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Patrick R J Fortuna, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Dmitry A Ovchinnikov, Ernst Jurgen Wolvetang, Deanne Jeanette Whitworth
Horses are susceptible to a number of neurotropic viruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), which is a pathogen of global significance in both horses and humans. However, there are no in vitro models with which to study infectious neuropathic diseases in the horse. In an effort to redress this we have generated neurons from equine induced pluripotent stem cells (equiPSCs) that express a range of cortical neuron-specific markers, in addition to the membrane-bound ligand Ephrin B3, which plays an important role in axon guidance as well as functioning as the receptor through which henipaviruses, such as Hendra virus, enter mammalian neurons...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Anuradha Sinha, Suman Kanungo, Deok Ryun Kim, Byomkesh Manna, Manki Song, Ju Yeon Park, Bisakha Haldar, Prashant Sharma, Aiyel Haque Mallick, Soon Ae Kim, Sudhir Babji, Dipika Sur, Gagandeep Kang, Mohammad Ali, William A Petri, Thomas F Wierzba, Cecil Czerkinsky, Ranjan Kumar Nandy, Ayan Dey
Background: Assessing immune response after rotavirus vaccination consists in measuring serum or plasma IgA and IgG antibodies, but these assays provide very little information about the mucosal immune response. Thus the development of assays for detection of mucosal immune response following rotavirus vaccination is essential. We evaluate to assess circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) as a potential means to evaluate mucosal immune responses to rotavirus vaccine. Methods: 372 subjects, aged 6 weeks, were enrolled in the study...
January 2018: Heliyon
Stephanie Ascough, Suzanna Paterson, Christopher Chiu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sarene Koh, Janine Kah, Christine Y L Tham, Ninghan Yang, Erica Ceccarello, Adeline Chia, Margaret Chen, Atefeh Khakpoor, Andrea Pavesi, Anthony T Tan, Maura Dandri, Antonio Bertoletti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strategies to develop virus-specific T cells against hepatic viral infections have been hindered by safety concerns. We engineered non-lytic human T cells to suppress replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) without overt hepatotoxicity, and investigated their antiviral activity. METHODS: We electroporated resting T cells or T cells activated by anti-CD3 with mRNAs encoding HBV or HCV-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) to create 2 populations of TCR-reprogrammed T cells...
March 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
George Alliwa Makalliwa, Xi Wang, Huanyu Zhang, Nan Zhang, Cheng Chen, Jiang Li, Fei Deng, Hualin Wang, Manli Wang, Zhihong Hu
Effective oral infection is set off by interaction of a group of conserved per os infectivity factors (PIFs) with larval midgut columnar epithelial cells. We constructed pseudotyped viruses by substituting pif1, pif2 or pif3 genes of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) with their homologs from Mamestra bracissae multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus and tested their infectivity to tissue culture cells and to larvae. Transfection and infection assays revealed that all recombinant viruses generated infectious budded virus in both cell culture and in larvae...
