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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352135/blocking-zika-virus-vertical-transmission
#1
Pinar Mesci, Angela Macia, Spencer M Moore, Sergey A Shiryaev, Antonella Pinto, Chun-Teng Huang, Leon Tejwani, Isabella R Fernandes, Nicole A Suarez, Matthew J Kolar, Sandro Montefusco, Scott C Rosenberg, Roberto H Herai, Fernanda R Cugola, Fabiele B Russo, Nicholas Sheets, Alan Saghatelian, Sujan Shresta, Jeremiah D Momper, Jair L Siqueira-Neto, Kevin D Corbett, Patricia C B Beltrão-Braga, Alexey V Terskikh, Alysson R Muotri
The outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with increased incidence of congenital malformations. Although recent efforts have focused on vaccine development, treatments for infected individuals are needed urgently. Sofosbuvir (SOF), an FDA-approved nucleotide analog inhibitor of the Hepatitis C (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was recently shown to be protective against ZIKV both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that SOF protected human neural progenitor cells (NPC) and 3D neurospheres from ZIKV infection-mediated cell death and importantly restored the antiviral immune response in NPCs...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346349/early-treatment-of-siv-macaques-with-an-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-mab-alters-virus-distribution-and-preserves-cd4-t-cells-in-later-stages-of-infection
#2
P J Santangelo, C Cicala, S N Byrareddy, K T Ortiz, D Little, K E Lindsay, S Gumber, J J Hong, K Jelicic, K A Rogers, C Zurla, F Villinger, A A Ansari, A S Fauci, J Arthos
Integrin α4β7 mediates the trafficking of leukocytes, including CD4+ T cells, to lymphoid tissues in the gut. Virus mediated damage to the gut is implicated in HIV and SIV mediated chronic immune activation and leads to irreversible damage to the immune system. We employed an immuno-PET/CT imaging technique to evaluate the impact of an anti-integrin α4β7 mAb alone or in combination with ART, on the distribution of both SIV infected cells and CD4+ cells in rhesus macaques infected with SIV. We determined that α4β7 mAb reduced viral antigen in an array of tissues of the lung, spleen, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345515/safety-of-biologic-agents-for-psoriasis-in-patients-with-viral-hepatitis
#3
Nawaf AlMutairi, Hesham Alaadin Abouzaid
INTRODUCTION: Biologics are highly effective, important treatment options for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Biologics are well tolerated and have few side effects. However, the use of biologics in patients with concomitant chronic viral hepatitis is debatable. Recent reports have suggested a very low associated risk of reactivation of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCB). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biologics for moderate to severe psoriasis patients with concomitant chronic viral hepatitis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344726/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-elbasvir-and-grazoprevir-in-participants-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b-infection
#4
Stefan Zeuzem, Lawrence Serfaty, John Vierling, Wendy Cheng, Jacob George, Jan Sperl, Simone Strasser, Hiromitsu Kumada, Peggy Hwang, Michael Robertson, Janice Wahl, Eliav Barr, Rohit Talwani, Heather Platt
BACKGROUND: Genotype 1b (GT1b) is the most common subtype of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We present an integrated analysis of 1070 participants with HCV GT1b infection from 30 countries who received elbasvir/grazoprevir for 12 weeks. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data from participants with chronic HCV GT1b infection enrolled in 11 phase II/III clinical trials. All participants received elbasvir 50 mg plus grazoprevir 100 mg once daily for 12 weeks...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343698/correlations-between-mitochondrial-dna-haplogroup-d5-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-yunnan-china
#5
Xiao Li, Tai-Cheng Zhou, Chang-Hui Wu, Li-Lin Tao, Rui Bi, Li-Jun Chen, De-Yao Deng, Chang Liu, Newton O Otecko, Yang Tang, Xin Lai, Liang Zhang, Jia Wei
Mitochondrial abnormality is frequently reported in individuals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but the associated hosts' mitochondrial genetic factors remain obscure. We hypothesized that mitochondria may affect host susceptibility to HBV infection. In this study, we aimed to detect the association between chronic HBV infection and mitochondrial DNA in Chinese from Yunnan, Southwest China. A total of 272 individuals with chronic HBV infection (CHB), 310 who had never been infected by HBV (healthy controls, HC) and 278 with a trace of HBV infection (spontaneously recovered, SR) were analysed for mtDNA sequence variations and classified into respective haplogroups...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341118/inhibition-of-the-fgl2-fc%C3%AE-riib-riii-immunosuppressive-pathway-enhances-antiviral-t-cell-and-b-cell-responses-leading-to-clearance-of-lcmv-cl-13
#6
Olga Klingberg, Ramzi Khattar, Kaveh Farrokhi, Dario Ferri, Nataliya Yavorska, Jianhua Zhang, Hassan Sadozai, Oyedele Adeyi, Andrzej Chruscinski, Gary A Levy, Nazia Selzner
Persistent viruses evade immune detection by interfering with virus-specific innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses. Fibrinogen-Like Protein-2 (FGL2) is a potent effector molecule of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) and exerts its immunosuppressive activity following ligation to its cognate receptor, FcγRIIB/RIII. The role of FGL2 in the pathogenesis of chronic viral infection caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Clone-13 (LCMV cl-13) was assessed in this study. Chronically infected fgl2+/+ mice had increased plasma levels of FGL2, with reduced expression of the maturation markers, CD80, CD86 and MHC-II on macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) and impaired production of neutralizing antibody...
