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S Kang, C Zhang, T Ohno, M Azuma
The PD-1/B7-H1 pathway regulates immune responses and maintains homeostasis. Here, we identified a unique expression of B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) on masticatory mucosae in the oral cavity. B7-H1 was physiologically expressed on the dorsal surface of the tongue, gingiva, and hard palate. Other squamous epithelia and other structures of the epithelia did not express B7-H1 in the steady state. Physiological B7-H1 expression on masticatory mucosae was limited on prickle cells, and its expression on basal keratinocytes (KCs) was strictly regulated...
October 12, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Man Li, Zhen-Hua Zhou, Xue-Hua Sun, Xin Zhang, Xiao-Jun Zhu, Shu-Gen Jin, Ya-Ting Gao, Yun Jiang, Yue-Qiu Gao
B7-H1 binding to programmed death-1 may deliver a coinhibitory signal to T cells that is involved in the regulation of T-cell activation and tolerance. B7-H1 plays a key role in dysfunction of dendritic cells (DCs) during chronic HBV infection, but the expression mechanism of B7-H1 remains unclear. One hundred and twenty-nine patients with chronic HBV infection were categorized into either the immune tolerance phase (HBV-IT), the immune clearance phase (HBV-IC), or the inactive carrier phase (HBV-IA). Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled as controls...
September 12, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Andrew B Adams, Mandy L Ford, Christian P Larsen
T cell activation is a complex process that requires multiple cell signaling pathways, including a primary recognition signal and additional costimulatory signals. TCR signaling in the absence of costimulatory signals can lead to an abortive attempt at activation and subsequent anergy. One of the best-characterized costimulatory pathways includes the Ig superfamily members CD28 and CTLA-4 and their ligands CD80 and CD86. The development of the fusion protein CTLA-4-Ig as an experimental and subsequent therapeutic tool is one of the major success stories in modern immunology...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Weiyi Peng, Jodi A McKenzie, Patrick Hwu
New data from Wang and colleagues show that complement C3 suppresses the function of CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating T cells by inhibiting IL10 production, and targeting the complement receptors C3aR and C5aR enhances the antitumor activity of immune checkpoint blockade. Their results not only define a new role of complement receptors as T-cell coinhibitory receptors, but also are useful in the development of novel strategies to improve the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Discov; 6(9); 953-5. ©2016 AACR...
September 2016: Cancer Discovery
Leonid Cherkassky, Aurore Morello, Jonathan Villena-Vargas, Yang Feng, Dimiter S Dimitrov, David R Jones, Michel Sadelain, Prasad S Adusumilli
Following immune attack, solid tumors upregulate coinhibitory ligands that bind to inhibitory receptors on T cells. This adaptive resistance compromises the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies, which redirect T cells to solid tumors. Here, we investigated whether programmed death-1-mediated (PD-1-mediated) T cell exhaustion affects mesothelin-targeted CAR T cells and explored cell-intrinsic strategies to overcome inhibition of CAR T cells. Using an orthotopic mouse model of pleural mesothelioma, we determined that relatively high doses of both CD28- and 4-1BB-based second-generation CAR T cells achieved tumor eradication...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Martina Imbimbo, Giuseppe Lo Russo, Fiona Blackhall
In the last few years, the introduction of novel immunotherapeutic agents has represented a treatment shift for a subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Checkpoint inhibitors have been demonstrated to improve survival in advanced stage disease with very good tolerability. This success follows many years of scientific effort to manipulate the human immune system to attack cancer cells. With a variety of approaches ranging from vaccines to administration of interleukin or interferon-γ, the results in NSCLC were unsuccessful, with the view that it is a scarcely immunogenic cancer, unlike melanoma or renal cell carcinoma...
