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Chronic viral infection

Elena Kilian, Jan S Suchodolski, Katrin Hartmann, Ralf S Mueller, Gerhard Wess, Stefan Unterer
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important viral cause of acute canine enteritis leading to severe damage of the intestinal barrier. It has been speculated that dogs might develop chronic disorders after surviving CPV infection. However, no studies regarding the long-term implications of CPV infection have been published to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dogs that have survived CPV infection will have an increased risk for developing chronic gastroenteritis, atopic dermatitis, or cardiac disease...
2018: PloS One
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Vinicius da Motta de Mello, Mariana Leal, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries...
2018: BioMed Research International
Xiaowen Wang, Qingyang Dong, Qian Li, Yuanyuan Li, Dianyuan Zhao, Jinjie Sun, Junliang Fu, Fanping Meng, Hu Lin, Junjie Luan, Biao Liu, Min Wang, Fusheng Wang, Fuchu He, Li Tang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Production of neutralizing antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is dysregulated in patients with persistent hepatitis V virus (HBV) infection. We investigated mechanisms by which this immune response to the virus is disrupted and whether it can be restored to promote clearance of HBV. METHODS: Immune-competent C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J, as well as mice deficient in follicular helper T cells (Tfh cell-deficient), B cells, or Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells (Treg cell-deficient), were given hydrodynamic injections of pAAV/HBV1...
March 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
Soon Young Ko, Won Hyeok Choe
The advent of novel, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has revolutionized its treatment by producing a sustained virologic response of more than 95% with few side effects and no comorbidities in the general population. Until recently, ideal DAA regimens have not been available to patients with severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease because there are limited data on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of treatment in this unique population. In a hemodialysis context, identifying patients in need of treatment and preventing HCV transmission may also be a matter of concern...
March 16, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Jolanda D F De Groot-Mijnes, Anita S Y Chan, Soon-Phaik Chee, Georges M G M Verjans
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. The infections differ in that the herpes viruses cause an acute lytic infection and inflammation, whereas rubella virus is a chronic low-grade infection with slowly progressing immunopathological responses...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Claudia Pinacchio, Maura Statzu, Arnolfo Petruzziello, Vincenzo Vullo
Introduction: Globally, between 64 and 103 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), with more than 4.6 million people in the United States and is associated with more than 15.000 deaths annually. Chronic infection can result in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Explanation: Epidemiological studies have indicated that persistent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly through chronic inflammation, cell deaths, and proliferation...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
John L M Law, Michael Logan, Jason Wong, Juthika Kundu, Darren Hockman, Amir Landi, Chao Chen, Kevin Crawford, Mark Wininger, Janelle Johnson, Catalina Mesa Prince, Elzbieta Dudek, Ninad Mehta, D Lorne Tyrrell, Michael Houghton
Current evidence supports a protective role for virus neutralizing antibodies in immunity against HCV infection. Many cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been identified. These antibodies have been shown to protect or clear infection in animal models. Previous clinical trials have shown a gpE1/gpE2 vaccine can induce antibodies that neutralize the in vitro infectivity of all the major HCVcc genotypes around the world. However, cross-neutralization appeared to favour certain genotypes with significant but lower neutralization against others...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Christian Viniol, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. While COPD is a mainly chronic disease, a substantial number of patients suffer from exacerbations. Severe exacerbations are related to a significantly worse survival outcome. This review summarises the current knowledge on the different aspects of COPD exacerbations. The impact of risk factors and triggers such as smoking, severe airflow limitation, bronchiectasis, bacterial and viral infections and comorbidities is discussed...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
José Kennedy Amaral, Robert T Schoen
INTRODUCTION: Chronic chikungunya (CHIK) arthritis, an inflammatory arthritis, often follows acute CHIK fever (CHIKF), a viral infection. The pathogenesis of chronic CHIK arthritis is poorly characterized, but may resemble other forms of inflammatory arthritis. Clinically, chronic CHIK arthritis sometimes mimics rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CASE REPORT: We report a patient with well-characterized CHIKF followed 2 months later by chronic CHIK arthritis not only resembling RA clinically, but also associated with RA biomarkers and extra-articular features, including Felty's syndrome (FS)...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology and Therapy
Oliver Grünvogel, Ombretta Colasanti, Ji-Young Lee, Volker Klöss, Sandrine Belouzard, Anna Reustle, Katharina Esser-Nobis, Jasper Hesebeck-Brinckmann, Pascal Mutz, Katrin Hoffmann, Arianeb Mehrabi, Ronald Koschny, Florian W R Vondran, Daniel Gotthardt, Paul Schnitzler, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Robert Thimme, Marco Binder, Ralf Bartenschlager, Jean Dubuisson, Alexander H Dalpke, Volker Lohmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections most often result in chronic outcomes, although the virus constantly produces replication intermediates, in particular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), representing potent inducers of innate immunity. We aimed to characterize the fate of HCV dsRNA in hepatocyte cultures to identify mechanisms contributing to viral persistence in presence of an active innate immune response. METHODS: We analyzed hepatocyte-based culture models for HCV for induction of innate immunity, secretion of virus positive- or negative-strand RNA, and viral replication using different quantification methods and microscopy techniques...
