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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812591/body-size-shifts-and-early-warning-signals-precede-the-historic-collapse-of-whale-stocks
#1
Christopher F Clements, Julia L Blanchard, Kirsty L Nash, Mark A Hindell, Arpat Ozgul
Predicting population declines is a key challenge in the face of global environmental change. Abundance-based early warning signals have been shown to precede population collapses; however, such signals are sensitive to the low reliability of abundance estimates. Here, using historical data on whales harvested during the 20th century, we demonstrate that early warning signals can be present not only in the abundance data, but also in the more reliable body size data of wild populations. We show that during the period of commercial whaling, the mean body size of caught whales declined dramatically (by up to 4 m over a 70-year period), leading to early warning signals being detectable up to 40 years before the global collapse of whale stocks...
June 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811919/trainee-experiences-of-intellectual-disability-psychiatry-and-an-innovative-leaderless-support-group-a-qualitative-study
#2
Ross Spackman, Hannah Toogood, Jayne Kerridge, Jon Nash, Elizabeth Anderson, Dheeraj Rai
Aims and method There is very little research into the challenges of training in intellectual disability psychiatry or into interventions which may address these challenges. Using focus groups, we explored the experiences of intellectual disability psychiatry trainees, and evaluated a leaderless trainee support group developed in Bristol. Results Five distinct themes were identified via framework analysis: that trainees felt unprepared for the difference from previous posts; the need for support; the value of the group; that trainees were concerned about judgement in supervision; that the group structure was valued...
August 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811860/the-apelin-receptor-apj-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-progenitor-cells-in-the-early-stage-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
Wataru Ando, Hiroaki Yokomori, Katsuya Otori, Masaya Oda
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis and inflammation with or without fibrosis. The apelin receptor (APJ) is related to angiotensin-like-receptor 1 (AGTRL1). The present study aimed to evaluate APJ as an indicator of the pathophysiology of early-stage NASH. METHODS: APJ expression was evaluated in six tissue samples with histologically proven early-stage NASH using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811064/evaluation-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-elastography-in-rat-models
#4
Yanrong Guo, Changfeng Dong, Haoming Lin, Xinyu Zhang, Huiying Wen, Yuanyuan Shen, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Yingxia Liu, Xin Chen
The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for assessing hepatic fibrosis stage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity, as well as the relationship among hepatic histologic changes using shear wave velocity (SWV). Animal models with various degrees of NAFLD were established in 110 rats. The right liver lobe was processed and embedded in a fabricated gelatin solution (porcine skin). Liver mechanics were measured using SWV induced by acoustic radiation force...
August 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809660/longitudinal-study-of-changes-in-occupational-therapy-students-perspectives-on-frames-of-reference
#5
Brittany Hoffer Nash, Anita Witt Mitchell
We explored students' views of the value of frames of reference (FoR) as they progressed through the didactic portion of an occupational therapy program. Thirty-four occupational therapy students were provided with a definition of FoR and asked to provide overall thoughts and impressions about FoR and their value 4 times over a period of 15 mo. Data were analyzed using phenomenological traditions, including open coding and analysis of themes. Throughout the program, students' understanding of how to use FoR evolved as they learned to implement them in practice...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809188/clinical-supervision-of-interns-understanding-the-view-of-interns-and-the-potential-of-ict-to-deliver-supervision-for-safer-patient-care
#6
Kwang Chien Yee, Angela Madden, Rosie Nash, Michael Connolly
Clinical communication and clinical supervision of junior healthcare professionals are identified as the two most common preventable factors to reduce medical errors. While multiple strategies have been implemented to improve clinical communication, clinical supervision has not attracted as much attention. This is in part due to the lack of understanding of clinical supervision. Furthermore, there is a lack of exploration of information communication technology (ICT) in assisting the delivery of clinical supervision from the perspective of users (i...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808187/g-aminobutyric-acid-promotes-methionine-choline-deficient-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#7
Yoon Seok Roh, Ara Cho, Zixiong Zhou, Hyuneui Jeong, Jeong-Eun Park, Youn-Soo Cha, Suk-Heung Oh, Chae-Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver diseases and a major cause of liver fibrosis worldwide. G-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been reported that GABAergic signaling pathways are found in various non-neuronal tissues including the immune system and play a functional role. In the present study, we investigated whether administration of GABA has effects on NASH through its immunomodulatory effects...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803953/fibrosis-stage-but-not-nash-predicts-mortality-and-time-to-development-of-severe-liver-disease-in-biopsy-proven-nafld