August 3, 2016: Tumori
Sreenivas Gannavaram, Parna Bhattacharya, Nevien Ismail, Amit Kaul, Rakesh Singh, Hira L Nakhasi
No licensed human vaccines are currently available against any parasitic disease including leishmaniasis. Several antileishmanial vaccine formulations have been tested in various animal models, including genetically modified live-attenuated parasite vaccines. Experimental infection studies have shown that Leishmania parasites utilize a broad range of strategies to undermine effector properties of host phagocytic cells, i.e., dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MΦ). Furthermore, Leishmania parasites have evolved strategies to actively inhibit TH1 polarizing functions of DCs and to condition the infected MΦ toward anti-inflammatory/alternative/M2 phenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Martin Gasser, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser
The therapeutic arsenal in solid tumors comprises different anticancer strategies with diverse chemotherapeutic agents and a growing number of biological substances. Large clinical study-based chemotherapeutic protocols combined with biologicals have become an important component in (neo-) adjuvant therapy alongside surgery in solid cancers as well as radiation therapy in some instances. In recent years, monoclonal antibodies have entered the mainstream of cancer therapy. Their first use was as antagonists of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, but today monoclonal antibodies have emerged as long-sought vehicles for the targeted delivery of potent chemotherapeutic agents and as powerful tools to manipulate anticancer immune responses...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Anna Partyka, Krzysztof Tupikowski, Anna Kolodziej, Romuald Zdrojowy, Agnieszka Halon, Bartosz Malkiewicz, Janusz Dembowski, Irena Frydecka, Lidia Karabon
OBJECTIVE: T cells play an important role in antitumor immunity, and molecules regulating T-cell activity could influence cancer susceptibility. The distinct role of coinhibitory receptors in immunosurveillance has been considered. B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is one of these receptors, which negatively regulate immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BTLA gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the Polish population...
September 2016: Urologic Oncology
Manuela Terranova-Barberio, Scott Thomas, Pamela N Munster
Immune surveillance should be directed to suppress tumor development and progression, involving a balance of coinhibitory and costimulatory signals that amplify immune response without overwhelming the host. Immunotherapy confers durable clinical benefit in 'immunogenic tumors', whereas in other tumors the responses are modest. Thus, immune checkpoint inhibitors may need to be combined with strategies to boost immune response or increase the tumor immune profile. Epigenetic aberrations contribute significantly to carcinogenesis...
June 2016: Immunotherapy
Scott B Lovitch, Scott J Rodig
The recognition that the immune system can identify and destroy tumor cells has driven a paradigm shift in our understanding of human cancer. Therapies designed to enhance this capacity, including cancer vaccines and coinhibitory receptor blockade, have demonstrated clinical efficacy in treating tumors refractory to conventional therapy. In this review, we discuss how the analysis of the immune microenvironment in primary tissue biopsy samples can be used to stratify patients according to clinical outcome, identify patients likely to benefit from specific immunotherapies, and tailor combination immunotherapy to individual patients and tumor types...
May 23, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
John Attanasio, E John Wherry
Costimulatory and inhibitory receptors play a key role in regulating immune responses to infections. Recent translation of knowledge about inhibitory receptors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 into the cancer clinic highlights the opportunities to manipulate these pathways to treat human disease. Studies in infectious disease have provided key insights into the specific roles of these pathways and the effects of their manipulation. Here, recent studies are discussed that have addressed how major inhibitory and costimulatory pathways play a role in regulating immune responses during acute and chronic infections...
May 17, 2016: Immunity
Mandy L Ford
The ultimate outcome of alloreactivity versus tolerance following transplantation is potently influenced by the constellation of cosignaling molecules expressed by immune cells during priming with alloantigen, and the net sum of costimulatory and coinhibitory signals transmitted via ligation of these molecules. Intense investigation over the last two decades has yielded a detailed understanding of the kinetics, cellular distribution, and intracellular signaling networks of cosignaling molecules such as the CD28, TNF, and TIM families of receptors in alloimmunity...
