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Chronic viral infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339662/hiv-1-proteins-influence-novelty-seeking-behavior-and-alter-region-specific-transcriptional-responses-to-chronic-nicotine-treatment-in-hiv-1tg-rats
#1
Zhongli Yang, Tanseli Nesil, Taylor Wingo, Sulie L Chang, Ming D Li
Introduction: Clinical studies suggest that HIV-1-infected patients are more likely to use or abuse addictive drugs than is the general population. We hypothesized that HIV-1 proteins impact novelty-seeking behavior and enhance the transcriptional response to nicotine in genes implicated in both novelty-seeking behavior and drug addiction. Methods: We assessed the effects of HIV-1 proteins on novelty-seeking behavior by comparing baseline activity differences of HIV-1Tg and F344 control rats in the open-field test...
February 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335588/recovery-of-nk-cd56-cd3-cells-after-1-year-of-tenofovir-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#2
Hwan Hee Lee, Hyojeung Kang, Hyosun Cho
Natural killer (NK) cells have been reported to be dysfunctional in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. However, the functional recovery of NK cells was not clearly understood under anti-viral therapeutic agents in CHB. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic changes of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in terms of their functional markers (CD16, NKG2A, NKG2D) during tenofovir therapy in CHB. The frequency of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in CHB patients was significantly increased after 12 months of tenofovir therapy when compared to baseline...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334399/association-of-hiv-status-with-local-immune-response-to-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-implications-for-immunotherapy
#3
Elizabeth L Yanik, Genevieve J Kaunitz, Tricia R Cottrell, Farah Succaria, Tracee L McMiller, Maria L Ascierto, Jessica Esandrio, Haiying Xu, Aleksandra Ogurtsova, Toby Cornish, Evan J Lipson, Suzanne L Topalian, Eric A Engels, Janis M Taube
Importance: The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway play an important immunosuppressive role in cancer and chronic viral infection, and have been effectively targeted in cancer therapy. Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with both human papillomavirus and HIV infection. To date, patients with HIV have been excluded from most trials of immune checkpoint blocking agents, such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, because it was assumed that their antitumor immunity was compromised compared with immunocompetent patients...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333153/a-novel-inhibitor-idpp-interferes-with-entry-and-egress-of-hcv-by-targeting-glycoprotein-e1-in-a-genotype-specific-manner
#4
Myungeun Lee, Jaewon Yang, Eunji Jo, Ji-Young Lee, Hee-Young Kim, Ralf Bartenschlager, Eui-Cheol Shin, Yong-Soo Bae, Marc P Windisch
Despite recent advances in curing chronic hepatitis C (CHC), the high economic burden to therapy, viral drug resistance, difficult to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and patient groups are still of concern. To address this unmet medical needs, we devised strategies to identify novel viral interventions through target-free high-throughput screening of small molecules utilizing a phenotypic-based HCV infection assay. Thereby, a very potent (EC50 46 ± 26 pM) iminodipyridinopyrimidine (IDPP) drug candidate was selected, and confirmed in primary human hepatocytes (EC50 0...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332627/cross-neutralizing-anti-hiv-1-human-single-chain-variable-fragments-scfvs-against-cd4-binding-site-and-n332-glycan-identified-from-a-recombinant-phage-library
#5
Lubina Khan, Rajesh Kumar, Ramachandran Thiruvengadam, Hilal Ahmad Parray, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Sanjeev Kumar, Heena Aggarwal, Madhav Mohata, Abdul Wahid Hussain, Raksha Das, Raghavan Varadarajan, Jayanta Bhattacharya, Madhu Vajpayee, K G Murugavel, Suniti Solomon, Subrata Sinha, Kalpana Luthra
More than 50% of HIV-1 infection globally is caused by subtype_C viruses. Majority of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting HIV-1 have been isolated from non-subtype_C infected donors. Mapping the epitope specificities of bnAbs provides useful information for vaccine design. Recombinant antibody technology enables generation of a large repertoire of monoclonals with diverse specificities. We constructed a phage recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) library with a diversity of 7.8 × 10(8) clones, using a novel strategy of pooling peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of six select HIV-1 chronically infected Indian donors whose plasma antibodies exhibited potent cross neutralization efficiency...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332201/identification-of-novel-variants-in-hla-class-ii-region-related-to-hla-dpb1-expression-and-disease-progression-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#6
Katsushi Hiramatsu, Hidetaka Matsuda, Tomoyuki Nemoto, Takuto Nosaka, Yasushi Saito, Tatsushi Naito, Kazuto Takahashi, Kazuya Ofuji, Masahiro Ohtani, Hiroyuki Suto, Toshihiro Yasuda, Yukio Hida, Hideki Kimura, Yoshihiro Soya, Yasunari Nakamoto
BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that HLA class II gene may play an important role in viral hepatitis. We studied genetic polymorphism and RNA expression of HLA class II genes in HCV-related liver diseases. METHODS: The study was performed in groups consisting of 24 patients with HCV-related liver disease (12 of persistent normal ALT: PNALT group and 12 of advanced liver disease: ALD group) and 26 patients without HCV infection (control group)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331190/natural-killer-cell-activation-contributes-to-hepatitis-b-viral-control-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Shiwen Tong, Guangze Liu, Minghong Li, Xiumei Li, Qian Liu, Hong Peng, Shiying Li, Hong Ren, Wenwei Yin
