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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101146/bone-health-in-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-or-c-infections
#1
REVIEW
Emmanuel Biver, Alexandra Calmy, René Rizzoli
Chronic infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) add to age-dependent bone loss and may contribute to lower bone strength in the elderly. In this review, we report recent highlights on the epidemiology of bone fragility in chronic viral infections with HIV, HCV and HBV, its physiopathology and discuss the interference of antiviral therapies with bone metabolism. Chronic infections influence bone through the interactions between risk factors for bone fragility and falls (which are highly prevalent in infected patients), virus activity and antiviral drugs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099338/liver-steatosis-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-prevalence-predictors-and-impact-on-disease-progression
#2
Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Barbara Kowalik-Mikołajewska, Małgorzata Aniszewska, Magdalena Pluta, Bożena Walewska-Zielecka, Magdalena Marczyńska
Only scarce data on liver steatosis in children with chronic hepatitis B and C (CHB and CHC) are available. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, predictors, and impact of hepatic steatosis on children with CHB and CHC. A total of 78 patients aged 11.5 ± 3.4 years were included: 30 (38%) had CHB, and 48 (62%) had CHC. Steatosis was scored on a 5-point scale, as follows: absent; minimal (≤5% hepatocytes affected), mild (6-33%), moderate (34-66%), and severe (>66%). Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with steatosis and moderate-to-severe steatosis...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099113/rage-deficiency-predisposes-mice-to-virus-induced-paucigranulocytic-asthma
#3
Jaisy Arikkatt, Md Ashik Ullah, Kirsty Renfree Short, Vivan Zhang, Wan Jun Gan, Zhixuan Loh, Rhiannon B Werder, Jennifer Simpson, Peter D Sly, Stuart B Mazzone, Kirsten M Spann, Manuel Ar Ferreira, John W Upham, Maria B Sukkar, Simon Phipps
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease. Although many patients with asthma develop type-2 dominated eosinophilic inflammation, a number of individuals develop paucigranulocytic asthma, which occurs in the absence of eosinophilia or neutrophilia. The aetiology of paucigranulocytic asthma is unknown. However, both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and mutations in the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) are risk factors for asthma development. Here, we show that RAGE deficiency impairs anti-viral immunity during an early-life infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM; a murine analogue of RSV)...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097103/efficacy-and-safety-of-daclatasvir-in-hepatitis-c-an-overview
#4
REVIEW
Nesrine Gamal, Stefano Gitto, Pietro Andreone
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a growing public health concern, with 184 million people infected worldwide. During the past decade, interferon has been the backbone of HCV treatment, even though it remains far from ideal. The latest development of the new direct antivirals has drastically changed the treatment approach for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Inhibitors of the HCV NS5A region have garnered remarkable interest among treating physicians, due to their high potency and favourable safety profile. In particular, treatment with daclatasvir (DCV) has yielded high rates of vriologic response in patients infected with genotype (Gt) 1 and Gt 3, when used in combination with other antivirals of a different class, such as sofosbuvir...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097102/mechanisms-of-accelerated-liver-fibrosis-progression-during-hiv-infection
#5
REVIEW
Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen, Andre Boonstra
With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a dramatic reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality has been observed. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that liver-related complications, particularly rapid fibrosis development from ART as well as from the chronic HIV infection itself, are of serious concern to HIV patients. The pathophysiology of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV is a multifactorial process whereby persistent viral replication, and bacterial translocation lead to chronic immune activation and inflammation, which ART is unable to fully suppress, promoting production of fibrinogenic mediators and fibrosis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095504/cytoplasmic-localization-of-htlv-1-hbz-protein-a-biomarker-of-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-ham-tsp
#6
Marco Baratella, Greta Forlani, Goutham U Raval, Alessandra Tedeschi, Olivier Gout, Antoine Gessain, Giovanna Tosi, Roberto S Accolla
HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095451/comparing-human-metapneumovirus-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-co-detections-genotypes-and-risk-factors-for-severe-disease
