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Adaptive immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240923/neutrophil-activation-signature-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-indicates-the-presence-of-low-density-granulocytes
#1
Kavitha Ramanathan, Anna Glaser, Hanna Lythgoe, Joanne Ong, Michael W Beresford, Angela Midgley, Helen L Wright
Objective: JIA is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease with involvement of innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the role of neutrophils in JIA pathogenesis remains unclear. This study aimed to identify and validate neutrophil gene expression signatures in JIA using public microarray datasets and new clinical samples. Methods: Three suitable datasets were analysed by significance analysis of microarray and Ingenuity. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from a new cohort of JIA patients and healthy paediatric controls (HCs)...
December 12, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239107/regulation-of-tumor-stroma-interactions-by-the-unfolded-protein-response
#2
REVIEW
Joanna Obacz, Tony Avril, Camila Rubio-Patiño, Jozef P Bossowski, Aeid Igbaria, Jean-Ehrland Ricci, Eric Chevet
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved adaptive pathway that helps cells cope with the protein misfolding burden within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Imbalance between protein folding demand and capacity in the ER leads to a situation called ER stress that is often observed in highly proliferative and secretory tumor cells. As such, activation of the UPR signaling has emerged as a key adaptive mechanism promoting cancer progression. It is becoming widely acknowledged that, in addition to its intrinsic effect on tumor biology, the UPR can also regulate tumor microenvironment...
December 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238732/neutrophils-their-role-in-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-2017
#3
EDITORIAL
Carlos Rosales, Clifford A Lowell, Michael Schnoor, Eileen Uribe-Querol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238347/langerhans-cells-programmed-by-the-epidermis
#4
REVIEW
Kalum Clayton, Andres F Vallejo, James Davies, Sofia Sirvent, Marta E Polak
Langerhans cells (LCs) reside in the epidermis as a dense network of immune system sentinels. These cells determine the appropriate adaptive immune response (inflammation or tolerance) by interpreting the microenvironmental context in which they encounter foreign substances. In a normal physiological, "non-dangerous" situation, LCs coordinate a continuous state of immune tolerance, preventing unnecessary and harmful immune activation. Conversely, when they sense a danger signal, for example during infection or when the physical integrity of skin has been compromised as a result of a trauma, they instruct T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system to mount efficient effector responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238329/relative-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-brucella-abortus-reveals-metabolic-adaptation-to-multiple-environmental-stresses
#5
Xiaodong Zai, Qiaoling Yang, Ying Yin, Ruihua Li, Mengying Qian, Taoran Zhao, Yaohui Li, Jun Zhang, Ling Fu, Junjie Xu, Wei Chen
Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause chronic brucellosis in humans and animals. The virulence of Brucella primarily depends on its successful survival and replication in host cells. During invasion of the host tissue, Brucella is simultaneously subjected to a variety of harsh conditions, including nutrient limitation, low pH, antimicrobial defenses, and extreme levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the host immune response. This suggests that Brucella may be able to regulate its metabolic adaptation in response to the distinct stresses encountered during its intracellular infection of the host...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238045/ripk3-promotes-adenovirus-type-5-activity
#6
Melanie Weigert, Alex Binks, Suzanne Dowson, Elaine Y L Leung, Dmitris Athineos, Xinzi Yu, Margaret Mullin, Josephine B Walton, Clare Orange, Darren Ennis, Karen Blyth, Stephen W G Tait, Iain A McNeish
Oncolytic adenoviral mutants infect human malignant cells and replicate selectively within them. This induces direct cytotoxicity that can also trigger profound innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the mechanism by which adenoviruses produce cell death remains uncertain. We previously suggested that type 5 adenoviruses, including the E1A CR2 deletion mutant dl922-947, might induce a novel form of programmed death resembling necroptosis. Here we have investigated the roles of core necrosis proteins RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL in the cytotoxicity of dl922-947 and other adenovirus serotypes...
