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Adaptive immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668109/coevolution-of-virulence-and-immunosuppression-in-multiple-infections
#1
Tsukushi Kamiya, Nicole Mideo, Samuel Alizon
Many components of host-parasite interactions have been shown to affect the way virulence (i.e., parasite-induced harm to the host) evolves. However, coevolution of multiple parasite traits is often neglected. We explore how an immunosuppressive mechanism of parasites affects and coevolves with virulence through multiple infections. Applying the adaptive dynamics framework to epidemiological models with coinfection, we show that immunosuppression is a double-edgedsword for the evolution of virulence. On one hand, it amplifies the adaptive benefit of virulence by increasing the abundance of coinfections through epidemiological feedbacks...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667753/mapping-innate-and-adaptive-immune-function-in-arbovirus-infections
#2
EDITORIAL
Daniel M Altmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667749/effect-of-lysm-macrophage-depletion-on-lung-pathology-in-mice-with-chronic-bronchitis
#3
Yogesh Saini, Brandon W Lewis, Dongfang Yu, Hong Dang, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Fabio Del Piero, Wanda K O'Neal, Richard C Boucher
Macrophages (MΦ) are key sentinels of respiratory exposure to inhaled environmental stimuli. In normal "healthy" tissues, MΦ are believed to be a dormant cell type that, upon exposure to stress-causing stimuli, may get activated to exhibit pro- or anti-inflammatory roles. To test whether stress present in chronic bronchitic (CB) airways triggers MΦ to manifest protective or detrimental responses, the DTA+ (LysM-regulated Diphtheria Toxin A expressing) strain with partial MΦ-deficiency was crossed with the Scnn1b-Tg mouse model of CB and the progenies were studied at 4-5 weeks of age...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667229/uc-1v150-a-potent-tlr7-agonist-capable-of-activating-macrophages-and-potentiating-mab-mediated-target-cell-deletion
#4
Lekh N Dahal, Adam Gadd, Alexander D Edwards, Mark S Cragg, Stephen A Beers
Toll like receptors (TLR) are critical mediators of the immune system with their activation linked to infection, inflammation and the pathogenesis of immune diseases including autoimmunity and cancer. For this reason, over the last two decades, TLR and their associated signalling pathways have been targeted therapeutically to enhance innate and adaptive immunity. Several TLR ligands, both endogenous and synthetic are at various phases of clinical testing, and new ligands are continually emerging. Agonists of TLR7 are known immune response modifiers, simultaneously stimulating several cell types, resulting in immune cell activation and cytokine and chemokine release...
April 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666932/-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-crps-an-update
#5
V Dimova, F Birklein
The acute phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is pathophysiologically characterized by an activation of the immune system and its associated inflammatory response. During the course of CRPS, central nervous symptoms like mechanical hyperalgesia, loss of sensation, and body perception disorders develop. Psychological factors such as pain-related anxiety and traumatic events might have a negative effect on the treatment outcome. While the visible inflammatory symptoms improve, the pain often persists...
April 17, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666625/dying-to-be-noticed-epigenetic-regulation-of-immunogenic-cell-death-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Brianne Cruickshank, Michael Giacomantonio, Paola Marcato, Sherri McFarland, Jonathan Pol, Shashi Gujar
Immunogenic cell death (ICD) activates both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system during apoptotic cancer cell death. With respect to cancer immunotherapy, the process of ICD elicits enhanced adjuvanticity and antigenicity from dying cancer cells and consequently, promotes the development of clinically desired antitumor immunity. Cancer ICD requires the presentation of various "hallmarks" of immunomodulation, which include the cell-surface translocation of calreticulin, production of type I interferons, and release of high-mobility group box-1 and ATP, which through their compatible actions induce an immune response against cancer cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666573/psychosocial-stress-and-immunity-what-can-we-learn-from-pig-studies
#7
Ulrike Gimsa, Margret Tuchscherer, Ellen Kanitz
Psychosocial stress may impair immune functions and provoke the development of pathologies. The underlying communication between the brain and the immune system is being studied predominantly in rodents. However, pigs offer several advantages as preclinical models for humans because pigs are more similar to humans than rodents in many anatomical and physiological characteristics. Unlike in rodents, the main stress-induced glucocorticoid in humans and pigs is cortisol with a similar circadian rhythm. In this study, we summarize data on short-term and long-term effects of social stress in pigs for their immunity and neuroendocrine regulation with consequences for their health and well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666475/lincrna-cox2-regulates-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-autophagy-mediated-neuroinflammation