#7
Nina Moe, Sidsel Krokstad, Inger Heimdal Stenseng, Andreas Christensen, Lars Høsøien Skanke, Kari Ravndal Risnes, Svein Arne Nordbø, Henrik Døllner
BACKGROUND: It is unclarified as to whether viral co-detection and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) genotypes relate to clinical manifestations in children with HMPV and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), and if the clinical course and risk factors for severe LRTI differ between HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled hospitalized children aged <16 years with LRTI from 2006 to 2015. Children were clinically examined, and nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed using semi-quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for HMPV, RSV and 17 other pathogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094164/disorders-characterized-by-predominant-or-exclusive-dermal-inflammation
#8
Mark R Wick
Some cutaneous inflammatory disorders are typified by a predominant or exclusive localization in the dermis. They can be further subdivided by the principal cell types into lymphocytic, neutrophilic, and eosinophilic infiltrates, and mixtures of them are also seen in a proportion of cases. This review considers such conditions. Included among the lymphoid lesions are viral exanthems, pigmented purpuras, gyrate erythemas, polymorphous light eruption, lupus tumidus, and cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Neutrophilic infiltrates are represented by infections, Sweet syndrome, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa, as well as a group of so-called "autoinflammatory" dermatitides comprising polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
December 14, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093994/viral-infection-and-obesity-current-status-and-future-prospective
#9
Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Richard L Atkinson, Maha M Alawi, Esam I Azhar
The association of pathogenic viruses with obesity has now been well-known in both human and animals. Globally, human obesity has become a serious problem leading to the emergence of multiple life-threatening diseases. Adenoviruses contribute a significant role in the induction of obesity by affecting various pathways. Due to impaired immunity, obese individuals are more prone to nosocomial infections leading to complications of obesity. In contrast, several other important factors contributing to human obesity are known...
January 16, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093337/nk-cell-phenotypic-and-functional-shifts-coincide-with-specific-clinical-phases-in-the-natural-history-of-chronic-hbv-infection
#10
Rik A de Groen, Jun Hou, Gertine W van Oord, Zwier M A Groothuismink, Marieke van der Heide, Robert J de Knegt, André Boonstra
BACKGROUND: Chronic HBV infection can be divided into 4 distinct clinical phases: immune tolerant, immune active, inactive carrier, and HBeAg-negative hepatitis. Using a systems biology approach, we recently identified innate immune response components, specifically NK cells as a distinctive factor of specific HBV clinical phases. To expand on this study and identify the underlying immunological mechanisms, we performed a comprehensive profiling of NK cells in chronic HBV infection. METHODS: Peripheral blood from untreated chronic HBV patients was used to analyze phenotypic markers, as well as cytokine production and cytoxicity of NK cells...
January 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092420/immune-modulation-by-the-hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein
#11
Cecilia Fernández-Ponce, Juan Pedro Muñoz-Miranda, Mikel M Arbulo-Echevarria, Rocío Litrán, Enrique Aguado, Francisco García-Cozar
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the most important cause of chronic viral hepatitis in the world and one of the most frequent indications for liver transplantation. HCV uses different strategies to evade the innate and adaptive immune response, and this evasion plays a key role in determining viral persistence. Several HCV viral proteins have been described as immune modulators. In this review, we will focus on the effect of HCV nucleocapsid core protein in the function of immune cells and its correlation with the findings observed in HCV chronically infected patients...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092214/treatment-of-delta-hepatitis-today-and-in-the-future-a-review
#12
Ibrahim Halil Bahcecioglu, Abdurrahman Sahin
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective satellite virus and propagates in the presence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg). Approximately 5% of the people who infected with HBV are also infected with HDV. Chronic hepatitis caused by delta is the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis including accelerated fibrosis, liver decompensation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Interferon-based therapies still remain the only treatment option of the hepatitis delta. The beneficiary effects of the interferon-based therapies, however, stop frequently with termination of the given therapy and relapse rate is very high...
