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Circadian rhythms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778521/vasculature-on-the-clock-circadian-rhythm-and-vascular-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Sandra Crnko, Martin Cour, Linda W Van Laake, Sandrine Lecour
The master mammalian circadian clock (i.e. central clock), located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, orchestrates the synchronization of the daily behavioural and physiological rhythms to better adapt the organism to the external environment in an anticipatory manner. This central clock is entrained by a variety of signals, the best established being light and food. However, circadian cycles are not simply the consequences of these two cues but are generated by endogenous circadian clocks...
May 17, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778223/circadian-and-irradiance-effects-on-expression-of-antenna-protein-genes-and-pigment-contents-in-dinoflagellate-prorocentrum-donghaiense-dinophycae
#2
Xinguo Shi, Ling Li, Senjie Lin
PCP and acpPC are the two major antennae proteins that bind pigments in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. The relationship between antennae proteins and cellular pigments at molecular level is still poorly understood. Here we identified and characterized the two antennae protein genes in dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense under different light conditions. The mature PCP protein was 32 kDa, while acpPC was a polyprotein each of 19 kDa. Both genes showed higher expression under low light than under high light, suggesting their possible role in a low light adaptation mechanism...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777288/time-shifting-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-daily-rhythms-in-the-diurnal-rodent-arvicanthis-ansorgei
#3
Jorge Mendoza, Hester C van Diepen, Rob Rodrigues Pereira, Johanna H Meijer
People suffering of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) show sleep-wake cycle and daily rhythm alterations despite the beneficial effects of MPH on behavioral symptoms (i.e., hyperactivity, attention). In nocturnal rodents (i.e., mice), chronic exposure to MPH alters the neural activity of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), behavioral rhythms, and the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we studied the effects of MPH on daily rhythms of behavior and body temperature of the diurnal rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776773/circadian-rhythms-and-mental-health-wearable-sensing-at-scale
#4
Aiden Doherty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776095/optimal-entrainment-of-circadian-clocks-in-the-presence-of-noise
#5
Michele Monti, David K Lubensky, Pieter Rein Ten Wolde
Circadian clocks are biochemical oscillators that allow organisms to estimate the time of the day. These oscillators are inherently noisy due to the discrete nature of the reactants and the stochastic character of their interactions. To keep these oscillators in sync with the daily day-night rhythm in the presence of noise, circadian clocks must be coupled to the dark-light cycle. In this paper, we study the entrainment of phase oscillators as a function of the intrinsic noise in the system. Using stochastic simulations, we compute the optimal coupling strength, intrinsic frequency, and shape of the phase-response curve, that maximize the mutual information between the phase of the clock and time...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773903/circadian-regulator-nr1d2-regulates-glioblastoma-cell-proliferation-and-motility
#6
Min Yu, Wenjing Li, Qianqian Wang, Yan Wang, Fei Lu
Nuclear receptor NR1D2 is originally characterized as the repressor of genes involved in circadian rhythm. Recently, it is documented that NR1D2 is overexpressed in various cancers. However, the pathways and biological functions that NR1D2 involved in cancers remain poorly understood. Here, we reported that NR1D2 was abundant in human glioblastoma (GBM) tissue and cell lines but not primary human astrocytes. Silencing of NR1D2 changed the morphology of GBM cells, inhibited cell proliferation and motility, whereas had no effects on apoptosis...