December 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237849/experimental-evolution-of-insect-immune-memory-versus-pathogen-resistance
#7
Imroze Khan, Arun Prakash, Deepa Agashe
Under strong pathogen pressure, insects often evolve resistance to infection. Many insects are also protected via immune memory (immune priming), whereby sublethal exposure to a pathogen enhances survival after secondary infection. Theory predicts that immune memory should evolve when the pathogen is highly virulent, or when pathogen exposure is relatively rare. However, there are no empirical tests of these hypotheses, and the adaptive benefits of immune memory relative to direct resistance against a pathogen are poorly understood...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237841/mammalian-adaptation-of-an-avian-influenza-a-virus-involves-stepwise-changes-in-ns1
#8
C Chauché, A Nogales, H Zhu, D Goldfarb, A I Ahmad Shanizza, Q Gu, C R Parrish, L Martínez-Sobrido, J F Marshall, P R Murcia
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are common pathogens of birds that occasionally establish endemic infections in mammals. The processes and mechanisms that result in IAV mammalian adaptation are poorly understood. The viral non-structural 1 (NS1) protein counteracts the interferon (IFN) response, a central component of the host-species barrier.We characterised the NS1 proteins of equine influenza virus (EIV), a mammalian IAV lineage of avian origin. We showed that evolutionary distinct NS1s counteract the IFN response using different and mutually exclusive mechanisms: while the NS1s of early EIVs block general gene expression by binding to the cellular polyadenylation specific factor 30 (CPSF30), NS1s from more evolved EIVs specifically block the induction of IFN-stimulated genes by interfering with the JAK/STAT pathway...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237835/hla-class-i-mediated-hiv-1-control-in-vietnamese-infected-with-hiv-1-subtype-a-e
#9
Takayuki Chikata, Giang Van Tran, Hayato Murakoshi, Tomohiro Akahoshi, Ying Qi, Vivek Naranbhai, Nozomi Kuse, Yoshiko Tamura, Madoka Koyanagi, Sachiko Sakai, Dung Hoai Nguyen, Dung Thi Nguyen, Ha Thu Nguyen, Trung Vu Nguyen, Shinichi Oka, Maureen P Martin, Mary Carrington, Keiko Sakai, Kinh Van Nguyen, Masafumi Takiguchi
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) play an important role in the control of HIV-1 subtype B or C infection. However, the role of CTLs in HIV-1 subtype A/E infection still remains unclear. Here we investigated the association of HLA class I alleles with clinical outcome in treatment-naïve Vietnamese infected with subtype A/E. We found that HLA-C*12:02 was significantly associated with lower pVL and higher CD4 count and that the HLA-A*29:01-B*07:05-C*15:05 haplotype was significantly associated with higher pVL and lower CD4 count as compared to individuals without these respective genotypes...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237479/birth-delivery-method-affects-expression-of-immune-genes-in-lung-and-jejunum-tissue-of-neonatal-beef-calves
#10
Carla Surlis, Keelan McNamara, Eoin O'Hara, Sinead Waters, Marijke Beltman, Joseph Cassidy, David Kenny
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is a routine veterinary obstetrical procedure employed to alleviate dystocia in cattle. However, CS, particularly before the onset of labour, is known to negatively affect neonatal respiration and metabolic adaptation in humans, though there is little published information for cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of elective caesarean section (ECS) or normal trans-vaginal (TV) delivery, on lung and jejunal gene expression profiles of neonatal calves...
December 14, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237128/host-control-of-fungal-infections-lessons-from-basic-studies-and-human-cohorts
#11
Michail S Lionakis, Stuart M Levitz
In the last few decades, the AIDS pandemic and the significant advances in the medical management of individuals with neoplastic and inflammatory conditions have resulted in a dramatic increase in the population of immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic, life-threatening fungal infections. The parallel development of clinically relevant mouse models of fungal disease and the discovery and characterization of several inborn errors of immune-related genes that underlie inherited human susceptibility to opportunistic mycoses have significantly expanded our understanding of the innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that protect against ubiquitous fungal exposures...
December 13, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237060/news-from-the-pub-plant-u-box-type-e3-ubiquitin-ligases
#12
Marco Trujillo
Plant U-box type E3 ubiquitin ligases (PUBs) are well known for their functions in a variety of stress responses, including immune responses and the adaptation to abiotic stresses. First linked to pollen self-incompatibility, their repertoire of roles has grown to encompass also the regulation of developmental processes. Notably, new studies provide clues to their mode of action, underline the existence of conserved PUB-kinase modules, and suggest new links to G-protein signalling, placing PUBs at the crossroads of major signalling hubs...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236910/role-of-t-cruzi-exposure-in-the-pattern-of-t-cell-cytokines-among-chronically-infected-hiv-and-chagas-disease-patients
#13
Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Dewton de Moraes Vasconcelos, Karim Yaqub Ibrahim, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Rita C Bezerra, Vera Lúcia Teixeira de Freitas, Maria Aparecida Shikanai-Yasuda
OBJECTIVES: The impact of Chagas disease (CD) in HIV-infected patients is relevant throughout the world. In fact, the characterization of the adaptive immune response in the context of co-infection is important for predicting the need for interventions in areas in which HIV and Chagas disease co-exist. METHODS: We described and compared the frequency of cytokine-producing T cells stimulated with soluble antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) using a cytometric assay for the following groups: individuals with chronic Chagas disease (CHR, n=10), those with Chagas disease and HIV infection (CO, n=11), those with only HIV (HIV, n=14) and healthy individuals (C, n=15)...
