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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934695/type-1-diabetes-and-viral-infections-what-is-the-relationship
#1
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Maria Giulia Berioli, Sonia Bianchini, Susanna Esposito
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common chronic metabolic disorder in children. Epigenetic and environmental factors capable of altering the penetrance of major susceptibility genes or capable of increasing the penetrance of low-risk genes are currently thought to play a role in triggering autoimmunity and T1D development. This paper discusses the current knowledge of the role of viruses in T1D. Most studies that have evaluated the potential association between viral infections and T1D have indicated that it is highly likely that some of these infectious agents play a role in T1D development...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934428/hiv-infected-children-have-elevated-levels-of-pd-1-memory-cd4-t-cells-with-low-proliferative-capacity-and-high-inflammatory-cytokine-effector-functions
#2
Julia Foldi, Lina Kozhaya, Bret McCarty, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Tiina Ilmet, Max Kilberg, Adam Kravietz, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Derya Unutmaz, Alka Khaitan
Background: During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, chronic immune activation leads to T-cell exhaustion. PD-1 identifies "exhausted" CD8 T cells with impaired HIV-specific effector functions, but its role on CD4 T cells and in HIV-infected children is poorly understood. Methods: In a Kenyan cohort of vertically HIV-infected children, we measured PD-1+ CD4 T-cell frequencies and phenotype by flow cytometry and their correlation with HIV disease progression and immune activation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934316/pathogenesis-of-oral-fiv-infection
#3
Craig Miller, Karen Boegler, Scott Carver, Martha MacMillan, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#4
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930519/divergent-impact-of-gender-in-advancement-of-liver-injuries-diseases-and-carcinogenesis
#5
Subhrajit Biswas, Sampa Ghose
Several investigations have revealed that liver diseases exhibit gender biases, but identifying the root causes of such biases has been challenging. Evidence of gender differences in liver function is present from the early stage of embryonic development. The differences in access to care and treatment as well as diagnostic deliberation may affect gender-specific differences in liver disease progression. Apart from the pathogenesis, xenobiotic metabolism, immune responses, gene expressions, mitochondrial function, lipid composition, and enzyme activities also differ in this sexually dimorphic organ...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929964/-investigation-of-bacterial-and-viral-etiology-in-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infections-with-molecular-methods
#6
Hasip Kahraman, Alper Tünger, Şebnem Şenol, Hörü Gazi, Meltem Avcı, Bahar Örmen, Nesrin Türker, Sabri Atalay, Şükran Köse, Sercan Ulusoy, Meltem Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Oğuz Reşat Sipahi, Tansu Yamazhan, Zeynep Gülay, Sema Alp Çavuş, Hüsnü Pullukçu
In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of the patients were examined by standart bacteriological culture methods, bacterial multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-B ACE Detection (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Group B streptococci) and viral multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-V1 ACE Detection kits herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6)) (Seeplex meningitis-V2 ACE Detection kit (enteroviruses))...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928961/recent-advances-in-managing-hepatitis-d
#7
REVIEW
Cihan Yurdaydin
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection leads to the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis and requires the attention of a liver specialist. In this review, I will recapitulate recent advances in the management of HDV, present background information on HDV infection as well as current chronic hepatitis D treatment, briefly examine the HDV life cycle and discuss new management strategies.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928388/differential-serum-cytokine-profiles-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-c-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Jacqueline Estevez, Vincent L Chen, Ondrej Podlaha, Biao Li, An Le, Philip Vutien, Ellen T Chang, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Zhaoshi Jiang, Stefan Pflanz, Dongliang Ge, Anuj Gaggar, Mindie H Nguyen
Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), most cases of which are related to either hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Prior studies have examined differences in individual cytokine levels in patients with chronic liver disease, but comprehensive cytokine profiling data across different clinical characteristics are lacking. We examined serum cytokine profiles of 411 patients with HCC (n = 102: 32% HBV, 54% HCV, 14% non-viral) and without HCC (n = 309: 39% HBV, 39% HCV, 22% non-viral)...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926530/erratum-the-microrna-mir-31-inhibits-cd8-t-cell-function-in-chronic-viral-infection
#9
Howell F Moffett, Adam N R Cartwright, Hye-Jung Kim, Jernej Godec, Jason Pyrdol, Tarmo Äijö, Gustavo J Martinez, Anjana Rao, Jun Lu, Todd R Golub, Harvey Cantor, Arlene H Sharpe, Carl D Novina, Kai W Wucherpfennig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926399/natural-killer-cells-in-hiv-1-infection-and-therapy
#10
Joanna Mikulak, Ferdinando Oriolo, Elisa Zaghi, Clara Di Vito, Domenico Mavilio
: Natural killer (NK) cells are important effectors of innate immunity playing a key role in the eradication and clearance of viral infections. Over the recent years, several studies have shown that HIV-1 pathologically changes NK cell homeostasis and hampers their antiviral effector functions. Moreover, high levels of chronic HIV-1 viremia markedly impair those NK cell regulatory features that normally regulate the cross-talks between innate and adaptive immune responses. These pathogenic events take place early in the infection and are associated with a pathologic redistribution of NK cell subsets that includes the expansion of anergic CD56 NK cells with an aberrant repertoire of activating and inhibitory receptors...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924518/clinical-spectrum-of-chikungunya-in-pakistan
#11
Syeda Naqvi, Shehroz Bashir, Chintan Rupareliya, Abdullah Shams, Pirthvi Raj Giyanwani, Zeeshan Ali, Faiza Qamar, Vijesh Kumar, Vikash Talib
Background Chikungunya fever is a pandemic disease caused by an arthropod-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The virus spreads through mosquitoes. This mosquito induced viral illness is clinically suspected on symptoms from fever and severe polyarthralgia. The recent outbreak of chikungunya was reported in November 2016 in the metropolitan city Karachi, Pakistan. We emphasis on the awareness of the etiology and vector control to prevent serious consequences. Method A total number of 1275 patients were included in this cross-sectional study...
July 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922377/c-reactive-protein-upregulates-the-whole-blood-expression-of-cd59-an-integrative-analysis
#12
Kaido Lepik, Tarmo Annilo, Viktorija Kukuškina, Kai Kisand, Zoltán Kutalik, Pärt Peterson, Hedi Peterson
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the blood are associated with acute and chronic infections and inflammation. Nevertheless, the functional role of increased CRP in multiple bacterial and viral infections as well as in chronic inflammatory diseases remains unclear. Here, we studied the relationship between CRP and gene expression levels in the blood in 491 individuals from the Estonian Biobank cohort, to elucidate the role of CRP in these inflammatory mechanisms. As a result, we identified a set of 1,614 genes associated with changes in CRP levels with a high proportion of interferon-stimulated genes...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921501/immunological-tolerance-to-lcmv-antigens-differently-affects-control-of-acute-and-chronic-virus-infection-in-mice
#13
Christina Woopen, Tobias Straub, Oliver Schweier, Ulrike Aichele, Katharina Düker, Thomas Boehm, Hanspeter Pircher
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a key role in the control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. In C57BL/6 mice (H-2(b) ), the CTL response is mainly directed against epitopes from the LCMV glycoprotein (GP) and the nucleoprotein (NP) which represent the two major viral proteins. The role of GP- versus NP-derived epitopes for viral clearance was examined using transgenic (tg) mice ubiquitously expressing LCMV GP and NP, respectively. These mice lack GP- or NP-specific CTLs and show decreased levels of GP- or NP-specific antibodies as a result of tolerance induction...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918477/in-vitro-inhibition-of-hiv-1-replication-in-autologous-cd4-t-cells-indicates-viral-containment-by-multifactorial-mechanisms
#14
Ting Tu, Jianbo Zhan, Danlei Mou, Wei Li, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Tao Li, Ning Li, Hao Wu, Cong Jin, Huabiao Chen
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are present during chronic infection, but the relative contributions of these effector mechanisms to viral containment remain unclear. Here, using an in vitro model involving autologous CD4(+) T cells, primary HIV-1 isolates, HIV-1-specific CTLs, and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, we show that b12, a potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody to HIV-1, was able to block viral infection when preincubated with virus prior to infection, but was much less effective than CTLs at limiting virus replication when added to infected cell cultures...