March 16, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Edward E Walsh, Lu Wang, Ann R Falsey, Xing Qiu, Anthony Corbett, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Thomas J Mariani, David J Topham, Mary T Caserta
Background: Maternally derived serum antibody and viral load are thought to influence disease severity in primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. As part of the AsPIRES study of RSV pathogenesis we correlated various serum antibody concentrations and viral load with disease severity. Methods: Serum neutralizing titers and IgG to RSV F, Ga and Gb proteins, the CX3C region of G, and nasal viral load were measured in 139 full-term previously healthy infants with primary RSV infection and correlated with illness severity...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Cheleka A M Mpande, One B Dintwe, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Mark Hatherill, Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba
Background: Maintenance of long-lasting immunity is thought to depend on stem cell memory T cells (TSCM ), which have superior self-renewing capacity, longevity and proliferative potential compared with central memory (TCM ) or effector (TEFF ) T cells. Our knowledge of TSCM derives primarily from studies of virus-specific CD8+ TSCM . We aimed to determine if infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, generates antigen-specific CD4+ TSCM and to characterize their functional ontology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yanhong Han, Qingfa Wu, Shou-Wei Ding
Virus-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a central component of antiviral responses in insects. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Poirier et al. (2018) demonstrate that virus-infected flies and mosquitoes produce virus-derived extrachromosomal circular DNAs that serve as a template for the biogenesis of antiviral siRNAs.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Kara N Durski, Andrea M McCollum, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Brett W Petersen, Mary G Reynolds, Sylvie Briand, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Asheena Khalakdina
The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
John J Miles, Mai Ping Tan, Garry Dolton, Emily Sj Edwards, Sarah Ae Galloway, Bruno Laugel, Mathew Clement, Julia Makinde, Kristin Ladell, Katherine K Matthews, Thomas S Watkins, Katie Tungatt, Yide Wong, Han Siean Lee, Richard J Clark, Johanne M Pentier, Meriem Attaf, Anya Lissina, Ann Ager, Awen Gallimore, Pierre J Rizkallah, Stephanie Gras, Jamie Rossjohn, Scott R Burrows, David K Cole, David A Price, Andrew K Sewell
Polypeptide vaccines effectively activate human T cells but suffer from poor biological stability, which confines both transport logistics and in vivo therapeutic activity. Synthetic biology has the potential to address these limitations through the generation of highly stable antigenic "mimics" using subunits that do not exist in the natural world. We developed a platform based on D-amino acid combinatorial chemistry and used this platform to reverse engineer a fully artificial CD8+ T cell agonist that mirrored the immunogenicity profile of a native epitope blueprint from influenza virus...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Lipsa Dash, Saravanan Subramaniam, Sagar A Khulape, Bikash Ranjan Prusty, Kamal Pargai, Shirish D Narnaware, Niteen V Patil, Bramhadev Pattnaik
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious, and economically devastating viral disease of domestic and wildlife species. For effective implementation of FMD control program, there is an imperative need for developing a rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostics which help in the identification of serotypes involved in the outbreaks. The humoral immune response of the Camelidae is unique since in these animals 75% of circulating antibodies are constituted by heavy-chain antibodies and 25% are conventional immunoglobulin with two identical heavy chains...
March 12, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
G N Cagatay, A Antos, D Meyer, C Maistrelli, O Keuling, P Becher, A Postel
The recently identified atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) was demonstrated to be the causative agent of the neurological disorder "congenital tremor" in newborn piglets. Despite its relevance and wide distribution in domestic pigs, so far nothing is known about the situation in wild boar, representing an important wild animal reservoir for the related classical swine fever virus. In this study, 456 wild boar serum samples obtained from northern Germany were investigated for the presence of APPV genomes and virus-specific antibodies...
March 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
William H Palmer, Finny S Varghese, Ronald P van Rij
The power and ease of Drosophila genetics and the medical relevance of mosquito-transmitted viruses have made dipterans important model organisms in antiviral immunology. Studies of virus-host interactions at the molecular and population levels have illuminated determinants of resistance to virus infection. Here, we review the sources and nature of variation in antiviral immunity and virus susceptibility in model dipteran insects, specifically the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex ...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Tomohiro Morio, Yuriko Fujita, Satoshi Takahashi
Various antiviral agents have been developed, which are sometimes associated with toxicity, development of virus-resistant strain, and high cost. Virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy provides an alternative curative therapy that can be effective for a prolonged time without eliciting drug resistance. VSTs can be directly separated using several types of capture devices and can be obtained by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral antigens (virus, protein, or peptide) loaded on antigen-presenting cells (APC)...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Eryn Blass, Malika Aid, Amanda J Martinot, Rafael A Larocca, Zi Han Kang, Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh, Pablo Penaloza-MacMaster, R Keith Reeves, Dan H Barouch
Natural killer (NK) cells respond rapidly as a first line of defense against infectious pathogens. In addition, NK cells may provide a "rheostat" function and have been shown to reduce the magnitude of antigen-specific T cell responses following infection to avoid immunopathology. However, it remains unknown whether NK cells similarly modulate vaccine-elicited T cell responses following viral challenge. We used the LCMV clone 13 infection model to address whether NK cells regulate T cell responses in adenovirus vector vaccinated mice following challenge...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Enzo Z Poirier, Bertsy Goic, Lorena Tomé-Poderti, Lionel Frangeul, Jérémy Boussier, Valérie Gausson, Hervé Blanc, Thomas Vallet, Hyelee Loyd, Laura I Levi, Sophie Lanciano, Chloé Baron, Sarah H Merkling, Louis Lambrechts, Marie Mirouze, Susan Carpenter, Marco Vignuzzi, Maria-Carla Saleh
The RNAi pathway confers antiviral immunity in insects. Virus-specific siRNA responses are amplified via the reverse transcription of viral RNA to viral DNA (vDNA). The nature, biogenesis, and regulation of vDNA are unclear. We find that vDNA produced during RNA virus infection of Drosophila and mosquitoes is present in both linear and circular forms. Circular vDNA (cvDNA) is sufficient to produce siRNAs that confer partially protective immunity when challenged with a cognate virus. cvDNAs bear homology to defective viral genomes (DVGs), and DVGs serve as templates for vDNA and cvDNA synthesis...
