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Heather A Coiner, Katharine Hayhoe, Lewis H Ziska, Jeff Van Dorn, Rowan F Sage
The use of species distribution as a climate proxy for ecological forecasting is thought to be acceptable for invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) is an important invasive whose northern distribution appears to be limited by winter survival; however, kudzu's cold tolerance thresholds are uncertain. Here, we used biogeographic evidence to hypothesize that exposure to - 20 °C is lethal for kudzu and thus determines its northern distribution limit. We evaluated this hypothesis using survival tests and electrolyte leakage to determine relative conductivity, a measure of cell damage, on 14 populations from eastern North America...
May 16, 2018: Oecologia
Marcin Pietras, Monika Litkowiec, Joanna Gołębiewska
Suillus lakei is an ectomycorrhizal fungus native to North America and known in Europe, South America, and New Zealand. This contribution aims to illustrate the worldwide biogeography of S. lakei based on sporocarp records. Species distribution modeling was used to assess the suitable niche distribution of S. lakei, based on the climatic variables as well as distribution of its ectomycorrhizal partner, Douglas fir. In general, distribution of suitable niches of S. lakei greatly overlaps with the distribution of Douglas fir in North America...
May 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Chong Chen, Daniel P Marie, Ken Takai, Katsunori Fujikura, Benny K K Chan
Phylogeography of animals provides clues to processes governing their evolution and diversification. The Indian Ocean has been hypothesized as a 'dispersal corridor' connecting hydrothermal vent fauna of Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Stalked barnacles of the family Eolepadidae are common associates of deep-sea vents in Southern, Pacific and Indian oceans, and the family is an ideal group for testing this hypothesis. Here, we describe Neolepas marisindica sp. nov. from the Indian Ocean, distinguished from N. zevinae and N...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Ali Mohammad Moner, Agnelo Furtado, Robert J Henry
Whole chloroplast genome sequence analysis of 58 wild and domesticated rice samples was used to investigate their phylogeny providing more detail on the biogeography of the major groups of wild A genome rices globally. An optimized chloroplast assembly method was developed and applied to extracting high quality whole chloroplast genome sequences from shot gun whole DNA sequencing data. Forty complete high quality chloroplast genome sequences were assembled (including; temperate japonica, tropical japonica and aus)...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Erik I Svensson, Miguel A Gómez-Llano, Anais Rivas Torres, Hanna M Bensch
The coexistence of ecologically similar species might be counteracted by ecological drift and demographic stochasticity, both of which erode local diversity. With niche differentiation, species can be maintained through performance trade-offs between environments, but trade-offs are difficult to invoke for species with similar ecological niches. Such similar species might then go locally extinct due to stochastic ecological drift, but there is little empirical evidence for such processes. Previous studies have relied on biogeographical surveys and inferred process from pattern, while experimental field investigations of ecological drift are rare...
June 2018: American Naturalist
Emmanuel F A Toussaint, Andrew Short
Beetles have colonized freshwater habitats multiple times throughout their evolutionary history. Some of these aquatic lineages are associated exclusively with waterfall-like habitats, often with modified morphologies to cope with their unusual way of life. The historical biogeography of such cascade beetle lineages has been shown to strongly reflect ancient tectonic events. We focus on the pantropical genus Oocyclus of which species dwell in waterfalls and associated habitats. We infer the first molecular phylogeny of Oocyclus using a dataset of seven gene fragments...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Travis S Steffens, Shawn M Lehman
Determining what factors affect species occurrence is vital to the study of primate biogeography. We investigated the metapopulation dynamics of a lemur community consisting of eight species (Avahi occidentalis, Propithecus coquereli, Microcebus murinus, Microcebus ravelobensis, Lepilemur edwardsi, Cheirogaleus medius, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur fulvus) within fragmented tropical dry deciduous forest habitat in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. We measured fragment size and isolation of 42 fragments of forest ranging in size from 0...
2018: PloS One
Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Julia Espadas, Jesús Martín, Alfredo F Braña, Fernando Reyes, Luis A García, Gloria Blanco
A cultivation-dependent approach revealed that highly diverse populations of Streptomyces were present in atmospheric precipitations from a hailstorm event sampled in February 2016 in the Cantabrian Sea coast, North of Spain. A total of 29 bioactive Streptomyces strains isolated from small samples of hailstone and rainwater, collected from this hailstorm event, were studied here. Taxonomic identification by 16S rRNA sequencing revealed more than 20 different Streptomyces species, with their closest homologs displaying mainly oceanic but also terrestrial origins...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Angus Angermeyer, Sarah C Crosby, Julie A Huber
Dispersal and environmental selection are two of the most important factors that govern the distributions of microbial communities in nature. While dispersal rates are often inferred by measuring the degree to which community similarity diminishes with increasing geographic distance, determining the extent to which environmental selection impacts the distribution of microbes is more complex. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a large reciprocal transplant experiment to simulate the dispersal of US East Coast salt marsh Spartina alterniflora rhizome-associated microbial sediment communities across a latitudinal gradient and determined if any shifts in microbial community composition occurred as a result of the transplantation...
