific mucosal IgA alone or combined with IgG. RECENT FINDINGS: Passive immunization with different monoclonal antibody subclasses but identical epitope specificity (the conserved V3-loop crown of HIV gp120) has revealed that the dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) form with its open hinge can prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition in rhesus macaques at a higher rate than dIgA2...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202614/virus-specific-cd8-t-cells-infiltrate-melanoma-lesions-and-retain-function-independently-of-pd-1-expression
#3
Dan A Erkes, Corinne J Smith, Nicole A Wilski, Sofia Caldeira-Dantas, Toktam Mohgbeli, Christopher M Snyder
It is well known that CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are correlated with positive prognoses in cancer patients and are used to determine the efficacy of immune therapies. Although it is generally assumed that CD8(+) TILs will be tumor-associated Ag (TAA) specific, it is unknown whether CD8(+) T cells with specificity for common pathogens also infiltrate tumors. If so, the presence of these T cells could alter the interpretation of prognostic and diagnostic TIL assays. We compared TAA-specific and virus-specific CD8(+) T cells in the same tumors using murine CMV, a herpesvirus that causes a persistent/latent infection, and vaccinia virus, a poxvirus that is cleared by the host...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198446/a-mutation-identified-in-neonatal-microcephaly-destabilizes-zika-virus-ns1-assembly-in-vitro
#4
Deping Wang, Cheng Chen, Shengnan Liu, Han Zhou, Kailin Yang, Qi Zhao, Xiaoyun Ji, Chen Chen, Wei Xie, Zefang Wang, Li-Zhi Mi, Haitao Yang
An unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection had spread to South and Central America. ZIKV infection was recently confirmed by CDC (the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to cause neonatal microcephaly, which posed a significant public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to fight ZIKV infection. ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plays an essential role in viral replication and immune evasion. We determined the crystal structure of ZIKV NS1172-352, which forms a head-to-head, symmetric dimer with a unique 14-stranded β-ladder conserved among flaviviruses...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187750/study-on-age-dependent-pre-existing-2009-pandemic-influenza-virus-t-and-b-cell-responses-from-chinese-population
#5
Jin Lv, Zhen-Yong Ren, Ying-Ying Zhang, Yun-E Liu, Jun Gao, Kun Yao, Dan Feng, Zhen-Yuan Li, Xin Feng, Yun-Xi Liu, Na Jia
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (H1N1pdm) affected thousands of people in Mexico and the United States, and spread rapidly throughout the world from April 2009 to July 2010. To explore the age-specific prevalence of seroprotection against H1N1pdm infection, we estimated pre-existing humoral and cellular immunities of residents in Northern China against H1N1pdm and seasonal H1N1 virus in an age-dependent manner. METHODS: Anonymous serum samples were collected from 1425 to 1434 adult healthy individuals before and after the pandemic outbreak, and then grouped by birth year 1913-1990...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183713/vaccination-targeting-native-receptors-to-enhance-the-function-and-proliferation-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-modified-t-cells
#6
Miyuki Tanaka, Haruko Tashiro, Bilal Omer, Natasha Lapteva, Jun Ando, Minhtran Ngo, Birju Mehta, Gianpietro Dotti, Paul R Kinchington, Ann M Leen, Claudia Rossig, Cliona M Rooney
PURPOSE: The multiple mechanisms used by solid tumors to suppress tumor-specific immune responses are a major barrier to the success of adoptively-transferred tumor-specific T-cells. Since viruses induce potent innate and adaptive immune responses, we hypothesized that the immunogenicity of viruses could be harnessed for the treatment of solid tumors if virus-specific T-cells (VSTs) were modified with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). We tested this hypothesis using VZV-specific T-cells (VZVSTs) expressing a CAR for GD2, a disialoganglioside expressed on neuroblastoma and certain other tumors, since the live-attenuated VZV vaccine could be used for in vivo stimulation...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178907/investigation-of-agid-and-two-commercial-elisas-for-the-detection-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-specific-antibodies-in-sheep-serum
#7
Caitlin A Evans, Sasha R Lanyon, Michael P Reichel
Effective control and the eventual eradication of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from cattle populations depend on the accurate identification of infected animals. Although typically a disease agent of cattle, BVDV is known to infect a wide variety of nonbovine species, including sheep. However, validation of serologic tests in these nonbovine species, particularly sheep, is lacking. We analyzed 99 sheep sera (57 samples from Pestivirus-naive sheep, and 42 samples from BVDV-inoculated sheep) in order to investigate 3 serologic tests: the agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and 2 commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detection of BVDV antibodies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169075/microarray-profile-of-the-humoral-immune-response-to-influenza-vaccination-in-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-chemotherapy
#8
M L Wumkes, A M T van der Velden, E de Bruin, A Meerveld-Eggink, M P G Koopmans, G F Rimmelzwaan, G T Rijkers, D H Biesma
BACKGROUND: Patients treated with chemotherapy have an impaired response to influenza virus vaccination compared to healthy controls. Little is known about the broadness of the antibody response in these patients. METHODS: Breast cancer patients on FEC (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy regimens were vaccinated with influenza virus vaccine. Sera were obtained before and three weeks after vaccination. In addition to the determination of virus-specific antibody titres by hemagglutination inhibition assay, the broadness of the response was assessed by the use of a protein microarray and baseline titres were compared with an age-matched reference group...