March 10, 2018: Gastroenterology
Xiao-Zhen Kang, Xue-Ran Guo, Bin-Bing Chen, Tian-Ying Zhang, Quan Yuan, Pei-Jer Chen, Jun Zhang, Ning-Shao Xia
There are estimated 248 million individuals worldwide persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), if without timely and effective treatment, about 25%-40% of whom would develop to liver cancer, cirrhosis or other HBV related end-stage liver diseases. Our previously study has reported a unique antibody named E6F6, that recognizes HBsAg-aa119-125 and is capable of prolonged suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA levels in mice. In this study, data revealed that the consecutive E6F6 treatments can not only effectively inhibit HBV viremia, but also significantly reduce HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in DEN-treated HBV-Tg mice...
March 13, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Nicolas Goossens, Claudio de Vito, Alessandra Mangia, Sophie Clément, Giovanni Cenderello, Francisco Barrera, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Nicola Coppola, Rosa Zampino, Maria Stanzione, Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Heiner Wedemeyer, Nasser Semmo, Beat Müllhaupt, David Semela, Raffaele Malinverni, Darius Moradpour, Markus Heim, Gaia Trincucci, Laura Rubbia-Brandt, Francesco Negro
It remains unclear whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may modify the severity of viral steatosis in patients coinfected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined the influence of coinfection with HBV on prevalence of steatosis in chronic hepatitis C in a multi-center cohort of HBV-HCV subjects, and by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. We centrally and blindly assessed steatosis prevalence and severity in a cohort of HBV-HCV coinfected subjects compared to HCV and HBV monoinfected controls and we performed a systematic review of studies addressing the prevalence of steatosis in HBV-HCV subjects compared to HCV controls...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Scott P Kenney, Xiang-Jin Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) possesses many of the features of other positive-stranded RNA viruses but also adds HEV-specific nuances, making its virus-host interactions unique. Slow virus replication kinetics and fastidious growth conditions, coupled with the historical lack of an efficient cell culture system to propagate the virus, have left many gaps in our understanding of its structure and replication cycle. Recent advances in culturing selected strains of HEV and resolving the 3D structure of the viral capsid are filling in knowledge gaps, but HEV remains an extremely understudied pathogen...
March 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Masahiko Mori, Nuanjun Wichukchinda, Reiko Miyahara, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Panita Pathipvanich, Toshiyuki Miura, Michio Yasunami, Koya Ariyoshi, Pathom Sawanpanyalert
BACKGROUND: Class I HLA molecules contribute to HIV control through antigen presentation to both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells. Contribution of CTLs to HIV clinical outcome by HLA alleles has been well studied. However, reports about the role of NK cells in HIV clinical outcome, particularly, about the effect of HLA-KIR pairs, remain incomplete. METHODS: The effects of HLA allele-KIR pairs on HIV clinical outcome were statistically analyzed in a Thai cohort of treatment-naïve chronically infected (n=209)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sophie Van Linthout, Carsten Tschöpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the cardiac muscle mainly caused by viral infection. Due to the diverse clinical presentation of myocarditis, accurate diagnosis demands simultaneous histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular biological workup of endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) as defined by the position statement of the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology on myocarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endomyocardial biopsy-based analysis of viral transcriptional activity, mRNA expression, epigenetics and region-specific protein expression analysis via imaging mass spectrometry have led to the identification of novel potential diagnostic criteria, markers with prognostic value and therapeutic targets for the treatment of viral myocarditis, opening new avenues for novel therapies, including cell therapies, as well as the use of established treatment options, be it from other indications...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Azza M EzzEl-Din, Sherif H Galal, Asmaa O Ahmed, Sherif I Kamel, Dalia T Kamal
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the one of the major causes of chronic liver disease. Individuals exposed to HBV show wide spectrum outcomes including immunized persons, asymptomatic carrier, chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC. The outcome of HBV infection and the severity of associated liver diseases are determined by the nature and strength of host immune responses against the virus. There is accumulating evidence that the innate branch of the host immune system plays an important role in the control of HBV infection...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Abeer Sheneef, Asmaa M Gouda, Asmaa N Mohammad, Laila M Yousef, Amal K Noureldin
Chronic HCV with its longstanding complications of cirrhosis and HCC is a highly prevalent and challenging problem in Egypt. Recently, microRNAs are ranked as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCV related complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of miRNA-122 and miRNA-155 for prediction of progression of HCV infection and for diagnosis of HCC. A total of 92 chronic HCV patients [chronic HCV (group 1, n =32); chronic HCV with cirrhosis (group 2, n=31); chronic HCV with HCC (group 3, n=29)] were enrolled into the study...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
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