#8
Zhenyi Xue, Zimu Zhang, Hongkun Liu, Wen Li, Xiangdong Guo, Zhihui Zhang, Ying Liu, Long Jia, Yan Li, Yinghui Ren, Hongwei Yang, Lijuan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Yurong Da, Junwei Hao, Zhi Yao, Rongxin Zhang
Inflammasome activation plays key roles in host defense, but also contributes to the pathogenesis of auto-inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. As autophagy is connected with both the innate and adaptive immune systems, autophagic dysfunction is also closely related to inflammation, infection, and neurodegeneration. Here we identify that lincRNA-Cox2, previously known as a mediator of both the activation and repression of immune genes expression in innate immune cells, could bind NF-κB p65 and promote its nuclear translocation and transcription, modulating the expression of inflammasome sensor NLRP3 and adaptor ASC...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666291/determining-the-specificity-of-cascade-binding-interference-and-primed-adaptation-in-vivo-in-the-escherichia-coli-type-i-e-crispr-cas-system
#9
Lauren A Cooper, Anne M Stringer, Joseph T Wade
In clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) immunity systems, short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are bound by Cas proteins, and these complexes target invading nucleic acid molecules for degradation in a process known as interference. In type I CRISPR-Cas systems, the Cas protein complex that binds DNA is known as Cascade. Association of Cascade with target DNA can also lead to acquisition of new immunity elements in a process known as primed adaptation. Here, we assess the specificity determinants for Cascade-DNA interaction, interference, and primed adaptation in vivo , for the type I-E system of Escherichia coli Remarkably, as few as 5 bp of crRNA-DNA are sufficient for association of Cascade with a DNA target...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666167/a-flexible-mhc-class-i-multimer-loading-system-for-large-scale-detection-of-antigen-specific-t-cells
#10
Jolien J Luimstra, Malgorzata A Garstka, Marthe C J Roex, Anke Redeker, George M C Janssen, Peter A van Veelen, Ramon Arens, J H Frederik Falkenburg, Jacques Neefjes, Huib Ovaa
Adaptive immunity is initiated by T cell recognition of specific antigens presented by major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). MHC multimer technology has been developed for the detection, isolation, and characterization of T cells in infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. Here, we present a simple, fast, flexible, and efficient method to generate many different MHC class I (MHC I) multimers in parallel using temperature-mediated peptide exchange. We designed conditional peptides for HLA-A*02:01 and H-2Kb that form stable peptide-MHC I complexes at low temperatures, but dissociate when exposed to a defined elevated temperature...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665418/a-continuous-genome-assembly-of-the-corkwing-wrasse-symphodus-melops
#11
Morten Mattingsdal, Sissel Jentoft, Ole K Tørresen, Halvor Knutsen, Michael M Hansen, Joana I Robalo, Zuzanna Zagrodzka, Carl André, Enrique Blanco Gonzalez
The wrasses (Labridae) are one of the most successful and species-rich families of the Perciformes order of teleost fish. Its members display great morphological diversity, and occupy distinct trophic levels in coastal waters and coral reefs. The cleaning behaviour displayed by some wrasses, such as corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), is of particular interest for the salmon aquaculture industry to combat and control sea lice infestation as an alternative to chemicals and pharmaceuticals. There are still few genome assemblies available within this fish family for comparative and functional studies, despite the rapid increase in genome resources generated during the past years...
April 14, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664835/phagocytosis-by-fibrocytes-as-a-mechanism-to-decrease-bacterial-burden-and-increase-survival-in-sepsis
#12
Dalis Collins, Christopher Fry, Bethany B Moore, Jean A Nemzek
Fibrocytes are unique cells with innate and adaptive immune functions, but these mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism by which adoptive transfer of exogenous fibrocytes improved bacterial clearance and increased sepsis survival. Initial flow cytometry-based, in vitro assays demonstrated phagocytosis by fibrocytes and intracellular bacterial killing was confirmed by direct plating of cell lysates after exposure to live bacteria. Intravenous adoptive transfer of fibrocytes at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or two hours after CLP in mice increased survivability...
