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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934453/an-adjuvanted-a-h5n1-subvirion-vaccine-elicits-virus-specific-antibody-response-and-improves-protection-against-lethal-influenza-viral-challenge-in-mouse-model-of-protein-energy-malnutrition
#1
Enitra N Jones, Samuel Amoah, Weiping Cao, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Shivaprakash Gangappa
Background: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including influenza infection, but no studies have addressed the potential influences of PEM on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of avian influenza A(H5N1) vaccine. Methods: We investigated the role of PEM on vaccine-mediated protection after a lethal challenge with recombinant A(H5N1) virus using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18% protein) or very low protein (VLP; 2% protein) in an established murine model of influenza vaccination...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934316/pathogenesis-of-oral-fiv-infection
#2
Craig Miller, Karen Boegler, Scott Carver, Martha MacMillan, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931679/pathogenic-correlates-of-the-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-associated-b-cell-dysfunction
#3
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, David Kuhrt, Basile Siewe, Cuiling Xu, George S Haret-Richter, Jodi Craigo, Celia Labranche, David C Montefiori, Alan Landay, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea
We compared and contrasted pathogenic (pigtailed macaques-PTMs) and nonpathogenic (African green monkeys-AGMs) SIVsab infections to assess the significance of the B-cell dysfunction observed in SIV/HIV infection. We report that the loss of B cells is specifically associated with the pathogenic SIV infection, while in the nonpathogenic natural hosts B cells rapidly increase in both LNs and intestine. SIV-associated B-cell dysfunction associated to the pathogenic SIV infection is characterized by loss of naïve B cells; loss of resting memory B cells due to their redistribution to the gut; increases of the activated B cells and circulating tissue-like memory B cells and expansion of the B regulatory cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931676/protective-humoral-immunity-in-the-cns-requires-peripheral-cd19-dependent-germinal-center-formation-following-coronavirus-encephalomyelitis
#4
Jeffrey R Atkinson, Cornelia C Bergmann
B cell subsets with phenotypes characteristic of naïve, non-isotype-switched, memory (Bmem), and antibody-secreting cells (ASC) accumulate in various models of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, including viral encephalomyelitis. During neurotropic coronavirus JHMV infection infiltration of protective ASC occurs after T cell mediated viral control, and is preceded by accumulation of non-isotype switched IgD(+) and IgM(+) B cells. However, the contribution of peripheral activation events in cervical lymph nodes (CLN) in driving humoral immune responses in the infected CNS is poorly defined...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931226/enhancement-of-zika-infection-by-dengue-virus-specific-antibody-is-associated-with-low-levels-of-antiviral-factors
#5
Linda Hueston, Ruben Ramirez, Suresh Mahalingam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928215/influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-stalk-specific-antibodies-in-human-serum-are-a-surrogate-marker-for-in-vivo-protection-in-a-serum-transfer-mouse-challenge-model
#6
Henning Jacobsen, Madhusudan Rajendran, Angela Choi, Haakon Sjursen, Karl A Brokstad, Rebecca J Cox, Peter Palese, Florian Krammer, Raffael Nachbagauer
The immunogenicity of current influenza virus vaccines is assessed by measuring an increase of influenza virus-specific antibodies in a hemagglutination inhibition assay. This method exclusively measures antibodies against the hemagglutinin head domain. While this domain is immunodominant, it has been shown that hemagglutination inhibition titers do not always accurately predict protection from disease. In addition, several novel influenza virus vaccines that are currently under development do not target the hemagglutinin head domain, but rather more conserved sites, including the hemagglutinin stalk...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927823/t-cell-therapies-for-human-polyomavirus-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Sarah I Davies, Pawel Muranski
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings...