May 18, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773814/melanopsin-mediated-pupil-function-is-impaired-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Daniel S Joyce, Beatrix Feigl, Graham Kerr, Luisa Roeder, Andrew J Zele
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by non-motor symptoms including sleep and circadian disruption. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGC) transmit light signals to brain areas controlling circadian rhythms and the pupil light reflex. To determine if non-motor symptoms observed in PD are linked to ipRGC dysfunction, we evaluated melanopsin and rod/cone contributions to the pupil response in medicated participants with PD (n = 17) and controls (n = 12)...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772513/a-transition-to-white-led-increases-ecological-impacts-of-nocturnal-illumination-on-aquatic-primary-producers-in-a-lowland-agricultural-drainage-ditch
#8
Maja Grubisic, Roy H A van Grunsven, Alessandro Manfrin, Michael T Monaghan, Franz Hölker
The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770483/melatonin-modulates-dysregulated-circadian-clocks-in-mice-with-diethylnitrosamine-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Diana I Sánchez, Bárbara González-Fernández, Irene Crespo, Beatriz San-Miguel, Marcelino Álvarez, Javier González-Gallego, María Jesús Tuñón
Disruption of circadian rhythms, which are regulated by the circadian clock machinery, plays an important role in different long-term diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Melatonin has been reported to alleviate promotion and progression of HCC, but the potential contribution of circadian clock modulation is unknown. We investigated the effects of melatonin in mice which received diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (35 mg/kg body weight i.p.) once a week for 8 weeks. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg/kg/day i...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770112/circadian-plasticity-in-the-brain-of-insects-and-rodents
#10
REVIEW
Wojciech Krzeptowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elżbieta Pyza
In both vertebrate and invertebrate brains, neurons, glial cells and synapses are plastic, which means that the physiology and structure of these components are modified in response to internal and external stimuli during development and in mature brains. The term plasticity has been introduced in the last century to describe experience-dependent changes in synapse strength and number. These changes result from local functional and morphological synapse modifications; however, these modifications also occur more commonly in pre- and postsynaptic neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769422/melatonin-receptors-subtypes-mt1-and-mt2-in-the-uterus-masculinus-of-mature-male-european-bison-biological-and-seasonal-reproductive-role
#11
A Tabecka-Lonczynska, J Mytych, P Solek, M Kulpa-Greszta, M Koziorowski
Regulation of seasonality in reproduction is closely related to melatonin and circadian rhythms. Melatonin affects the functions of reproductive organs through membrane melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. The current knowledge about the presence, location and function of MT1 and MT2 receptors in the reproductive tract of an adult male European bison, seasonally breeding animal, is still missing. Frequently occurring organ in the male reproductive system of the European bison is uterus masculinus, what seems to confirm its specific role in seasonal reproduction control...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768727/a-congenic-line-of-the-c57bl-6j-mouse-strain-that-is-proficient-in-melatonin-synthesis
#12
Zhijing Zhang, Eduardo Silveyra, Nange Jin, Christophe P Ribelayga
The C57BL/6J (B6) is the most common inbred mouse strain used in biomedical research in the United States. Yet, this strain is notoriously known for being deficient in the biosynthesis of melatonin, an important effector of circadian clocks in the brain and in the retina. Melatonin deficiency in this strain results from non-functional alleles of the genes coding two key enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) and N-acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase (Asmt). By introducing functional alleles of the Aanat and Asmt genes from the melatonin-proficient CBA/CaJ (CBA) mouse strain to B6, we have generated a B6 congenic line that has acquired the capacity of rhythmic melatonin synthesis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767995/structure-activity-relationships-and-therapeutic-potentials-of-5-ht7-receptor-ligands-an-update
#13
Maria N Modica, Enza Lacivita, Sebastiano Intagliata, Loredana Salerno, Giuseppe Romeo, Valeria Pittala, Marcello Leopoldo
Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) has been the subject of intense research efforts because of its presence in brain areas such as hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cortex. Preclinical data link the 5-HT7R to a variety of central nervous system processes such as regulation of circadian rhythms, mood, cognitions, pain processing, and mechanisms of addiction. 5-HT7R blockade has antidepressant effects and may ameliorate cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. 5-HT7R has been recently shown to modulate neuronal morphology, excitability, and plasticity, thus contributing to shape brain networks during development and to remodel neuronal wiring in the mature brain...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767668/genetic-variations-in-circadian-rhythm-genes-and-susceptibility-for-myocardial-infarction
#14