February 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168175/preparation-and-immunogenicity-of-influenza-virus-like-particles-using-nitrocellulose-membrane-filtration
#9
Young Chan Park, Jae Min Song
PURPOSE: Nitrocellulose membrane-based filtration system (NCFS) is widely used for protein concentration. In this study, we applied NCFS for production of virus-like particle (VLP) as a vaccine candidate and evaluated yield property and immunogenicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Influenza VLPs were generated by baculovirus-insect cell protein expression system. NCFS and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation were used for purification of VLP. Immunogenicity of VLP was evaluated by animal experiment...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166243/development-of-a-gexp-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-the-simultaneous-detection-and-differentiation-of-six-cattle-viruses
#10
Qing Fan, Zhixun Xie, Zhiqin Xie, Xianwen Deng, Liji Xie, Li Huang, Sisi Luo, Jiaoling Huang, Yanfang Zhang, Tingting Zeng, Sheng Wang, Jiabo Liu, Yaoshan Pang
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), Bluetongue virus (BTV), Vesicular stomatitis Virus (VSV), Bovine viral diarrheal (BVDV), Bovine rotavirus (BRV), and Bovine herpesvirus 1 (IBRV) are common cattle infectious viruses that cause a great economic loss every year in many parts of the world. A rapid and high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyzer-based multiplex PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of these six cattle viruses. Six pairs of chimeric primers consisting of both the gene-specific primer and a universal primer were designed and used for amplification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164489/multiplex-pcr-for-the-detection-of-10-viruses-causing-encephalitis-encephalopathy-and-its-application-to-clinical-samples-collected-from-japanese-children-with-suspected-viral
#11
Ngan T K Pham, Hiroshi Ushijima, Aksara Thongprachum, Quang D Trinh, Pattara Khamrin, Chikako Arakawa, Wakako Ishii, Shoko Okitsu, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Satoshi Hayakawa
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis is a serious neurological condition having a high mortality rate and affecting both children and adults. This study aimed to develop a multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous screening of clinical samples for the presence of the 10 viruses presently considered as the major viral causes of acute encephalitis/ encephalopathy in Asia. METHODS: Using previously published primers that have been widely used to screen for herpes virus-6, influenza A virus, human parechovirus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, group A rotavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, and dengue virus in clinical samples, a single-tube multiplex PCR assay was developed and was tested for its sensitivity and specificity...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148838/fingolimod-treatment-abrogates-chikungunya-virus-induced-arthralgia
#12
Teck-Hui Teo, Yi-Hao Chan, Wendy W L Lee, Fok-Moon Lum, Siti Naqiah Amrun, Zhisheng Her, Ravisankar Rajarethinam, Andres Merits, Olaf Rötzschke, Laurent Rénia, Lisa F P Ng
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is one of the many rheumatic arthropod-borne alphaviruses responsible for debilitating joint inflammation in humans. Despite the severity in many endemic regions, clinically approved intervention targeting the virus remains unavailable. CD4(+) T cells have been shown to mediate CHIKV-induced joint inflammation in mice. We demonstrate here that transfer of splenic CD4(+) T cells from virus-infected C57BL/6 mice into virus-infected T cell receptor-deficient (TCR(-/-)) mice recapitulated severe joint pathology including inflammation, vascular leakages, subcutaneous edema, and skeletal muscle necrosis...
February 1, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146579/selective-expansion-of-high-functional-avidity-memory-cd8-t-cell-clonotypes-during-hepatitis-c-virus-reinfection-and-clearance
#13
Mohamed S Abdel-Hakeem, Maude Boisvert, Julie Bruneau, Hugo Soudeyns, Naglaa H Shoukry
The dynamics of the memory CD8 T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire upon virus re-exposure and factors governing the selection of TCR clonotypes conferring protective immunity in real life settings are poorly understood. Here, we examined the dynamics and functionality of the virus-specific memory CD8 TCR repertoire before, during and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection in patients who spontaneously resolved two consecutive infections (SR/SR) and patients who resolved a primary but failed to clear a subsequent infection (SR/CI)...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141511/truncated-forms-of-the-pa-protein-containing-only-the-c-terminal-domains-are-associated-with-the-rnp-complex-within-h1n1-influenza-virus-particles
#14
Myint Myaing, Raihan Jumat, Tra Huong, Boon Huan Tan, Richard J Sugrue
We have examined the expression profile of the influenza virus PA protein in pH1N1/2009 virus-infected cells. Immunoblotting analysis of virus-infected MDCK cells revealed the presence of full-length PA protein from 8 hrs post-infection, together with the simultaneous appearance of PA protein species of approximately 50 kDa, 35/39 kDa and 20/25 kDa (collectively referred to as PA*). PA* was also detected in H1N1/WSN virus-infected cells indicating that its presence was not virus-specific, and PA* was also observed in virus-infected A549 and CEF cells indicating that its presence was not cell type-specific...
