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Circadian rhythms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331582/inositol-polyphosphates-contribute-to-cellular-circadian-rhythms-implications-for-understanding-lithium-s-molecular-mechanism
#1
Heather Wei, Dominic Landgraf, George Wang, Michael J McCarthy
Most living organisms maintain cell autonomous circadian clocks that synchronize critical biological functions with daily environmental cycles. In mammals, the circadian clock is regulated by inputs from signaling pathways including glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). The drug lithium has actions on GSK3, and also on inositol metabolism. While it is suspected that lithium's inhibition of GSK3 causes rhythm changes, it is not known if inositol polyphosphates can also affect the circadian clock. We examined whether the signaling molecule inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has effects on circadian rhythms...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331507/adropin-an-endocrine-link-between-the-biological-clock-and-cholesterol-homeostasis
#2
Sarbani Ghoshal, Joseph R Stevens, Cyrielle Billon, Clemence Girardet, Sadichha Sitaula, Arthur S Leon, D C Rao, James S Skinner, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard, Marinelle V Nuñez, Kimber L Stanhope, Deborah A Howatt, Alan Daugherty, Jinsong Zhang, Matthew Schuelke, Edward P Weiss, Alisha R Coffey, Brian J Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy, Thomas P Burris, Peter J Havel, Andrew A Butler
OBJECTIVE: Identify determinants of plasma adropin concentrations, a secreted peptide translated from the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene linked to metabolic control and vascular function. METHODS: Associations between plasma adropin concentrations, demographics (sex, age, BMI) and circulating biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed in plasma obtained after an overnight fast in humans. The regulation of adropin expression was then assessed in silico, in cultured human cells, and in animal models...
December 30, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331244/perception-of-faunal-circadian-rhythms-depends-on-sampling-technique
#3
Raül Triay-Portella, Aitor Escribano, José G Pajuelo, Fernando Tuya
Ecologists aim at disentangling how species vary in abundance through spatial and temporal scales, using a range of sampling techniques. Here, we investigated the circadian rhythm of seagrass-associated decapod crustaceans through three sampling techniques. Specifically, we compared the abundance, biomass and structure of seagrass-associated decapod assemblages between the day and night using a hand net, an airlift pump and baited traps. At night, the hand-net consistently collected a larger total abundance and biomass of decapods, what resulted in significant diel differences, which were detected for the total biomass, but not for the total abundance, when decapods were sampled through an airlift pump...
January 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330663/human-cytomegalovirus-encoded-mir-ul112-contributes-to-hcmv-mediated-vascular-diseases-by-inducing-vascular-endothelial-cell-dysfunction
#4
Kai Shen, Liyun Xu, Dongdong Chen, Weiguo Tang, Yanyan Huang
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been linked to the pathogenesis of vasculopathy by inducing dysfunction of vascular cells such as endothelial cells. Hcmv-miR-UL112 is the most well-characterized HCMV-encoded microRNA occurring in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, while the specific underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are yet to be defined. The current study investigated the effect of hcmv-miR-UL112 on the growth and proliferation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs); it might also be associated with signaling pathways...
January 12, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325879/ovarian-control-and-monitoring-in-amphibians
#5
N E Calatayud, M Stoops, B S Durrant
Amphibian evolution spans over 350 million years ago, consequently this taxonomic group displays a wide, complex array of physiological adaptations and their diverse modes of reproduction are a prime example. Reproduction can be affected by taxonomy, geographic and altitudinal distribution, and environmental factors. With some exceptions, amphibians can be categorized into discontinuous (strictly seasonal) and continuous breeders. Temperature and its close association with other proximate and genetic factors control reproduction via a tight relationship with circadian rhythms which drive genetic and hormonal responses to the environment...