Ivana Škrlec, Jakov Milic, Marija Heffer, Borut Peterlin, Jasenka Wagner
Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We conducted a case-control study on 200 patients hospitalized due to MI and 200 healthy controls, investigating the association between MI and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four circadian genes (ARNTL, CLOCK, CRY2, and PER2). The variants of all four genes were chosen based on their previously reported association with cardiovascular risk factors, which have a major influence on the occurrence of myocardial infarction...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764618/investigating-daily-fatigue-scores-during-two-week-offshore-day-shifts
#15
Vanessa Riethmeister, Ute Bültmann, Marijke Gordijn, Sandra Brouwer, Michiel de Boer
OBJECTIVES: This study examined daily scores of fatigue and circadian rhythm markers over two-week offshore day shift periods. METHODS: A prospective cohort study among N = 60 offshore day-shift workers working two-week offshore shifts was conducted. Offshore day shifts lasted from 07:00 - 19:00 h. Fatigue was measured objectively with pre- and post-shift scores of the 3-minute psychomotor vigilance tasks (PVT-B) parameters (reaction times, number of lapses, errors and false starts) and subjectively with pre- and post-shift Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) ratings...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764399/the-reachability-of-contagion-in-temporal-contact-networks-how-disease-latency-can-exploit-the-rhythm-of-human-behavior
#16
Ewan Colman, Kristen Spies, Shweta Bansal
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of many infectious diseases influence their host to withdraw from social activity limiting their potential to spread. Successful transmission therefore requires the onset of infectiousness to coincide with a time when the host is socially active. Since social activity and infectiousness are both temporal phenomena, we hypothesize that diseases are most pervasive when these two processes are synchronized. METHODS: We consider disease dynamics that incorporate behavioral responses that effectively shorten the infectious period of the pathogen...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764284/role-of-glucocorticoid-negative-feedback-in-the-regulation-of-hpa-axis-pulsatility
#17
Julia K Gjerstad, Stafford L Lightman, Francesca Spiga
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major neuroendocrine axis regulating homeostasis in mammals. Glucocorticoid hormones are rapidly synthesized and secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. In addition, under basal conditions glucocorticoids are released rhythmically with both a circadian and an ultradian (pulsatile) pattern. These rhythms are important not only for normal function of glucocorticoid target organs, but also for the HPA axis responses to stress. Several studies have shown that disruption of glucocorticoid rhythms is associated with disease both in humans and in rodents...
May 15, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764215/myotonic-dystrophytype-1-report-of-non-24-h-sleep-wake-disorder-with-excessive-daytime-sleepiness
#18
Lucio Huebra Pimentel Filho, Ana Carolina Dias Gomes, Bruno Gonçalves, Sergio Tufik, Fernando Morgadinho Coelho
Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is a neuromuscular disease with myotonia, progressive weakness, and involvement of CNS, heart, and gastrointestinal system. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) is related to sleep breathing diseases, restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movements during sleep and narcoleptic-like phenotype. However, authors highlight a central dysfunction of sleep regulation. We describe a 26-year-old, female, MD1 patient with EDS. Sleep diary/actigraphy evidenced two different circadian periods with values of 1442 and 1522 min...
May 15, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763930/rotigotine-improves-abnormal-circadian-rhythm-of-blood-pressure-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Hisayoshi Oka, Atuso Nakahara, Tadashi Umehara
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular autonomic failure is commonly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), affecting the daily lives of patients. Rotigotine was recently reported not to influence cardiovascular autonomic responses in contrast to other dopaminergic drugs. The effect of rotigotine on daily blood pressure (BP) fluctuations might reflect autonomic failure in patients with PD. METHODS: Twenty-five PD patients who were receiving rotigotine and 12 patients not receiving rotigotine were recruited...
May 15, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760192/circadian-rhythms-influence-the-severity-of-sepsis-in-mice-via-a-tlr2-dependent-leukocyte-intrinsic-mechanism
#20
Erica L Heipertz, Jourdan Harper, Charlie A Lopez, Erol Fikrig, Michael E Hughes, Wendy E Walker
Circadian rhythms coordinate an organism's activities and biological processes to the optimal time in the 24-h daylight cycle. We previously demonstrated that male C57BL/6 mice develop sepsis more rapidly when the disease is induced in the nighttime versus the daytime. In this report, we elucidate the mechanism of this diurnal difference. Sepsis was induced via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at zeitgeber time (ZT)-19 (2 am) or ZT-7 (2 pm). Like the males used in our prior study, female C57BL/6 mice had a worse outcome when CLP was induced at ZT-19 versus ZT-7, and these effects persisted when we pooled the data from both sexes...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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