January 27, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137842/enteroviruses-infect-human-enteroids-and-induce-antiviral-signaling-in-a-cell-lineage-specific-manner
#15
Coyne G Drummond, Alexa M Bolock, Congrong Ma, Cliff J Luke, Misty Good, Carolyn B Coyne
Enteroviruses are among the most common viral infectious agents of humans and are primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route. However, the events associated with enterovirus infections of the human gastrointestinal tract remain largely unknown. Here, we used stem cell-derived enteroids from human small intestines to study enterovirus infections of the intestinal epithelium. We found that enteroids were susceptible to infection by diverse enteroviruses, including echovirus 11 (E11), coxsackievirus B (CVB), and enterovirus 71 (EV71), and that contrary to an immortalized intestinal cell line, enteroids induced antiviral and inflammatory signaling pathways in response to infection in a virus-specific manner...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135605/normal-human-cell-proteins-that-interact-with-the-adenovirus-type-5-e1b-55kda-protein
#16
George Hung, S J Flint
Several of the functions of the human adenovirus type 5 E1B 55kDa protein are fulfilled via the virus-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase it forms with the viral E4 Orf6 protein and several cellular proteins. Important substrates of this enzyme have not been identified, and other functions, including repression of transcription of interferon-sensitive genes, do not require the ligase. We therefore used immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of lysates of normal human cells infected in parallel with HAdV-C5 and E1B 55kDa protein-null mutant viruses to identify specifically E1B 55kDa-associated proteins...
January 27, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130396/how-to-use-%C3%A2-the-monospot-and-other-heterophile-antibody-tests
#17
Tess Marshall-Andon, Peter Heinz
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a highly prevalent virus, transmitted via saliva, which often causes asymptomatic infection in children but frequently results in infectious mononucleosis in adolescents. Heterophile antibody tests, including the Monospot test, are red cell or latex agglutination assays, which detect antired cell antibodies produced as part of a polyclonal antibody response occurring during EBV infection. Heterophile antibody tests are rapid, cheap and specific tests that can be performed from the onset of symptoms of infectious mononucleosis...
January 27, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126984/vaccination-to-improve-the-persistence-of-cd19car-gene-modified-t-cells-in-relapsed-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#18
C Rossig, M Pule, B Altvater, S Saiagh, G Wright, S Ghorashian, L Clifton-Hadley, K Champion, Z Sattar, B Popova, A Hackshaw, P Smith, T Roberts, E Biagi, B Dreno, R Rousseau, S Kailayangiri, M Ahlmann, R Hough, B Kremens, M G Sauer, P Veys, N Goulden, M Cummins, P J Amrolia
Trials with 2nd generation CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) T-cells report unprecedented responses but associated with risk of Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS). Instead, we studied use of donor Epstein Barr virus-specific T-cells (EBV CTL) transduced with a 1st generation CD19CAR, relying on the endogenous T-cell receptor for proliferation. We conducted a multi- center phase I/II study of donor CD19CAR transduced EBV CTL in pediatric ALL. Patients were eligible pre-emptively if they developed molecular relapse (>5 × 10-4) post-1st SCT, or prophylactically post-2nd SCT...
January 27, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123063/lipid-flippases-promote-antiviral-silencing-and-the-biogenesis-of-viral-and-host-sirnas-in-arabidopsis
#19
Zhongxin Guo, Jinfeng Lu, Xianbing Wang, Binhui Zhan, Wanxiang Li, Shou-Wei Ding
Dicer-mediated processing of virus-specific dsRNA into short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants and animals initiates a specific antiviral defense by RNA interference (RNAi). In this study, we developed a forward genetic screen for the identification of host factors required for antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis thaliana Using whole-genome sequencing and a computational pipeline, we identified aminophospholipid transporting ATPase 2 (ALA2) and the related ALA1 in the type IV subfamily of P-type ATPases as key components of antiviral RNAi...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118938/an-accelerated-rabies-vaccine-schedule-based-on-toll-like-receptor-3-tlr3-agonist-pika-adjuvant-augments-rabies-virus-specific-antibody-and-t-cell-response-in-healthy-adult-volunteers
#20
Limin Wijaya, Christine Y L Tham, Yvonne F Z Chan, Abigail W L Wong, L T Li, Lin-Fa Wang, Antonio Bertoletti, Jenny G Low
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal disease where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is crucial in preventing infection. However, deaths even after appropriate PEP, have been reported. The PIKA Rabies vaccine adjuvant is a TLR3 agonist that activates B and T cells leading to a robust immune response. METHODS: We conducted a phase I, open label, randomized study in healthy adults to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the PIKA Rabies vaccine and an accelerated vaccine regimen...
February 22, 2017: Vaccine
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