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histone chaperone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339748/dot1-regulates-nucleosome-dynamics-by-its-inherent-histone-chaperone-activity-in-yeast
#1
Soyun Lee, Seunghee Oh, Kwiwan Jeong, Hyelim Jo, Yoonjung Choi, Hogyu David Seo, Minhoo Kim, Joonho Choe, Chang Seob Kwon, Daeyoup Lee
Dot1 (disruptor of telomeric silencing-1, DOT1L in humans) is the only known enzyme responsible for histone H3 lysine 79 methylation (H3K79me) and is evolutionarily conserved in most eukaryotes. Yeast Dot1p lacks a SET domain and does not methylate free histones and thus may have different actions with respect to other histone methyltransferases. Here we show that Dot1p displays histone chaperone activity and regulates nucleosome dynamics via histone exchange in yeast. We show that a methylation-independent function of Dot1p is required for the cryptic transcription within transcribed regions seen following disruption of the Set2-Rpd3S pathway...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339544/role-of-chromatin-damage-and-chromatin-trapping-of-fact-in-mediating-the-anticancer-cytotoxicity-of-dna-binding-small-molecule-drugs
#2
Elimelech Nesher, Alfiya Safina, Ieman Aljahdali, Scott Portwood, Eunice S Wang, Igor Koman, Jianmin Wang, Katerina V Gurova
Precisely how DNA-targeting chemotherapeutic drugs trigger cancer cell death remains unclear, as it is difficult to separate direct DNA damage from chromatin damage in cells. Recent work on curaxins, a class of small molecule drugs with broad anticancer activity, show that they interfere with histone-DNA interactions and destabilize nucleosomes without binding DNA or causing detectable DNA damage. Chromatin unfolding caused by curaxins is sensed by the histone chaperone FACT, which binds unfolded nucleosomes and causes chromatin trapping (c-trapping)...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332189/the-arabidopsis-histone-chaperone-fact-is-required-for-stress-induced-expression-of-anthocyanin-biosynthetic-genes
#3
Alexander Pfab, Matthias Breindl, Klaus D Grasser
The histone chaperone FACT is involved in the expression of genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes also upon induction by moderate high-light and therefore contributes to the stress-induced plant pigmentation. The histone chaperone FACT consists of the SSRP1 and SPT16 proteins and associates with transcribing RNAPII (RNAPII) along the transcribed region of genes. FACT can promote transcriptional elongation by destabilising nucleosomes in the path of RNA polymerase II, thereby facilitating efficient transcription of chromatin templates...
January 13, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305010/histone-variants-and-disease
#4
Delphine Quénet
In eukaryotes, the genome is organized into a complex nucleoprotein structure called chromatin. Despite the simplicity of its monomer, DNA and two copies of four histones, the existence of histone variants opens possibilities of multiple chromatin landscapes and fine-tune regulation of molecular mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression and maintenance of genome stability. However, any defects in these combinations may contribute to disease development and/or progression. Here, I review human histone variants and their chaperones, and discuss how they contribute to pathological conditions...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300974/the-elongation-factor-spn1-is-a-multi-functional-chromatin-binding-protein
#5
Sha Li, Adam R Almeida, Catherine A Radebaugh, Ling Zhang, Xu Chen, Liangqun Huang, Alison K Thurston, Anna A Kalashnikova, Jeffrey C Hansen, Karolin Luger, Laurie A Stargell
The process of transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in a chromatin context involves a large number of crucial factors. Spn1 is a highly conserved protein encoded by an essential gene and is known to interact with RNAPII and the histone chaperone Spt6. Spn1 negatively regulates the ability of Spt6 to interact with nucleosomes, but the chromatin binding properties of Spn1 are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that full length Spn1 (amino acids 1-410) binds DNA, histones H3-H4, mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, and has weak nucleosome assembly activity...