The roles of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been well documented. However, the role of innate immunity in HBV infection remains obscure. Here we examined the effect of activation of innate immunity by polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) on HBV infection. A chronic HBV replication mouse model was established by hydrodynamical injection of pAAV/HBV1.2 plasmid into C57BL/6 mice. We found that HBV did not seem to induce an active NK-cell response in the mouse model...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329914/ginsenoside-rg3-restores-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-aberrant-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-inhibits-virus-propagation
#8
Seong-Jun Kim, Jae Young Jang, Eun-Jung Kim, Eun Kyung Cho, Dae Gyun Ahn, Chonsaeng Kim, Han Seul Park, Soung Won Jeong, Sae Hwan Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim, Ji-Hyung Lee, Aleem Siddiqui
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) alters mitochondrial dynamics associated with persistent viral infection and suppression of innate immunity. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also a pathologic feature of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. Despite the high efficacy of DAAs, their treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C in interferon-sparing regimens occasionally produces undesirable side effects such as fatigue, migraine and other conditions, which may be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we show that clinically prescribed DAAs, including Sofosbuvir, affect mitochondrial dynamics...
March 22, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329053/sofosbuvir-plus-ribavirin-without-interferon-for-treatment-of-acute-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-swift-c
#9
Susanna Naggie, Kristen M Marks, Michael Hughes, Daniel S Fierer, Christine Macbrayne, Arthur Kim, Kimberly Hollabaugh, Jhoanna Roa, Bill Symonds, Diana M Brainard, John G McHutchison, Marion G Peters, Jennifer J Kiser, Raymond Chung
Background.: Historically, acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was treated with shorter durations of interferon-containing therapies. In the era of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), it is unclear whether the efficacy of treatment achieved in chronic infection can be maintained with abbreviated courses of therapy during the acute phase. Methods.: The sofosbuvir-containing regimens without interferon for treatment of acute HCV in HIV-1 infected individuals (SWIFT-C) is an open-label, 2-cohort clinical trial in which the first cohort assessed for the safety and efficacy of 12 weeks of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for the treatment of acute HCV infection in participants with chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection...
February 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329027/prevalence-and-predictors-for-compensated-advanced-chronic-liver-disease-c-acld-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-delta-virus-hdv-infection
#10
Ingrid Couto, Marilu Victoria, Valdiléa G Veloso, Lorena Rodrigues, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Marcus Lacerda, Flamir Victoria, Hugo Perazzo
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictor factors for compensated advanced chronic liver disease (c-ACLD) in patients with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included consecutive HDV-infected patients defined by positive anti-HDV. Patients with hepatitis C coinfection, liver transplantation or presence of conditions that limit liver (LSM) or spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) were excluded. Blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, SSM and LSM by transient elastography (FibroScan®) were performed at the same day...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328941/cynomolgus-monkeys-are-successfully-and-persistently-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-hev-3-after-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#11
Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Juliana Rodrigues Guimarães, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Yohan Britto Kevorkian, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Aline Campos de Azevedo da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Leandro Schiavo Vilhena, Edilson Uiechi, Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva, Julio Moran, Renato Sérgio Marchevsky, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328926/frequency-and-role-of-nkp46-and-nkg2a-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#12
Teppei Yoshioka, Tomohide Tatsumi, Takuya Miyagi, Kaori Mukai, Kumiko Nishio, Akira Nishio, Yoshinobu Yokoyama, Takahiro Suda, Tadashi Kegasawa, Minoru Shigekawa, Hayato Hikita, Ryotaro Sakamori, Tetsuo Takehara
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Natural Killer (NK) cells are involved in the control of viral infection. However, the role of NK cells in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains unclear. This study investigated the frequencies and roles of NK cells in CHB, with a focus on activating receptor NKp46 and inhibitory receptor NKG2A. PATIENTS/METHOD: Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained from 71 CHB patients and 37 healthy subjects (HS). The expressions of NKp46 and NKG2A were analyzed using flow cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328797/activation-senescence-and-inflammation-markers-in-hiv-patients-association-with-renal-function
#13
Alexandra Ozanne, Pierre Duffau, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy, Claire Rigothier, Cécile Terrien, Estibaliz Lazaro, Charles Cazanave, Sylvie Lawson-Ayayi, Fabrice Bonnet, Patrick Blanco, Linda Wittkop, Isabelle Pellegrin
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between immune-activation (IA), immune-senescence (IS), inflammation biomarkers and renal function measured by estimated glomerular function rate (eGFR) at inclusion and its evolution over a 3-years follow-up in HIV-infected patients with undetectable viral load. DESIGN: The CIADIS (Chronic Immune Activation anD Senescence) sub-study consecutively included patients between October 2011 and May 2013 enrolled in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine observational cohort...