April 16, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664574/innate-immune-memory-an-evolutionary-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Benjamin Gourbal, Silvain Pinaud, Gerold J M Beckers, Jos W M Van Der Meer, Uwe Conrath, Mihai G Netea
Over the last decades, there was increasing evidence for the presence of innate immune memory in living organisms. In this review, we compare the innate immune memory of various organisms with a focus on phylogenetics. We discuss the acquisition and molecular basis of immune memory and we describe the innate immune memory paradigm and its role in host defense during evolution. The molecular characterization of innate immunological memory in diverse organisms and host-parasite systems reconciles mechanisms with phenomena and paves the way to molecular comprehension of innate immune memory...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664569/fatty-acid-metabolism-in-cd8-t-cell-memory-challenging-current-concepts
#14
REVIEW
Brenda Raud, Peter J McGuire, Russell G Jones, Tim Sparwasser, Luciana Berod
CD8+ T cells are key members of the adaptive immune response against infections and cancer. As we discuss in this review, these cells can present diverse metabolic requirements, which have been intensely studied during the past few years. Our current understanding suggests that aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of activated CD8+ T cells, while naive and memory (Tmem ) cells often rely on oxidative phosphorylation, and thus mitochondrial metabolism is a crucial determinant of CD8+ Tmem cell development. Moreover, it has been proposed that CD8+ Tmem cells have a specific requirement for the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LC-FAO), a process modulated in lymphocytes by the enzyme CPT1A...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664564/immunological-memories-of-the-bone-marrow
#15
REVIEW
Hyun-Dong Chang, Koji Tokoyoda, Andreas Radbruch
Memory for antigens once encountered is a hallmark of the immune system of vertebrates, providing us with an immunity adapted to pathogens of our environment. Despite its fundamental relevance, the cells and genes representing immunological memory are still poorly understood. Here we discuss the concept of a circulating, proliferating, and ubiquitous population of effector lymphocytes vs concepts of resting and dormant populations of dedicated memory lymphocytes, distinct from effector lymphocytes and residing in defined tissues, particularly in barrier tissues and in the bone marrow...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664563/immunological-memory-what-s-in-a-name
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Pradeu, Louis Du Pasquier
Immunological memory is one of the core topics of contemporary immunology. Yet there are many discussions about what this concept precisely means, which components of the immune system display it, and in which phyla it exists. Recent years have seen the multiplication of claims that immunological memory can be found in "innate" immune cells and in many phyla beyond vertebrates (including invertebrates, plants, but also bacteria and archaea), as well as the multiplication of concepts to account for these phenomena, such as "innate immune memory" or "trained immunity"...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664562/stromal-cell-networks-coordinate-immune-response-generation-and-maintenance
#17
REVIEW
Yannick O Alexandre, Scott N Mueller
Secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), including the spleen and lymph nodes (LN) are a meeting place for immune cells to initiate adaptive immune responses. Lymphocytes constantly circulate between SLO through the blood and lymph in search of their cognate antigen and are activated within the organized microarchitecture of SLO. Lymphoid stromal cells (LSC) of mesenchymal and endothelial origin construct and support the microarchitecture of SLO by defining distinct compartments and providing signals that can either promote or inhibit immune responses...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664021/a-tlr-akt-foxo3-immune-tolerance-like-pathway-disrupts-the-repair-capacity-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#18
Taasin Srivastava, Parham Diba, Justin M Dean, Fatima Banine, Daniel Shaver, Matthew Hagen, Xi Gong, Weiping Su, Ben Emery, Daniel L Marks, Edward N Harris, Bruce Baggenstoss, Paul H Weigel, Larry S Sherman, Stephen A Back
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) persistently disrupts myelin regeneration by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We identified a specific bioactive hyaluronan fragment (bHAf) that downregulates myelin gene expression and chronically blocks OPC maturation and myelination via a tolerance-like mechanism that dysregulates pro-myelination signaling via AKT. Desensitization of AKT occurs via TLR4 but not TLR2 or CD44. OPC differentiation was selectively blocked by bHAf in a maturation-dependent fashion at the late OPC (preOL) stage by a noncanonical TLR4/TRIF pathway that induced persistent activation of the FoxO3 transcription factor downstream of AKT...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663929/generation-of-a-graft-versus-anticancer-immune-response-through-skin-allograft-with-tumor
#19
Yuan Fang, Sufang Zhou, Baoshi Zheng, Wenlin Gong, Yong Huang, Zhenghua Zhang, Chaofan Zhou, Huiling Wang, Zhimei Huang, Liping Zhong, Yongxiang Zhao
Effector memory T cells (TEM) are a subset of memory T cells which play an important role in stimulation of adaptive immunity. Although they are associated with multiple immune responses, the antitumor effect of TEM is not clearly understood. In this research, generation of anti-tumor TEM was induced through skin allografts in C57BL/6 mice with B16 melanoma. We observed that the growth of tumor tissues in C57BL/6 mice treated with allografts was interrupted. Furthermore, the survival time for the treated mice was prolonged along with increased serum levels for CXCL9, CXCL10 and INF-γ...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663622/the-role-of-defensive-symbionts-in-host-parasite-coevolution
#20
Christoph Vorburger, Steve J Perlman
Understanding the coevolution of hosts and parasites is a long-standing goal of evolutionary biology. There is a well-developed theoretical framework to describe the evolution of host-parasite interactions under the assumption of direct, two-species interactions, which can result in arms race dynamics or sustained genotype fluctuations driven by negative frequency dependence (Red Queen dynamics). However, many hosts rely on symbionts for defence against parasites. Whilst the ubiquity of defensive symbionts and their potential importance for disease control are increasingly recognized, there is still a gap in our understanding of how symbionts mediate or possibly take part in host-parasite coevolution...
April 16, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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