February 27, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Ilija Brizić, Božo Sušak, Maja Arapović, Peter C Huszthy, Lea Hiršl, Daria Kveštak, Vanda Juranić Lisnić, Mijo Golemac, Ester Pernjak Pugel, Jelena Tomac, Annette Oxenius, William J Britt, Jurica Arapović, Astrid Krmpotić, Stipan Jonjić
Congenital HCMV infection is a leading infectious cause of long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. Infection of newborn mice with MCMV intraperitoneally is a well-established model of congenital HCMV infection, which best recapitulates the hematogenous route of virus spread to brain and subsequent pathology. Here we used this model to investigate the role, dynamics and phenotype of CD8+ T cells in the brain following infection of newborn mice. We show that CD8+ T cells infiltrate the brain and form a pool of tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) that persist for lifetime...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Koichi Kamei, Isao Miyairi, Kenji Ishikura, Masao Ogura, Kensuke Shoji, Takanori Funaki, Reiko Ito, Katsuhiro Arai, Jun Abe, Toshinao Kawai, Masafumi Onodera, Shuichi Ito
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a prospective study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of live attenuated vaccines in patients with nephrotic syndrome receiving immunosuppressive agents. STUDY DESIGN: Patients with nephrotic syndrome receiving immunosuppressive agents with negative or borderline antibody titers (virus-specific IgG levels <4.0) against measles, rubella, varicella, and/or mumps fulfilling the criteria of cellular and humoral immunity were enrolled...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Hui Hu, Kwonil Jung, Qiuhong Wang, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are critical human and animal pathogens because of their potential to cause severe epidemics of respiratory or enteric diseases. In pigs, the newly emerged porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and re-emerged porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) reported in the US and Asia, as well as the discovery of novel CoVs in wild bats or birds, has necessitated development of improved detection and control measures for these CoVs. Because the previous pancoronavirus (panCoV) RT-PCR established in our laboratory in 2007-2011 did not detect deltacoronaviruses (δ-CoVs) in swine fecal and serum samples, our goal was to develop a new panCoV RT-PCR assay to detect known human and animal CoVs, including δ-CoVs...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Arnaud Campidelli, Chongsheng Qian, Caroline Laroye, Véronique Decot, Loïc Reppel, Maud D'aveni, Danièle Bensoussan
Virus-specific T-cell (VST) infusion becomes a promising alternative treatment for refractory viral infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, VSTs are often infused during an immunosuppressive treatment course, especially corticosteroids, which are a first-line curative treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We were interested in whether corticosteroids could affect adenovirus (ADV)-VST functions. After interferon (IFN)-γ based immunomagnetic selection, ADV-VSTs were in vitro expanded according to three different culture conditions: without methylprednisolone (MP; n = 7), with a final concentration of MP 1 µg/mL (n = 7) or MP 2 µg/mL (n = 7) during 28 ± 11 days...
February 26, 2018: Cytotherapy
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