March 21, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327559/quasispecies-of-hepatitis-c-virus-participate-in-cell-specific-infectivity
#14
Takasuke Fukuhara, Satomi Yamamoto, Chikako Ono, Shota Nakamura, Daisuke Motooka, Hiroyuki Mori, Takeshi Kurihara, Asuka Sato, Tomokazu Tamura, Takashi Motomura, Toru Okamoto, Michio Imamura, Toru Ikegami, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Yuji Soejima, Yoshihiko Maehara, Kazuaki Chayama, Yoshiharu Matsuura
It is well documented that a variety of viral quasispecies are found in the patients with chronic infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the significance of quasispecies in the specific infectivity to individual cell types remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the role of quasispecies of the genotype 2a clone, JFH1 (HCVcc), in specific infectivity to the hepatic cell lines, Huh7.5.1 and Hep3B. HCV RNA was electroporated into Huh7.5.1 cells and Hep3B/miR-122 cells expressing miR-122 at a high level...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324319/white-matter-measures-are-near-normal-in-controlled-hiv-infection-except-in-those-with-cognitive-impairment-and-longer-hiv-duration
#16
Lucette A Cysique, James R Soares, Guangqiang Geng, Maia Scarpetta, Kirsten Moffat, Michael Green, Bruce J Brew, Roland G Henry, Caroline Rae
The objective of the current study was to quantify the degree of white matter (WM) abnormalities in chronic and virally suppressed HIV-infected (HIV+) persons while carefully taking into account demographic and disease factors. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted in 40 HIV- and 82 HIV+ men with comparable demographics and life style factors. The HIV+ sample was clinically stable with successful viral control. Diffusion was measured across 32 non-colinear directions with a b-value of 1000 s/mm(2); fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were quantified with Itrack IDL...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323492/regulatory-and-exhausted-t-cell-responses-to-aav-capsid
#17
Gwladys Gernoux, James M Wilson, Christian Mueller
Recombinant adeno-associated viruses are quickly becoming the preferred viral vector for viral gene delivery for the treatment of a wide variety of genetic disorders. However, since their use in a clinical trial targeting Hemophilia B patients 10 years ago, immune responses to AAV capsid appear to have hampered some of the early clinical gene transfer efficacy. Indeed, AAV-based gene transfer has been shown to reactivate capsid-specific memory T cells which have correlated with a decline in AAV transduced tissue in some patients...
March 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322924/evolutionary-trends-of-resistance-mutational-patterns-of-hbv-reverse-transcriptase-over-years-2002-2012-of-different-treatment-regimens-the-legacy-of-lamivudine-adefovir-combination-treatment
#18
Donatella Vincenti, Pierluca Piselli, Mariacarmela Solmone, Gianpiero D'Offizi, Maria R Capobianchi, Stefano Menzo
Antiviral therapy has revolutionized treatment of chronic HBV infections. First generation compounds, lamivudine and adefovir, displayed a high rate of treatment failures, and have been replaced by more potent compounds with high genetic barrier to resistance. However, the evolution of the virus towards resistance due the use of first generation compounds may still provide useful information for a better management of current antivirals. A single center sequence database including 705 HBV reverse transcriptase sequences from patients failing antiviral treatments (2002-2012) has been statistically analyzed to highlight viral evolution in relationship to the use of antiviral compounds and to their associations/sequencing in those years...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322919/evaluation-of-preclinical-antimalarial-drugs-which-can-overcome-direct-acting-antivirals-resistant-hepatitis-c-viruses-using-the-viral-reporter-assay-systems
#19
Youki Ueda, Hiromichi Dansako, Shinya Satoh, Hye-Sook Kim, Yusuke Wataya, Hiroyuki Doi, Masanori Ikeda, Nobuyuki Kato
Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a major global health problem. Recently developed treatments with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have largely improved the sustained virologic response rate of patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, this approach is still hindered by its great expense and the problem of drug resistance. Using our cell-based HCV assay systems, we reported that the preclinical antimalarial drugs N-89 and N-251 exhibited potent anti-HCV activities...
March 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322895/baicalin-benefits-the-anti-hbv-therapy-via-inhibiting-hbv-viral-rnas
#20
Hai Huang, Wei Zhou, Haiyan Zhu, Pei Zhou, Xunlong Shi
BACKGROUND: Although current antiviral treatments (nucleoside analogs, NAs) for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are effective in suppressing HBV-DNA replication, their clinical outcomes can be compromised by the increasing drug resistance and the inefficiency in promoting HBsAg/HBeAg seroconversion. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we will explore possible effects and mechanism of a natural product baicalin (BA) with the anti-HBV efficacy of entecavir (ETV), a first-line anti-HBV drug, in HBV-DNA, HBsAg/HBeAg seroconversion and drug-resistance...
March 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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