January 17, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339060/quantification-of-a-recombinant-antigen-in-an-immuno-stimulatory-whole-yeast-cell-based-therapeutic-vaccine
#7
Jenny Wang, Daniel Stenzel, Ally Liu, Dengfeng Liu, Darren Brown, Alexandre Ambrogelly
Therapeutic vaccines represent an emerging class of immune-modulatory treatments for cancer, infections, and chronic diseases. One such vaccine was designed as an immune stimulator of the T cell response against HBV antigens to eliminate HBV infected cells and offer a therapeutic avenue to treat patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B infection. Whole deactivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing a recombinant fusion of HBV X, S and Core antigens elicit T cell responses in mice and activate human T cells linked with viral clearance...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339033/helminth-modulation-of-lung-inflammation
#8
REVIEW
Christian Schwartz, Emily Hams, Padraic G Fallon
Parasitic helminths must establish chronic infections to complete their life cycle and therefore are potent modulators of multiple facets of host physiology. Parasitic helminths have coevolved with humans to become arguably master selectors of our immune system, whereby they have impacted on the selection of genes with beneficial mutations for both host and parasite. While helminth infections of humans are a significant health burden, studies have shown that helminths or helminth products can alter susceptibility to unrelated infectious or inflammatory diseases...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337702/changing-concepts-of-hiv-infection-and-renal-disease
#9
Jean Hou, Cynthia C Nast
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was identified as the major renal manifestation of HIV infection early in the HIV epidemic. However, HIV infection now is associated with a different spectrum of renal lesions leading to chronic kidney disease. This review examines the changes in kidney injury occurring in the current HIV era and the factors involved in this transformation of disease expression. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of HIVAN and opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals has declined in concert with the use of effective combination antiretroviral agents...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337163/utility-of-ultra-deep-sequencing-for-detection-of-varicella-zoster-virus-antiviral-resistance-mutations
#10
Mélanie Mercier-Darty, David Boutolleau, Raphaël Lepeule, Christophe Rodriguez, Sonia Burrel
We report the first application of ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genotypic antiviral testing in a case of acyclovir-resistant VZV infection initially detected by Sanger sequencing within a deeply immunocompromised heart transplant recipient. As added-value compared to Sanger analysis, UDS revealed complex dynamics of viral population under antiviral pressure. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus affecting populations worldwide. VZV is commonly acquired in youth whose primary infection usually manifests as benign varicella (chickenpox)...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336951/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-against-chikungunya-virus-of-novel-small-molecule-antiviral-agents
#11
Roberta Tardugno, Gilda Giancotti, Tine De Burghgraeve, Leen Delang, Johan Neyts, Pieter Leyssen, Andrea Brancale, Marcella Bassetto
Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, responsible for an acute flu-like illness associated with debilitating arthralgia, which can persist for several months or become chronic. In recent years, this viral infection has spread worldwide with a previously unknown virulence. To date, no specific antivirals treatments nor vaccines are available against this important pathogen. Starting from the structures of two antiviral hits previously identified in our research group with in silico techniques, this work describes the design and preparation of 31 novel structural analogues, with which different pharmacophoric features of the two hits have been explored and correlated with the inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication in cells...