December 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324865/association-of-circadian-rhythm-genes-arntl-bmal1-and-clock-with-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Polona Lavtar, Gorazd Rudolf, Aleš Maver, Alenka Hodžić, Nada Starčević Čizmarević, Maja Živković, Saša Šega Jazbec, Zalika Klemenc Ketiš, Miljenko Kapović, Evica Dinčić, Ranko Raičević, Juraj Sepčić, Luca Lovrečić, Aleksandra Stanković, Smiljana Ristić, Borut Peterlin
Prevalence of multiple sclerosis varies with geographic latitude. We hypothesized that this fact might be partially associated with the influence of latitude on circadian rhythm and consequently that genetic variability of key circadian rhythm regulators, ARNTL and CLOCK genes, might contribute to the risk for multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to analyse selected polymorphisms of ARNTL and CLOCK, and their association with multiple sclerosis. A total of 900 Caucasian patients and 1024 healthy controls were compared for genetic signature at 8 SNPs, 4 for each of both genes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324752/tet-protein-function-during-drosophila-development
#7
Fei Wang, Svetlana Minakhina, Hiep Tran, Neha Changela, Joseph Kramer, Ruth Steward
The TET (Ten-eleven translocation) 1, 2 and 3 proteins have been shown to function as DNA hydroxymethylases in vertebrates and their requirements have been documented extensively. Recently, the Tet proteins have been shown to also hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine in RNA. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmrC) is enriched in messenger RNA but the function of this modification has yet to be elucidated. Because Cytosine methylation in DNA is barely detectable in Drosophila, it serves as an ideal model to study the biological function of 5hmrC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324264/driver-education-enhancing-knowledge-of-sleep-fatigue-and-risky-behaviour-to-improve-decision-making-in-young-drivers
#8
Pasquale K Alvaro, Nicole M Burnett, Gerard A Kennedy, William Yu Xun Min, Marcus McMahon, Maree Barnes, Melinda Jackson, Mark E Howard
This study assessed the impact of an education program on knowledge of sleepiness and driving behaviour in young adult drivers and their performance and behaviour during simulated night driving. Thirty-four participants (18-26 years old) were randomized to receive either a four-week education program about sleep and driving or a control condition. A series of questionnaires were administered to assess knowledge of factors affecting sleep and driving before and after the four-week education program. Participants also completed a two hour driving simulator task at 1am after 17 h of extended wakefulness to assess the impact on driving behaviour...
January 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321394/-chrono-nutrition-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid
#9
Shigenobu Shibata, Akiko Furutani
Circadian clock system has been widely maintained in many spices from prokaryote to mammals. "Circadian" means "approximately day" in Latin, thus circadian rhythm means about 24 hour rhythms. The earth revolves once every 24 hours, and our circadian system has been developed for adjusting to this 24 hour cycles, to get sun light information for getting their foods or for alive in birds or mammals. We have two different circadian systems so-called main oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and local oscillator located in the various peripheral organ tissues such as liver, kidney and skeletal muscle...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#10
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320480/pharmacological-activation-of-rev-erbs-is-lethal-in-cancer-and-oncogene-induced-senescence
#11
Gabriele Sulli, Amy Rommel, Xiaojie Wang, Matthew J Kolar, Francesca Puca, Alan Saghatelian, Maksim V Plikus, Inder M Verma, Satchidananda Panda
The circadian clock imposes daily rhythms in cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and DNA damage response. Perturbations of these processes are hallmarks of cancer and chronic circadian rhythm disruption predisposes individuals to tumour development. This raises the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of the circadian machinery may be an effective therapeutic strategy for combating cancer. REV-ERBs, the nuclear hormone receptors REV-ERBα (also known as NR1D1) and REV-ERBβ (also known as NR1D2), are essential components of the circadian clock...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320303/time-of-day-and-short-duration-high-intensity-exercise-influences-on-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis
#12
Emma Kate Zadow, Cecilia Marie Kitic, Sam Shi Xuan Wu, James William Fell, Murray John Adams
Exercise has been demonstrated to have considerable effects upon haemostasis, with activation dependent upon the duration and intensity of the exercise bout. In addition, markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis have been shown to possess circadian rhythms, peaking within the morning (0600-1200 h). Therefore, the time of day in which exercise is performed may influence the activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. This study aimed to examine coagulation and fibrinolytic responses to short-duration high-intensity exercise when completed at different times of the day...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319388/woohwangcheongsimwon-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-memory-deficits-and-induces-sirt1-in-mice
#13
Hyunwoo Park, Mia Kim, Im-Joon Shin, Jonghee Park, Soo Yong Bang, Chunsik Yi, Myoung-Ae Kim, Jae-Hwan Lew, Joo Won Suh, Sungho Maeng
Woohwangcheongsimwon (WHC) is a mixture of herbal medicines that is widely prescribed in Korean traditional medicine. SIRT1 is known for its regulatory roles in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and circadian rhythms. This study was designed to determine whether WHC can increase and mimic the biological reactions of SIRT1 activation. Ten-month-old male mice were divided into four groups: nontreated normal diet (ND), nontreated high-fat diet (HFD), WHC-treated ND, and WHC-treated HFD. Body weight and cognitive functions were evaluated after treatment...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318856/-effect-of-acupuncture-at-points-in-heel-vessel-for-circadian-clock-genes-of-period-1-and-period-2-mrnas-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-insomnia-rats
#14
Bao-Jun Guo, Si-Yi Yu, Zhi-Fu Shen, You-Ping Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence and mechanism of acupuncture at the points in Heel Vessel for the circadian clock genes of Period (Per) 1 and Per 2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in insomnia rats. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were randomly divided into blank, model, acupuncture groups, 10 rats in each group. Insomnia model was established by intraperitoneal injection of PCPA (suspension, 1 mL/100 g). Acupuncture at "Shenmai" (BL 62) and "Zhaohai" (KI 6) was used in the acupuncture group for continuous 7 days, 15 min/day and once daily...