#8
Hannes Hagström, Patrik Nasr, Mattias Ekstedt, Ulf Hammar, Per Stål, Rolf Hultcrantz, Stergios Kechagias
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly common in the general population, but identifying patients with increased risk for mortality and liver-specific morbidity remains a challenge. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is thought to enhance this risk; therefore, resolution of NASH is a major endpoint in current pharmacologic studies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 646 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. Each case was matched for age, sex and municipality to ten controls...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803504/the-pharmacological-management-of-nafld-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
Savinda Liyanagedera, Robert Patrick Williams, Silvio Veraldi, Valerio Nobili, Jake P Mann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum, including 'simple' steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD has followed the international rise in obesity and lifestyle modification is the mainstay therapy for children. To date, pharmacological trials have had varying efficacy but a large number of new agents are in early phase trials for adults. Areas covered: This review explores the effect of current and potential future paediatric NAFLD treatments in terms of histological and biochemical endpoints...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802062/modeling-the-epidemic-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-demonstrates-an-exponential-increase-in-burden-of-disease
#10
Chris Estes, Homie Razavi, Rohit Loomba, Zobair Younossi, Arun J Sanyal
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and resulting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly prevalent in the US, where they are a growing cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and increasingly, an indicator for liver transplantation. METHODS: A Markov model was used to forecast NAFLD disease progression. Incidence of NAFLD was based on historical and projected changes in adult prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800499/effects-of-preimplantation-factor-on-interleukin-6-and-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-and-e2-in-the-bovine-endometrium
#11
Ruth E Wonfor, Manuela Natoli, Michael T Rose, Deborah M Nash
Preimplantation factor (PIF) is a pregnancy specific peptide with immune modulatory properties exerted on the human endometrium. Viable bovine embryos secrete PIF, but its effect on the bovine endometrial immune response is unknown, both in native and inflammatory stimulated endometrial tissue. An ex vivo bovine endometrial tissue culture model was used with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory stimulant. The effect of synthetic PIF (sPIF) was assessed, in three separate experiments, on the secretion or mRNA expression of essential prostaglandins and cytokines...
August 2, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800087/imaging-features-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#12
REVIEW
Michele Di Martino, Kameliya Koryukova, Mario Bezzi, Carlo Catalano
Non-invasive diagnosis and quantification of liver steatosis is important to overcome limits of liver biopsy, in order to follow up patients during their therapy and to establish a reference standard that can be used in clinical trials and longitudinal studies. Imaging offers several methods in this setting: ultrasound, which is the cheapest technique and easy to perform; magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), which reflects the real content of triglycerides in a specific volume; and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) magnetic resonance, which is a simple method that reflects the distribution of the fat in the whole liver...
August 11, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797933/simulation-debriefing-based-on-principles-of-transfer-of-learning-a-pilot-study
#13
Sandra Johnston, Fiona Coyer, Robyn Nash
Upon completion of undergraduate nursing courses, new graduates are expected to transition seamlessly into practice. Education providers face challenges in the preparation of undergraduate nurses due to increasing student numbers and decreasing availability of clinical placement sites. High fidelity patient simulation is an integral component of nursing curricula as an adjunct to preparation for clinical placement. Debriefing after simulation is an area where the underlying structure of problems can consciously be explored...
August 3, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797741/modelling-and-simulation-of-flow-and-agglomeration-in-deep-veins-valves-using-discrete-multi-physics
#14
M Ariane, W Wen, D Vigolo, A Brill, F G B Nash, M Barigou, A Alexiadis
The hemodynamics in flexible deep veins valves is modelled by means of discrete multi-physics and an agglomeration algorithm is implemented to account for blood accrual in the flow. Computer simulations of a number of valves typologies are carried out. The results show that the rigidity and the length of the valve leaflets play a crucial role on both mechanical stress and stagnation in the flow. Rigid and short membranes may be inefficient in preventing blood reflux, but reduce the volume of stagnant blood potentially lowering the chances of thrombosis...