December 30, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300933/structural-characterization-of-the-asf1-rtt109-interaction-and-its-role-in-histone-acetylation
#6
Lukas Lercher, Nataliya Danilenko, John Kirkpatrick, Teresa Carlomagno
Acetylation of histone H3 at lysine-56 by the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 in lower eukaryotes is important for maintaining genomic integrity and is required for C. albicans pathogenicity. Rtt109 is activated by association with two different histone chaperones, Vps75 and Asf1, through an unknown mechanism. Here, we reveal that the Rtt109 C-terminus interacts directly with Asf1 and elucidate the structural basis of this interaction. In addition, we find that the H3 N-terminus can interact via the same interface on Asf1, leading to a competition between the two interaction partners...
December 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288494/nuclear-cytochrome-c-a-mitochondrial-visitor-regulating-damaged-chromatin-dynamics
#7
Irene Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro Velázquez-Cruz, Seamus Curran-French, Antonio Díaz-Quintana, Miguel A De la Rosa
Over the past decade, evidence has emerged suggesting a broader role for cytochrome c (Cyt c) in programmed cell death. Recently, we demonstrated the ability of Cyt c to inhibit the nucleosome assembly activity of histone chaperones SET/TAF-Iβ and NRP1 during DNA damage in humans and plants, respectively. Here, we hypothesise a dual concentration-dependent function for nuclear Cyt c in response to DNA damage. We propose that low levels of highly cytotoxic DNA lesions - such as double-strand breaks - induce nuclear translocation of Cyt c, leading to the attenuation of nucleosome assembly and, thereby, increasing the time available for DNA repair...
December 30, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277426/centromere-size-and-its-relationship-to-haploid-formation-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Na Wang, R Kelly Dawe
Wide species crosses often result in uniparental genome elimination and visible failures in centromere function. Crosses involving lines with mutated forms of the CENH3 histone variant that organizes the centromere/kinetochore interface have been shown to have similar effects, inducing haploids at high frequencies. Here we propose a simple centromere size model that endeavors to explain both observations. It is based on the idea of a quantitative centromere architecture where each centromere in an individual is the same size, and the average size is dictated by a natural equilibrium between bound and unbound CENH3 (and its chaperones or binding proteins)...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273620/gene-expression-regulation-by-heat-shock-proteins-the-cardinal-roles-of-hsf1-and-hsp90
#9
REVIEW
Gisela I Mazaira, Cristina Daneri-Becerra, Nadia R Zgajnar, Cecilia M Lotufo, Mario D Galigniana
The ability to permit gene expression is managed by a set of relatively well known regulatory mechanisms. Nonetheless, this property can also be acquired during a life span as a consequence of environmental stimuli. Interestingly, some acquired information can be passed to the next generation of individuals without modifying gene information, but instead by the manner in which cells read and process such information. Molecular chaperones are classically related to the proper preservation of protein folding and anti-aggregation properties, but one of them, heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), is a refined sensor of protein function facilitating the biological activity of properly folded client proteins that already have a preserved tertiary structure...
December 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273057/cenp-b-protects-centromere-chromatin-integrity-by-facilitating-histone-deposition-via-the-h3-3-specific-chaperone-daxx
#10
Viacheslav M Morozov, Serena Giovinazzi, Alexander M Ishov
BACKGROUND: The main chromatin unit, the nucleosome, can be modulated by the incorporation of histone variants that, in combination with posttranslational histones modifications, determine epigenetics properties of chromatin. Understanding the mechanism that creates a histone variants landscape at different genomic elements is expected to elevate our comprehension of chromatin assembly and function. The Daxx chaperone deposits transcription-associated histone H3.3 at centromeres, but mechanism of centromere-specific Daxx targeting remains unclear...