December 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318656/circadian-genes-and-risk-of-prostate-cancer-in-the-prostate-cancer-prevention-trial
#15
Lisa W Chu, Cathee Till, Baiyu Yang, Catherine M Tangen, Phyllis J Goodman, Kai Yu, Yong Zhu, Summer Han, Ashraful M Hoque, Christine Ambrosone, Ian Thompson, Robin Leach, Ann W Hsing
Circadian genes have been considered as a possible biological mechanism for the observed relationship between circadian rhythm disruptions and increased risk of hormone-related cancers. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between circadian gene variants and prostate cancer risk and whether reducing bioavailable testosterone modifies the circadian genes-prostate cancer relationship. We conducted a nested case-control study among Caucasian men in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess if finasteride (an androgen bioactivation inhibitor) could prevent prostate cancer...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318587/new-perspectives-on-the-role-of-melatonin-in-human-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-their-regulation
#16
REVIEW
N Zisapel
In mammals a central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, tunes the innate circadian physiological rhythms to the ambient 24h light-dark cycle to invigorate and optimize the internal temporal order. The SCN-activated, light- inhibited production of melatonin conveys the message of darkness to the clock and induces night state in physiological function, e.g., sleep/wake blood pressure and metabolism. Clinically meaningful effects of melatonin treatment have been demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials in humans, particularly in disorders associated with diminished or misaligned melatonin rhythms, e...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318394/genetic-association-of-hcrtr2-adh4-and-clock-genes-with-cluster-headache-a-chinese-population-based-case-control-study
#17
Zhiliang Fan, Lei Hou, Dongjun Wan, Ran Ao, Dengfa Zhao, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH), a rare primary headache disorder, is currently thought to be a genetic susceptibility which play a role in CH susceptibility. A large numbers of genetic association studies have confirmed that the HCRTR2 (Hypocretin Receptor 2) SNP rs2653349, and the ADH4 (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 4) SNP rs1126671 and rs1800759 polymorphisms are linked to CH. In addition, the CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) gene is becoming a research hotspot for CH due to encoding a transcription factor that serves as a basic driving force for circadian rhythm in humans...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318392/relationship-between-melatonin-and-bone-resorption-rhythms-in-premenopausal-women
#18
Melissa A St Hilaire, Shadab A Rahman, Joshua J Gooley, Paula A Witt-Enderby, Steven W Lockley
Although evidence exists for a daily rhythm in bone metabolism, the contribution of factors such as melatonin levels, the light-dark cycle, and the sleep-wake cycle is difficult to differentiate given their highly correlated time courses. To examine these influences on bone resorption, we collected 48-h sequential urine samples under both ambulatory (8-h sleep:16-h wake) and constant routine (CR) (constant wake, posture, nutrition and dim light) conditions from 20 healthy premenopausal women. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s; ng/h) and the bone resorption marker amino-terminal cross-linked collagen I telopeptide (NTx; bone collagen equivalents nM/h) were assayed and fit by cosinor models to determine significant 24-h rhythms and acrophase...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316014/effects-of-daytime-versus-night-time-cesarean-deliveries-on-stage-ii-lactogenesis
#19
Gülşah İlhan, Fatma V Atmaca, Ayşenur Çümen, Ali G Zebitay, Emre S Güngör, Ayşe F G Karasu
AIM: The circadian timing system has a rhythm and one of the roles of this system is the mediation of hormonal and metabolic adaptations to lactation. This study was conducted to determine whether the time to stage II lactogenesis differed in women who underwent cesarean section (CS) in the daytime (DT) or night-time (NT). METHODS: This study was conducted at Süleymaniye Research and Education Hospital between June and December 2016. Two hundred and eighty-eight mothers who had a cesarean delivery and their healthy singleton neonates were included...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314052/osprr37-confers-an-expanded-regulation-of-the-diurnal-rhythms-of-the-transcriptome-and-photoperiodic-flowering-pathways-in-rice
#20
Chuan Liu, Xuefeng Qu, Yanhao Zhou, Gaoyuan Song, Naghmeh Abiri, Yuhui Xiao, Fan Liang, Daiming Jiang, Zhongli Hu, Daichang Yang
The circadian clock enables organisms to rapidly adapt to the ever-changing environmental conditions that are caused by daily light/dark cycles. Circadian clock genes universally affect key agricultural traits, particularly flowering time. Here, we show that OsPRR37, a circadian clock gene, delays rice flowering time in an expression level-dependent manner. Using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on an OsPRR37 overexpressing transgenic line (OsPRR37-OE5) and the recipient parent Guangluai4 (GL) that contains the loss-of-function Osprr37, we identify 14,992 genes that display diurnal rhythms, which account for 52...
January 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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