January 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335088/-role-of-programmed-death-1-in-viral-infectious-diseases
#12
Fu-Ce Lu, Guang-Min Nong
The research on the immunoregulatory effect of programmed death-1 (PD-1) in infectious diseases mainly focuses on chronic viral infection, but there are few studies on acute viral infection. In chronic viral infection, PD-1 is highly expressed on the surface of CD8+ T cells, which is a sign of CD8+ T cell depletion. Recent studies have shown that in chronic viral infection, PD-1 is also highly expressed on the surface of regulatory T cells and binds to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) on the surface of exhausted CD8+ T cells, resulting in a stronger inhibitory effect on CD8+ T cell immunity...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334553/post-treatment-controllers-after-treatment-interruption-in-chronically-hiv-infected-patients
#13
Franco Maggiolo, Elisa Di Filippo, Laura Comi, Annapaola Callegaro
OBJECTIVE: Control HIV replication requires continuous combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) as discontinuation of cART results in a rapid viral rebound. However, a few individuals exist who took cART for several years and did not show the expected viral rebound after treatment cessation. Most post-treatment controllers (PTCs) are early treated individuals. We report three cases who started cART during chronic infection. DESIGN: Patients were treated and monitored according to Italian guidelines...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334550/chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-subsequent-hiv-viral-load-among-women-with-hiv-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Sarah J Willis, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Andrew Edmonds, Christopher B Hurt, Svenja Albrecht, Kathryn Anastos, Michael Augenbraun, Margaret Fischl, Audrey L French, Aley G Kalapila, Roksana Karim, Marion G Peters, Michael Plankey, Eric C Seaberg, Phyllis C Tien, Adaora A Adimora
OBJECTIVE(S): One in four persons living with HIV is coinfected with HCV. Biological and behavioral mechanisms may increase HIV viral load among coinfected persons. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal effect of chronic HCV on HIV suppression after ART initiation among women with HIV (WWH). DESIGN: HIV RNA was measured every six months among 441 WWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study who initiated ART from 2000-2015. METHODS: Log-binomial regression models were used to compare the proportion of study visits with detectable HIV RNA between women with and without chronic HCV...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334502/risk-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-among-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#15
Beshoy T Yanny, Nyan L Latt, Sammy Saab, Steven Han, Gina Choi, Jason Kramer, Amandeep K Sahota
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents are the standard of care for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during HCV treatment has been reported, the incidence and clinical outcome remains unclear. The aim of our study is to examine the risk of HBV reactivation in actively infected or previously exposed patients during or after HCV treatment with DAAs. METHODS: Adults with chronic HCV infection previously exposed or actively infected with HBV and treated with DAAs between December 2015 to 2016 were included...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333103/interleukin-35-level-is-elevated-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#16
Sheng-Tao Cheng, Ding Yuan, Yi Liu, Ying Huang, Xiang Chen, Hai-Bo Yu, Lin He, Hui Jiang, Ji-Hua Ren, Juan Chen
Backgrounds: As one of the major public health problems, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection would activate the immune system. The outcome of HBV infection was affect significantly by the interactions between HBV and host immune response. Interleukins play important role in anti-viral immunity. Here we investigated the role of interleukin-35 (IL-35) in chronic HBV infection patients. Methods/Results: Serum IL-35 in 72 chronic hepatitis B virus infection patients and 41 healthy control subjects were analyzed by ELISA assay...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331332/hiv-infection-and-its-effects-on-the-development-of-autoimmune-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Luis E Vega, Luis R Espinoza
More than 35 years have elapsed since the initial outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the status of a considerable number of patients has changed from a fatal disorder to a chronic one where comorbidities including sarcoidosis and autoimmune diseases have become relevant and dominant. HIV targets the immune system leading to a state of immunodeficiency in a setting of immune activation in which CD4+ T cell depletion plays a critical role. The onset, natural history and course of HIV-associated autoimmune disease has dramatically changed according to the stage of HIV infection and since the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy...
January 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329934/application-of-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis-of-herpetic-stromal-keratitis-for-novel-therapy
#18
Naveen K Rajasagi, Barry T Rouse
HSV-1 ocular infection can cause herpes stromal keratitis (SK), an immunopathological lesion. Frequent recurrences can lead to progressive corneal scaring which can result in vision impairment if left untreated. Currently, the acute and epithelial forms of SK are usually controlled using anti-viral drugs. However, chronic forms of SK which are inflammatory in nature, require the addition of a topical corticosteroid to the anti-viral treatment regimen. In this review, we highlight the essential events involved in SK pathogenesis which can be targeted for improved therapy...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329683/respiratory-disease-in-ball-pythons-python-regius-experimentally-infected-with-ball-python-nidovirus
#19
Laura L Hoon-Hanks, Marylee L Layton, Robert J Ossiboff, John S L Parker, Edward J Dubovi, Mark D Stenglein
Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329553/inhibitors-of-the-integrase-transportin-sr2-interaction-block-hiv-nuclear-import
#20
Jonas Demeulemeester, Jolien Blokken, Stéphanie De Houwer, Lieve Dirix, Hugo Klaassen, Arnaud Marchand, Patrick Chaltin, Frauke Christ, Zeger Debyser
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy efficiently suppresses HIV replication in infected patients, transforming HIV/AIDS into a chronic disease. Viral resistance does develop however, especially under suboptimal treatment conditions such as poor adherence. As a consequence, continued exploration of novel targets is paramount to identify novel antivirals that do not suffer from cross-resistance with existing drugs. One new promising class of targets are HIV protein-cofactor interactions...
January 12, 2018: Retrovirology
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