January 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092171/a-pangenotypic-single-tablet-regimen-of-sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection
#13
Ilan S Weisberg, Ira M Jacobson
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 170 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of progressive liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Curative therapies have historically relied on interferon-based treatments and were limited by significant toxicity and poor response rates, particularly among patients with prior treatment failure and advanced hepatic fibrosis. The recent advent of direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents which target key steps in the HCV viral life cycle has transformed the landscape of HCV treatment by offering highly effective and well tolerated interferon-free treatments...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090316/the-role-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-in-hepatitis-b-infection-jekyll-and-hyde
#14
REVIEW
Zina Valaydon, Marc Pellegrini, Alexander Thompson, Paul Desmond, Peter Revill, Gregor Ebert
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major health problem worldwide and is associated with significant long-term morbidity and mortality. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that is capable of integrating in the host nucleus permanently resulting in lifelong infection. To date, there is no definitive cure for HBV, as our current treatments cannot eradicate the viral reservoir that has integrated in the liver. Elucidating the immunopathogenesis is key to finding a therapeutic target for HBV as the virus is not in itself cytopathic but the immune response to the virus causes the majority of the cellular injury...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090038/combination-therapy-with-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-for-dialysis-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-a-prospective-multi-institutional-study
#15
Ken Sato, Kenichi Hosonuma, Yuichi Yamazaki, Takeshi Kobayashi, Satoshi Takakusagi, Norio Horiguchi, Satoru Kakizaki, Motoyasu Kusano, Hiroshi Ohnishi, Hiroaki Okamoto, Masanobu Yamada
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in dialysis patients worldwide and nosocomial HCV spread within dialysis facilities continues to develop. Combination therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir (DCV/ASV) that has proven efficacy for dialysis patients infected with genotype 1b HCV (HCV/1b) has several concerns in Japan. The recently available combination therapy with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) is not contraindicated in patients with chronic renal failure and has more safety profile and shorter treatment period than that with DCV/ASV...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089613/high-frequency-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-swine-from-south-brazil-and-close-similarity-to-human-hev-isolates
#16
Ana Maria Passos-Castilho, Celso Francisco Hernandes Granato
Hepatitis E virus is responsible for acute and chronic liver infections worldwide. Swine hepatitis E virus has been isolated in Brazil, and a probable zoonotic transmission has been described, although data are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs from a small-scale farm in the rural area of Paraná State, South Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 170 pigs and screened for hepatitis E virus RNA using a duplex real-time RT-PCR targeting a highly conserved 70nt long sequence within overlapping parts of ORF2 and ORF3 as well as a 113nt sequence of ORF2...
January 3, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089609/de-immunized-and-functional-therapeutic-deft-versions-of-a-long-lasting-recombinant-alpha-interferon-for-antiviral-therapy
#17
Eduardo F Mufarrege, Sofía Giorgetti, Marina Etcheverrigaray, Frances Terry, William Martin, Anne S De Groot
Interferon α (IFN-α) exerts potent antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity and have proven clinical utility in chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections. However, repeated IFN-α administration induces neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against the therapeutic in a significant number of patients. Associations between IFN-α immunogenicity and loss of efficacy have been described. So as to improve the in vivo biological efficacy of IFN-α, a long lasting hyperglycosylated protein (4N-IFN) derived from IFN-α2b wild type (WT-IFN) was developed...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089231/-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-despite-postexposure-prophylaxis-a-review-of-the-literature-and-description-of-11%C3%A2-observations
#18
B Biot, N Laverdure, F Lacaille, A Lachaux
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to a risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In France, where the prevalence of HBV is low, mother-to-child transmission is the cause of chronic infection in more than one-third of cases. After exposure, the risk of chronic infection is the highest for newborns (90 %). The World Health Organization implemented a global immunization program in 1991, applied in France in 1994. A significant number of children are infected each year, however, and failure of postexposure prophylaxis is reported in 4-10 % of newborns...
January 11, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088354/uncovering-oxysterol-binding-protein-osbp-as-a-target-of-the-anti-enteroviral-compound-ttp-8307
#19
Lucian Albulescu, Joëlle Bigay, Bishyajit Biswas, Marion Weber-Boyvat, Cristina M Dorobantu, Leen Delang, Hilde M van der Schaar, Young-Sik Jung, Johan Neyts, Vesa M Olkkonen, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Jeroen R P M Strating
The genus Enterovirus (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus) of the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes many important pathogens linked to a range of acute and chronic diseases for which no approved antiviral therapy is available. Targeting a step in the life cycle that is highly conserved provides an attractive strategy for developing broad-range inhibitors of enterovirus infection. A step that is currently explored as a target for the development of antivirals is the formation of replication organelles, which support replication of the viral genome...
January 11, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087399/advances-with-using-crispr-cas-mediated-gene-editing-to-treat-infections-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus
#20
REVIEW
Buhle Moyo, Kristie Bloom, Tristan Scott, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infections with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) account for the majority of cases of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for the infections have limitations and improved efficacy is necessary to prevent complications in carriers of the viruses. In the case of HBV persistence, the replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is particularly problematic. Licensed therapies have little effect on cccDNA and HBV replication relapses following treatment withdrawal...
January 10, 2017: Virus Research
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