September 15, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923622/enzyme-linked-immunospot-assay-as-a-complementary-method-to-assess-and-monitor-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-on-pre-emptive-antiviral-therapy-a-single-center-experience
#8
E Favi, R Santangelo, S Iesari, M Morandi, G E Marcovecchio, E M Trecarichi, M P Salerno, M Ferraresso, F Citterio, J Romagnoli
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease represents a major cause of post-transplantation morbidity and mortality. To estimate the risk of infection and monitor response to antiviral therapy, current guidelines suggest combination of viral load monitoring with direct assessment of CMV-specific immune response. We used enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) for the evaluation of CMV-specific T-cell response in kidney transplant recipients with CMV viremia and investigated how information gained could help manage CMV infection...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910400/293texosome-mediated-mir-146a-transfer-suppresses-type-i-interferon-response-and-facilitates-ev71-infection
#9
Yuxuan Fu, Li Zhang, Fang Zhang, Ting Tang, Qi Zhou, Chunhong Feng, Yu Jin, Zhiwei Wu
Exosomes can transfer genetic materials between cells. Their roles in viral infections are beginning to be appreciated. Researches have shown that exosomes released from virus-infected cells contain a variety of viral and host cellular factors that are able to modulate recipient's cellular response and result in productive infection of the recipient host. Here, we showed that EV71 infection resulted in upregulated exosome secretion and differential packaging of the viral genomic RNA and miR-146a into exosomes...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904197/differential-inhibitory-receptor-expression-on-t-cells-delineates-functional-capacities-in-chronic-viral-infection
#10
Jeffrey E Teigler, Gennadiy Zelinskyy, Michael A Eller, Diane L Bolton, Mary Marovich, Alexander D Gordon, Aljawharah Alrubayyi, Galit Alter, Merlin L Robb, Jeffrey N Martin, Steven G Deeks, Nelson L Michael, Ulf Dittmer, Hendrik Streeck
Inhibitory receptors have been extensively described for their importance in regulating immune responses in chronic infections and cancers. Blocking the function of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1, CTLA-4, 2B4, Tim-3, and LAG-3 have shown promise for augmenting CD8 T cell activity and boosting pathogen-specific immunity. However, the prevalence of inhibitory receptors on CD4 T cells and their relative influence on CD4 T cell functionality in chronic HIV infection remains poorly described. We therefore determined and compared inhibitory receptor expression patterns of 2B4, CTLA-4, LAG-3, PD-1, and Tim-3 on virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in relation to their functional T cell profile...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904195/vector-order-determines-protection-against-pathogenic-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-a-triple-component-vaccine-by-balancing-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses
#11
Ulrike Sauermann, Antonia Radaelli, Nicole Stolte-Leeb, Katharina Raue, Massimiliano Bissa, Carlo Zanotto, Michael Krawczak, Matthias Tenbusch, Klaus Überla, Brandon F Keele, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Sieghart Sopper, Christiane Stahl-Hennig
An effective AIDS vaccine should elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses while maintaining low levels of CD4(+) T cell activation to avoid the generation of target cells for viral infection. The present study investigated two prime-boost regimens, both starting vaccination with single cycle immunodeficiency virus, followed by two mucosal boosts either with recombinant adenovirus (rAd) or fowlpox virus (rFWPV) expressing SIVmac239 or SIVmac251 gag/pol and env genes, respectively. Finally, vectors were switched and systemically administered to the reciprocal group of animals...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900132/the-lipid-sensor-trem2-aggravates-disease-in-a-model-of-lcmv-induced-hepatitis
#12
Lindsay Kosack, Riem Gawish, Alexander Lercher, Bojan Vilagos, Anastasiya Hladik, Karin Lakovits, Anannya Bhattacharya, Christopher Schliehe, Ildiko Mesteri, Sylvia Knapp, Andreas Bergthaler
Lipid metabolism is increasingly being appreciated to affect immunoregulation, inflammation and pathology. In this study we found that mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) exhibit global perturbations of circulating serum lipids. Mice lacking the lipid-sensing surface receptor triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2 (-/-)) were protected from LCMV-induced hepatitis and showed improved virus control despite comparable virus-specific T cell responses. Non-hematopoietic expression of TREM2 was found to be responsible for aggravated hepatitis, indicating a novel role for TREM2 in the non-myeloid compartment...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899929/pathogen-specific-b-cell-receptors-drive-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-by-light-chain-dependent-cross-reaction-with-autoantigens
#13
Nereida Jiménez de Oya, Marco De Giovanni, Jessica Fioravanti, Rudolf Übelhart, Pietro Di Lucia, Amleto Fiocchi, Stefano Iacovelli, Dimitar G Efremov, Federico Caligaris-Cappio, Hassan Jumaa, Paolo Ghia, Luca G Guidotti, Matteo Iannacone
Several lines of evidence indirectly suggest that antigenic stimulation through the B-cell receptor (BCR) supports chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) development. In addition to self-antigens, a number of microbial antigens have been proposed to contribute to the selection of the immunoglobulins expressed in CLL. How pathogen-specific BCRs drive CLL development remains, however, largely unexplored. Here, we utilized mouse models of CLL pathogenesis to equip B cells with virus-specific BCRs and study the effect of antigen recognition on leukemia growth...
September 12, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889999/humoral-immune-responses-during-asthma-and-influenza-co-morbidity-in-mice
#14
Laura A Doorley, Kim S LeMessurier, Amy R Iverson, Maneesha Palipane, Amali E Samarasinghe
Humoral immunity serve dual functions of direct pathogen neutralization and enhancement of leukocyte function. Antibody classes are determined by antigen triggers, and the resulting antibodies can contribute to disease pathogenesis and host defense. Although asthma and influenza are immunologically distinct diseases, since we have found that allergic asthma exacerbation promotes antiviral host responses to influenza A virus, we hypothesized that humoral immunity may contribute to allergic host protection during influenza...