November 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236553/progesterone-suppresses-the-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pro-inflammatory-response-in-primary-mononuclear-cells-isolated-from-human-placental-blood
#14
E Preciado-Martínez, G García-Ruíz, P Flores-Espinosa, L Bermejo-Martínez, A Espejel-Nuñez, G Estrada-Gutiérrez, G Razo-Aguilera, M Granados-Cepeda, A C Helguera-Repetto, C Irles, V Zaga-Clavellina
Progesterone is an essential hormone that induces deep immune adaptations favoring pregnancy maintenance. We aimed at evaluating the effects of progesterone on the synthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by mononuclear cells isolated from human placental blood stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, emulating an infection-inflammation environment. Mononuclear cells isolated form human placental blood were obtained from nine women undergoing elective cesarean delivery at term (not in labor), isolated by density gradient sedimentation, cultured and co-stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (500 ng/ml) from Escherichia coli in the presence or not of progesterone (0...
December 13, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236069/a-portrait-of-the-sialyl-glycan-receptor-specificity-of-the-h10-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-a-picture-of-an-avian-virus-on-the-verge-of-becoming-a-pandemic
#15
REVIEW
Elena K Schneider, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
Pandemic influenza is a constant global threat to human health. In particular, the pandemic potential of novel avian influenza viruses such as the H10N7 and H10N8 avian strains, which recently managed to cross the species barrier from birds to humans, are always of great concern as we are unlikely to have any prior immunity. Human and avian isolates of H10 influenza display the ability to rapidly adapt to replication in mammalian hosts. Fortunately, so far there is no evidence of efficient human-to-human transmission of any avian influenza virus...
December 13, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235197/superoxide-dismutase-from-helicobacter-pylori-suppresses-the-production-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-during-in-vivo-infection
#16
Andrew Stent, Alison L Every, Yok T Chionh, Garrett Z Ng, Philip Sutton
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has undergone considerable adaptation to allow chronic persistence within the gastric environment. While H. pylori-associated diseases are driven by an excessive inflammation, severe gastritis is detrimental to colonization by this pathogen. Hence, H. pylori has developed strategies to minimize the severity of gastritis it triggers in its host. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is well known for its role in protecting against oxidative attack; less recognized is its ability to inhibit immunity, shown for SOD from mammalian sources and those of some bacterial species...
December 13, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234329/neoantigens-generated-by-individual-mutations-and-their-role-in-cancer-immunity-and-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Mirjana Efremova, Francesca Finotello, Dietmar Rieder, Zlatko Trajanoski
Recent preclinical and clinical studies have proved the long-standing hypothesis that tumors elicit adaptive immune responses and that the antigens driving effective T-cell response are neoantigens, i.e., peptides that are generated from somatically mutated genes. Hence, the characterization of neoantigens and the identification of the immunogenic ones are of utmost importance for improving cancer immunotherapy and broadening its efficacy to a larger fraction of patients. In this review, we first introduce the methods used for the quantification of neoantigens using next-generation sequencing data and then summarize results obtained using these tools to characterize the neoantigen landscape in solid cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234320/increasing-the-clinical-potential-and-applications-of-anti-hiv-antibodies
#18
REVIEW
Casey K Hua, Margaret E Ackerman
Preclinical and early human clinical studies of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to prevent and treat HIV infection support the clinical utility and potential of bNAbs for prevention, postexposure prophylaxis, and treatment of acute and chronic infection. Observed and potential limitations of bNAbs from these recent studies include the selection of resistant viral populations, immunogenicity resulting in the development of antidrug (Ab) responses, and the potentially toxic elimination of reservoir cells in regeneration-limited tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234112/a-switch-in-nucleotide-affinity-governs-activation-of-the-src-and-tec-family-kinases
#19
Freia von Raußendorf, Anita de Ruiter, Thomas A Leonard
The Tec kinases, closely related to Src family kinases, are essential for lymphocyte function in the adaptive immune system. Whilst the Src and Abl kinases are regulated by tail phosphorylation and N-terminal myristoylation respectively, the Tec kinases are notable for the absence of either regulatory element. We have found that the inactive conformations of the Tec kinase Itk and Src preferentially bind ADP over ATP, stabilising both proteins. We demonstrate that Itk adopts the same conformation as Src and that the autoinhibited conformation of Src is independent of its C-terminal tail...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234060/heat-killed-lactobacillus-casei-confers-broad-protection-against-influenza-a-virus-primary-infection-and-develops-heterosubtypic-immunity-against-future-secondary-infection
#20
Yu-Jin Jung, Young-Tae Lee, Vu Le Ngo, Young-Hee Cho, Eun-Ju Ko, Sung-Moon Hong, Ki-Hye Kim, Ji-Hun Jang, Joon-Suk Oh, Min-Kyung Park, Cheol-Hyun Kim, Jun Sun, Sang-Moo Kang
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the common probiotics. Here, we investigated the antiviral protective effects of heat-killed LAB strain Lactobacillus casei DK128 (DK128) on influenza viruses. Intranasal treatment of mice with DK128 conferred protection against different subtypes of influenza viruses by lessening weight loss and lowering viral loads. Protection via heat-killed DK128 was correlated with an increase in alveolar macrophage cells in the lungs and airways, early induction of virus specific antibodies, reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and innate immune cells...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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