September 15, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912783/sex-differences-in-asthma-a-key-role-of-androgen-signaling-in-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#15
REVIEW
Sophie Laffont, Eve Blanquart, Jean-Charles Guéry
Infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and also allergy differentially affect women and men. In general, women develop strongest immune responses and thus the proportion of infected individuals and the severity of many viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections are increased in men. However, heightened immunity in women makes them more susceptible than men to autoimmunity and allergy. While sex differences in immunity are well documented, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these immunological differences, particularly in allergic asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906010/serial-changes-in-liver-stiffness-and-controlled-attenuation-parameter-following-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-against-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b
#16
Nobuhiko Ogasawara, Masahiro Kobayashi, Norio Akuta, Yoko Kominami, Shunichiro Fujiyama, Yusuke Kawamura, Hitomi Sezaki, Tetsuya Hosaka, Fumitaka Suzuki, Satoshi Saitoh, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Yasuji Arase, Kenji Ikeda, Mariko Kobayashi, Hiromitsu Kumada
Little information is available on the impact of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy on changes in liver fibrosis and steatosis. Liver stiffness (LS) and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) values were evaluated using transient elastography. The study subjects were 214 elderly patients infected with HCV genotype 1b who received 24-week daclatasvir and asunaprevir dual therapy. All patients of this retrospective study had no hepatocellular carcinoma before and during DAA therapy. LS and CAP were assessed before treatment (baseline), at end of treatment (EOT), and at 24, 48, 72 weeks (W) after EOT...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905537/the-relationship-between-airway-inflammation-and-exacerbation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
REVIEW
Diahn Warng Perng, Pei Ku Chen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with abnormal inflammatory response and airflow limitation. Acute exacerbation involves increased inflammatory burden leading to worsening respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea and sputum production. Some COPD patients have frequent exacerbations (two or more exacerbations per year). A substantial proportion of COPD patients may remain stable without exacerbation. Bacterial and viral infections are the most common causative factors that breach airway stability and lead to exacerbation...
September 4, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904428/collapsing-glomerulopathy-a-troublemaker-for-the-renal-allograft-lessons-learnt
#18
K V Kanodia, A V Vanikar, L K Nigam, R D Patel, K S Suthar, H V Patel, H L Trivedi
Collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) is a well-recognized distinct morphological pattern of proliferative parenchymal injury leading to rapid graft failure. We conducted a single-center retrospective study to evaluate the prevalence, clinicopathological features, and prognosis of CG in renal transplant recepient. We analyzed 2518 renal allograft biopsies performed from 2007 to 2015 and correlated their clinicopathological features. The prevalence of CG was 0.83% (21 out of 2518) of allograft biopsies with a higher prevalence of 1...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904197/differential-inhibitory-receptor-expression-on-t-cells-delineates-functional-capacities-in-chronic-viral-infection
#19
Jeffrey E Teigler, Gennadiy Zelinskyy, Michael A Eller, Diane L Bolton, Mary Marovich, Alexander D Gordon, Aljawharah Alrubayyi, Galit Alter, Merlin L Robb, Jeffrey N Martin, Steven G Deeks, Nelson L Michael, Ulf Dittmer, Hendrik Streeck
Inhibitory receptors have been extensively described for their importance in regulating immune responses in chronic infections and cancers. Blocking the function of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1, CTLA-4, 2B4, Tim-3, and LAG-3 have shown promise for augmenting CD8 T cell activity and boosting pathogen-specific immunity. However, the prevalence of inhibitory receptors on CD4 T cells and their relative influence on CD4 T cell functionality in chronic HIV infection remains poorly described. We therefore determined and compared inhibitory receptor expression patterns of 2B4, CTLA-4, LAG-3, PD-1, and Tim-3 on virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in relation to their functional T cell profile...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903779/hepatitis-delta-virological-and-clinical-aspects
#20
REVIEW
Luan Felipo Botelho-Souza, Mariana Pinheiro Alves Vasconcelos, Alcione de Oliveira Dos Santos, Juan Miguel Villalobos Salcedo, Deusilene Souza Vieira
There are an estimated 400 million chronic carriers of HBV worldwide; between 15 and 20 million have serological evidence of exposure to HDV. Traditionally, regions with high rates of endemicity are central and northern Africa, the Amazon Basin, eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, the Middle East and parts of Asia. There are two types of HDV/HBV infection which are differentiated by the previous status infection by HBV for the individual. Individuals with acute HBV infection contaminated by HDV is an HDV/HBV co-infection, while individuals with chronic HBV infection contaminated by HDV represent an HDV/HBV super-infection...
September 13, 2017: Virology Journal
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