September 7, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888629/prevalence-of-lapine-rotavirus-astrovirus-and-hepatitis-e-virus-in-canadian-domestic-rabbit-populations
#15
XiaoTing Xie, Joanna Bil, Emily Shantz, Jutta Hammermueller, Eva Nagy, Patricia V Turner
Lapine rotavirus and astrovirus have been associated with disease in rabbits, and there is strong evidence of zoonotic transmission of lapine hepatitis E virus (HEV). Outbreaks of enteritis are common on commercial meat farms, resulting in poor welfare, high rabbit mortality, and significant financial losses for rabbit producers. Currently, none of these viruses are routinely tested by diagnostic laboratories. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of rotavirus, astrovirus, and HEV RNA in 205 pooled and individual fecal samples from healthy Canadian laboratory, companion, shelter and commercial meat rabbit populations...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886201/extrinsically-derived-tnf-is-primarily-responsible-for-limiting-antiviral-cd8-t-cell-response-magnitude
#16
Kylie M Quinn, Wan-Ting Kan, Katherine A Watson, Brian J Liddicoat, Natasha G Swan, Hayley McQuilten, Alice E Denton, Jasmine Li, Weisan Chen, Lorena E Brown, David C Jackson, Patrick C Reading, Peter C Doherty, Katherine Kedzierska, Lukasz Kedzierski, Stephen J Turner, Nicole L La Gruta
TNF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by both lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells. As a consequence of the widespread expression of its receptors (TNFR1 and 2), TNF plays a role in many important biological processes. In the context of influenza A virus (IAV) infection, TNF has variably been implicated in mediating immunopathology as well as suppression of the immune response. Although a number of cell types are able to produce TNF, the ability of CD8+ T cells to produce TNF following viral infection is a hallmark of their effector function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878086/metsv-a-novel-archaeal-lytic-virus-targeting-methanosarcina-strains
#17
Katrin Weidenbach, Lisa Nickel, Horst Neve, Omer S Alkhnbashi, Sven Künzel, Anne Kupczok, Thorsten Bauersachs, Liam Cassidy, Andreas Tholey, Rolf Backofen, Ruth A Schmitz
A novel archaeal lytic virus targeting species of the genus Methanosarcina was isolated using Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 as host. Due to its spherical morphology the virus was designated Methanosarcinaspherical virus (MetSV). Molecular analysis demonstrated that MetSV contains double stranded linear DNA with a genome size of 10,567 bp containing 22 open reading frames (ORFs) all oriented in the same direction. Functions were predicted for some of these ORFs, i. e. like DNA polymerase, ATPase, DNA-binding protein, as well as envelope (structural) protein...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877226/distinct-patterns-of-innate-immune-activation-by-clinical-isolates-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#18
Ruth Levitz, Yajing Gao, Igor Dozmorov, Ran Song, Edward K Wakeland, Jeffrey S Kahn
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major respiratory pathogen of infants and young children. Multiple strains of both subgroup A and B viruses circulate during each seasonal epidemic. Genetic heterogeneity among RSV genomes, in large part due to the error prone RNA-dependent, RNA polymerase, could mediate variations in pathogenicity. We evaluated clinical strains of RSV for their ability to induce the innate immune response. Subgroup B viruses were used to infect human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) and primary monocyte-derived human macrophages (MDM) from a variety of donors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865164/viral-specific-t-cell-response-in-hemorrhagic-cystitis-after-haploidentical-donor-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Nopporn Apiwattanakul, Suradej Hongeng, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama, Supanart Srisala, Chonnamet Techasaensiri, Borje S Andersson
Viral hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be devastating. Standard treatment modalities have not been well established, but immune reconstitution may be necessary for sustained viral clearance. We studied five pediatric patients who developed viral HC after haplo-identical HSCT. All patients developed virus-specific CD4- and CD8-positive T cells, and the emergence of these viral-specific T cells was temporally associated with successful viral clearance. This article is protected by copyright...
September 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863472/a-case-of-human-lassa-virus-infection-with-robust-acute-t-cell-activation-and-long-term-virus-specific-t-cell-responses
#20
Anita K McElroy, Rama S Akondy, Jessica R Harmon, Ali H Ellebedy, Deborah Cannon, John D Klena, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Aneesh K Mehta, Colleen S Kraft, Marshall G Lyon, Jay B Varkey, Bruce S Ribner, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
A nurse who acquired Lassa virus infection in Togo in the spring of 2016 was repatriated to the United States for care at Emory University Hospital. Serial sampling from this patient permitted the characterization of several aspects of the innate and cellular immune responses to Lassa virus. Although most of the immune responses correlated with the kinetics of viremia resolution, the CD8 T-cell response was of surprisingly high magnitude and prolonged duration, implying prolonged presentation of viral antigens...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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