December 22, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232016/characterization-of-h3-3-and-hira-expression-and-function-in-bovine-early-embryos
#11
Kun Zhang, Han Wang, Sandeep K Rajput, Joseph K Folger, George W Smith
Histone variant H3.3 is encoded by two distinct genes, H3F3A and H3F3B, that are closely associated with actively transcribed genes. H3.3 replacement is continuous and essential for maintaining correct chromatin structure during mouse oogenesis. Upon fertilization, H3.3 is incorporated to parental chromatin, and is required for blastocyst formation in mice. The H3.3 exchange process is facilitated by the chaperone HIRA, particularly during zygote development. We previously demonstrated that H3.3 is required for bovine early embryonic development; here, we explored the mechanisms of its functional requirement...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225036/transcription-and-remodeling-produce-asymmetrically-unwrapped-nucleosomal-intermediates
#12
Srinivas Ramachandran, Kami Ahmad, Steven Henikoff
Nucleosomes are disrupted during transcription and other active processes, but the structural intermediates during nucleosome disruption in vivo are unknown. To identify intermediates, we mapped subnucleosomal protections in Drosophila cells using Micrococcal Nuclease followed by sequencing. At the first nucleosome position downstream of the transcription start site, we identified unwrapped intermediates, including hexasomes that lack either proximal or distal contacts. Inhibiting topoisomerases or depleting histone chaperones increased unwrapping, whereas inhibiting release of paused RNAPII or reducing RNAPII elongation decreased unwrapping...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209909/biochemical-and-biophysical-characterisation-of-higher-oligomeric-structure-of-rat-nucleosome-assembly-protein-1
#13
Divya Reddy, Saikat Bhattacharya, Vinod Jani, Uddhavesh Sonavane, Rajendra Joshi, Sanjay Gupta
Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) is a histone chaperone that exchanges histone H2A-H2B dimer from chromatin templates. Studies with yeast NAP1 (yNAP1) have revealed its existence as multiple oligomeric species in solution. Here, rat NAP1 (rNAP1), which is 98% identical to the human NAP1 (hNAP1) was used as a model to characterize the oligomeric structures of this protein in higher eukaryotes. Gel filtration chromatography and Dynamic light scattering of recombinant rNAP1 indicated that the protein exists as a complex mixture of multimeric species even at 500 mM ionic strength...
December 5, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208640/shaping-chromatin-in-the-nucleus-the-bricks-and-the-architects
#14
David Sitbon, Katrina Podsypanina, Tejas Yadav, Geneviève Almouzni
Chromatin organization in the nucleus provides a vast repertoire of information in addition to that encoded genetically. Understanding how this organization impacts genome stability and influences cell fate and tumorigenesis is an area of rapid progress. Considering the nucleosome, the fundamental unit of chromatin structure, the study of histone variants (the bricks) and their selective loading by histone chaperones (the architects) is particularly informative. Here, we report recent advances in understanding how relationships between histone variants and their chaperones contribute to tumorigenesis using cell lines and Xenopus development as model systems...
December 5, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194511/prolyl-isomerization-of-the-cenp-a-n-terminus-regulates-centromeric-integrity-in-fission-yeast
#15
Hwei Ling Tan, Kim Kiat Lim, Qiaoyun Yang, Jing-Song Fan, Ahmed Mahmoud Mohammed Sayed, Liy Sim Low, Bingbing Ren, Teck Kwang Lim, Qingsong Lin, Yu-Keung Mok, Yih-Cherng Liou, Ee Sin Chen
Centromeric identity and chromosome segregation are determined by the precise centromeric targeting of CENP-A, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant. The significance of the amino-terminal domain (NTD) of CENP-A in this process remains unclear. Here, we assessed the functional significance of each residue within the NTD of CENP-A from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpCENP-A) and identified a proline-rich 'GRANT' (Genomic stability-Regulating site within CENP-A N-Terminus) motif that is important for CENP-A function...