July 29, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797077/gender-difference-in-nash-susceptibility-roles-of-hepatocyte-ikk%C3%AE-and-sult1e1
#15
Noriko Matsushita, Mohamed T Hassanein, Marcos Martinez-Clemente, Raul Lazaro, Samuel W French, Wen Xie, Keane Lai, Michael Karin, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
Myeloid cell and hepatocyte IKKβ may mediate the genesis of obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed high fat diet. However, their gender-specific roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not known. Here we demonstrate myeloid IKKβ deficiency prevents Western diet-induced obesity and visceral adiposity in females but not in males, and attenuates hyperglycemia, global IR, and NASH in both genders. In contrast, all metabolic sequela including NASH are aggravated by hepatocyte IKKβ deficiency (IkbkbΔhep) in male but not female mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796993/oral-administration-of-cardioaid-and-lunasin-alleviates-liver-damage-in-a-high-fat-diet-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-model
#16
Ariel Drori, Dvorah Rotnemer-Golinkin, Lidya Zolotarov, Yaron Ilan
BACKGROUND: Several of the drugs in development for treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) target liver fibrosis or have side effects that prohibit their long-term use in patients with mild to moderate disease. Lunasin is a soy-derived peptide with anti-inflammatory properties. ADM's CardioAid™ is a plant sterol extract that exerts cholesterol- and triacylglycerol-lowering effects. AIM: To determine the immunomodulatory effects of CardioAid and lunasin in a high-fat diet (HFD) animal model of NASH...
August 11, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796176/bridging-the-gap-between-gut-microbial-dysbiosis-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Kimberley Lau, Varun Srivatsav, Ayesha Rizwan, Andrew Nashed, Rui Liu, Rui Shen, Mahmood Akhtar
The human gut is heavily colonized by a community of microbiota, primarily bacteria, that exists in a symbiotic relationship with the host and plays a critical role in maintaining host homeostasis. The consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet has been shown to induce gut dysbiosis and reduce intestinal integrity. Recent studies have revealed that dysbiosis contributes to the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by promoting two major CVD risk factors-atherosclerosis and hypertension. Imbalances in host-microbial interaction impair homeostatic mechanisms that regulate health and can activate multiple pathways leading to CVD risk factor progression...
August 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795910/achieving-a-patient-centered-value-based-system-of-diabetes-care-in-the-united-states-report-on-a-national-stakeholder-summit
#18
David B Nash, Alexis Skoufalos, Dennis Harris
Chronic instability in the health care environment has raised concerns among providers and patients, especially those who treat and cope with chronic conditions. Changes to existing health care laws are unlikely to alter what have become the primary goals of the US health care system: cost-effectiveness and patient-centricity. To that end, it is vital that patient and physician voices be incorporated in policy decisions and, importantly, that access to care and patient-reported outcomes are considered when calculating "value...
August 10, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795657/body-system-effects-of-a-multi-modal-training-program-targeting-chronic-motor-complete-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Katie Gant, Kathleen Nagle, Rachel Cowan, Edelle Field-Fote, Mark Nash, Jochen Kressler, Christine K Thomas, Mabelin Castellanos, Eva Widerstrom-Noga, Kimberly D Anderson
The safety and efficacy of pharmacologic and cellular transplantation strategies are currently being evaluated in people with spinal cord injury. In studies of people with chronic spinal cord injuries, it is thought that functional recovery will be best achieved when drug or cell therapies are combined with rehabilitation protocols. However, any functional recovery due to the therapy may be confounded by the conditioned state of the body and by training-induced effects on neuroplasticity. For this reason, we sought to investigate the effects of a multi-modal training program on several body systems...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795140/resting-and-exercise-energy-metabolism-after-liver-transplantation-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#20
Josh Levitsky, Ajay Singhvi, H Steven Sadowsky, Ayelet Cohen, Alysen Demzik, Lisa VanWagner, Mary Rinella
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading indication for liver transplantation (LT). We hypothesized that weight gain after LT may be exacerbated by reduced metabolic rates due to the LT procedure, particularly during exercise. We aimed to compare resting and exercise energy expenditure between patients transplanted for NASH and nontransplant nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) subjects. METHODS: NASH LT recipients (>1-year post, n = 14) and NAFLD controls (n = 13) underwent analysis of body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and exercise energy expenditure (VO2max), the latter using a ramped-Bruce protocol assessed by expired gas analysis and peak heart rate...
August 2017: Transplantation Direct
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