May 17, 2016: Immunity
Frank A Schildberg, Sarah R Klein, Gordon J Freeman, Arlene H Sharpe
Immune responses need to be controlled for optimal protective immunity and tolerance. Coinhibitory pathways in the B7-CD28 family provide critical inhibitory signals that regulate immune homeostasis and defense and protect tissue integrity. These coinhibitory signals limit the strength and duration of immune responses, thereby curbing immune-mediated tissue damage, regulating resolution of inflammation, and maintaining tolerance to prevent autoimmunity. Tumors and microbes that cause chronic infections can exploit these coinhibitory pathways to establish an immunosuppressive microenvironment, hindering their eradication...
May 17, 2016: Immunity
Zhenhua Ren, Hua Peng, Yang-Xin Fu
Protumorigenic PD-1(hi) B cells, induced in hepatocellular carcinoma, suppress tumor-specific T-cell response via IL10-dependent pathways upon PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. Anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies may function not only through blocking the PD-1 coinhibitory pathway in T cells but also via abolishing the suppressive function of regulatory B cells. Cancer Discov; 6(5); 477-8. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Xiao et al., p. 546.
May 2016: Cancer Discovery
Christine Mall, Gail D Sckisel, David A Proia, Annie Mirsoian, Steven K Grossenbacher, Chien-Chun Steven Pai, Mingyi Chen, Arta M Monjazeb, Karen Kelly, Bruce R Blazar, William J Murphy
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting coinhibitory molecules such as PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 are increasingly used as targets of therapeutic intervention against cancer. While these targets have led to a critical paradigm shift in treatments for cancer, these approaches are also plagued with limitations owing to cancer immune evasion mechanisms and adverse toxicities associated with continuous treatment. It has been difficult to reproduce and develop interventions to these limitations preclinically due to poor reagent efficacy and reagent xenogenecity not seen in human trials...
February 2016: Oncoimmunology
Susanne H Baumeister, Gordon J Freeman, Glenn Dranoff, Arlene H Sharpe
The immune system is capable of recognizing tumors and eliminates many early malignant cells. However, tumors evolve to evade immune attack, and the tumor microenvironment is immunosuppressive. Immune responses are regulated by a number of immunological checkpoints that promote protective immunity and maintain tolerance. T cell coinhibitory pathways restrict the strength and duration of immune responses, thereby limiting immune-mediated tissue damage, controlling resolution of inflammation, and maintaining tolerance to prevent autoimmunity...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Matthew D Hellmann, Claire F Friedman, Jedd D Wolchok
T cell checkpoint blockade therapies are revolutionizing the treatment of patients with cancer. Highlighted by the recent success of PD-1 plus CTLA-4 blockade in patients with melanomas, synergistic immunotherapy combinations of modalities represent an important opportunity to improve responses and outcomes for patients. We review the rationale and experience with T cell checkpoint blockade in combination with targeting of other coinhibitory or costimulatory checkpoints, immunomodulatory molecules in the tumor microenvironment, and other anticancer modalities such as vaccines, chemotherapy, and radiation...
2016: Advances in Immunology
Sabrina Jutz, Judith Leitner, Klaus Schmetterer, Iago Doel-Perez, Otto Majdic, Katharina Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Wolfgang Paster, Johannes B Huppa, Peter Steinberger
Engagement of the T cell receptor complex reprograms T cells for proliferation, cytokine production and differentiation towards effector cells. This process depends on activating costimulatory signals and is counteracted by coinhibitory molecules. Three transcription factors, namely NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1, have a major role in inducing the transcriptional program that is required for T cell activation and differentiation. Here we describe the generation of a triple parameter reporter based on the human Jurkat T cell line, where response elements for NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1 drive the expression of the fluorescent proteins CFP, eGFP and mCherry, respectively...
March 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Yaxian Kong, Liuluan Zhu, Todd D Schell, Jianhong Zhang, David F Claxton, W Christopher Ehmann, Witold B Rybka, Melissa R George, Hui Zeng, Hong Zheng
PURPOSE: T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domain (TIGIT) is a recently identified T-cell coinhibitory receptor. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical impact of TIGIT in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and dissect the role of TIGIT in the pathogenesis of leukemia progression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: TIGIT expression on T cells from peripheral blood collected from patients with AML was examined by flow cytometry...
June 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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