November 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187422/dependency-of-heterochromatin-domains-on-replication-factors
#16
Leonie Johanna Jahn, Bethany Mason, Peter Brøgger, Tea Toteva, Dennis Kim Nielsen, Genevieve Thon
Chromatin structure regulates both genome expression and dynamics in eukaryotes where large heterochromatic regions are epigenetically silenced through the methylation of histone H3K9, histone deacetylation, and assembly of repressive complexes. Previous genetic screens with the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have led to the identification of key enzymatic activities and structural constituents of heterochromatin. We report here on additional factors discovered by screening a library of deletion mutants for silencing defects at the edge of a heterochromatic domain bound by its natural boundary - the IR-R+ element - or by ectopic boundaries...
November 29, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183721/role-of-chromatin-assembly-factor-1-in-dna-replication-of-p-falciparum
#17
Mohit Kumar Gupta, Meetu Agarawal, Khadija Banu, K Sony Reddy, Deepak Gaur, Suman Kumar Dhar
Nucleosome assembly in P. falciparum could be the key process in maintaining its genomic integrity as DNA replicates more than once per cell cycle during several stages of its life cycle. Here, we report the functional characterization of P. falciparum chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF1), which interacts with several proteins namely PfCAF2, Histones, PfHP1 and others. Consistent with the above findings, we demonstrate the presence of PfCAF1 at the telomeric repeat regions, central and subtelomeric var genes of multiple var gene family along with PfHP1...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175313/relevance-of-the-chaperone-like-protein-calreticulin-for-the-biological-behavior-and-clinical-outcome-of-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Jitka Fucikova, Lenka Kasikova, Iva Truxova, Jan Laco, Petr Skapa, Ales Ryska, Radek Spisek
The death of cancer cells can be categorized as either immunogenic (ICD) or nonimmunogenic, depending on the initiating stimulus. The immunogenic processes of immunogenic cell death are mainly mediated by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which include surface exposure of calreticulin (CRT), secretion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), release of non-histone chromatin protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and the production of type I interferons (IFNs). DAMPs are recognized by various receptors that are expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and potentiate the presentation of tumor antigens to T lymphocytes...
November 22, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156711/multiple-regulatory-aspects-of-histone-methyltransferase-ezh2-in-pb-induced-neurotoxicity
#19
Wei-Zhen Xue, Xiaozhen Gu, Yulan Wu, Danyang Li, Yi Xu, Hui-Li Wang
Pb is a pervasive environmental threat to human health. Although remarkable progress has been made in its neurotoxicity, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this widespread toxicant still remain elusive. In this study, the detailed roles of EZH2, a transcriptional repressor, in the regulation of Pb-led neurotoxicity were investigated, highlighting its sub-functionalization, compartmentalization, functional chaperones and downstream partners. Based on the findings, EZH2's protein levels were significantly reduced in response to Pb treatment; EZH2's gain-of-function trials recovered the dampened neurite outgrowth; EZH2' recruitment to ploycomb complex, as well as its interaction with cytosolic Vav1, was altered in a distinct manner, suggesting that EZH2's multiple roles were markedly redistributed in this context; EZH2's cytosolic and nuclear presence differed in their respective response towards Pb treatment; EZH2 directly occupied the promoters of EGR2, NGFR and CaMKK2, genes responsible for various nerve functions and repair mechanisms, and essentially contributed to their aberrant expression...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148792/proteomic-markers-of-the-functional-sperm-population-in-bovines-1-comparison-of-low-and-high-density-spermatozoa-following-cryopreservation
#20
Olivier D'Amours, Gilles Frenette, Sylvie Bourassa, Ezequiel Calvo, Patrick Blondin, Robert Sullivan
Mammalian semen contains a heterogeneous population of sperm cells. This heterogeneity results from variability in the complex processes of cell differentiation in the testis, biochemical modifications undergone by spermatozoa during transit along the male reproductive tract, interactions with secretions from accessory sex glands at ejaculation, and, in the context of reproductive technologies, in the ability of ejaculated spermatozoa to resist damage associated with freeze-thaw procedures. When submitted to density gradient centrifugation, ejaculated spermatozoa distribute themselves into two distinct populations: a low-density population characterized by low motility parameters, and a high-density population with high motility characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
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