2018: PeerJ
Brent C Emerson, Jairo Patiño
Anagenesis and cladogenesis are fundamental evolutionary concepts, but are increasingly being adopted as speciation models in the field of island biogeography. Here, we review the origin of the terms 'anagenetic' and 'cladogenetic' speciation, critique their utility, and finally suggest alternative terminology that better describes the geographical relationships of insular sister species.
May 3, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Guilherme G Verocai, Susan J Kutz, Eric P Hoberg
Varestrongylus lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) include 10 nominal species that parasitize wild and domesticated artiodactyles. Eight species are endemic to the western Palearctic and Eurasia, whereas two are limited in distribution to the Nearctic. Complex host associations, primarily among Cervidae and Bovidae (Caprinae), and biogeography were explored based on direct comparisons of parasite and host phylogenies to reveal the historical development of this fauna. Diversification among Varestrongylus species has an intricate history extending over the Pliocene and Quaternary involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization: (1) Varestrongylus has origins in Eurasia with independent expansion events into bordering ecozones; (2) cervids are ancestral hosts; (3) the caprine-associated V...
May 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
Li Yang, Chao Zhang, Minhao Chen, Jingxin Li, Lei Yang, Zhaomin Huo, Shahid Ahmad, Xiaofeng Luan
Long-term ecological data can be an effective tool to help ecologists integrate future projections with historical contexts and provide unique insights into the long-term dynamics of endangered species. However, hampered by data limitations, including incomplete and spatially biased data, relatively few studies have used multidecadal datasets or have examined changes in biogeography from a historical perspective. The black-billed capercaillie ( Tetrao urogalloides ) is a large capercaillie (classified as Least Concern [LC] on the IUCN red list) that has undergone a dramatic decline in population during the late 20th century and is considered endangered...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xiaofan Na, Tingting Xu, Ming Li, Zhaona Zhou, Shaolan Ma, Jing Wang, Jun He, Bingzhong Jiao, Fei Ma
Rhizosphere microbial communities are of great importance to mediate global biogeochemical cycles, plant growth, and fitness. Yet, the processes that drive their assembly remain unclear. The perennial shrubs Caragana spp., which is well known for their role in soil and water conservation, provides an ideal system to study the biogeography of rhizosphere microorganism communities within natural ecosystems. In order to detect how bacterial rhizosphere communities vary in terms of community diversity and composition, the rhizosphere bacterial community of three Caragana species, Caragana microphylla Lam...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sheng Hui Yang, Wen Hao Chen, En Tao Wang, Wen Feng Chen, Jun Yan, Xiao Zeng Han, Chang Fu Tian, Xin Hua Sui, Raghvendra Pratap Singh, Gao Ming Jiang, Wen Xin Chen
AIMS: The aim of the study was to survey rhizobial biogeography and to inoculate soybean with selected rhizobia in China to enhance symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Biogeography, genetic diversity and phylogeny of soybean rhizobia was surveyed. Inocula were prepared and applied to soybean. Results showed that Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Ensifer fredii were widely distributed in acid and alkaline soils, respectively. Available iron was detected as the first determinant for distribution of the two rhizobia; and the soybean varieties did not greatly affect the rhizobial compatibility...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Rafael Lemaitre, Dwi Listyo Rahayu, Tomoyuki Komai
For 130 years the diogenid genus Paguropsis Henderson, 1888 was considered monotypic for an unusual species, P. typica Henderson, 1888, described from the Philippines and seldom reported since. Although scantly studied, this species is known to live in striking symbiosis with a colonial sea anemone that the hermit can stretch back and forth like a blanket over its cephalic shield and part of cephalothoracic appendages, and thus the common name "blanket-crab". During a study of paguroid collections obtained during recent French-sponsored biodiversity campaigns in the Indo-West Pacific, numerous specimens assignable to Paguropsis were encountered...
2018: ZooKeys
J Mason Heberling, Norman W H Mason
Recent studies have concluded that native and invasive species share a common set of trait relationships. However, native species in isolated regions might be functionally constrained by their unique evolutionary histories such that they follow different carbon capture strategies than introduced species. We compared leaf traits relating to resource investment, carbon return, and resource-use efficiency in 16 native (endemic) and three non-native (invasive) species in a temperate forest in Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand...
2018: PloS One
Florian M Steiner, Sándor Csősz, Bálint Markó, Alexander Gamisch, Lukas Rinnhofer, Clemens Folterbauer, Sarina Hammerle, Christian Stauffer, Wolfgang Arthofer, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner
Seed harvesting ants are ecosystem engineers that shape vegetation, nutrient cycles, and microclimate. Progress in ecological research is, however, slowed down by poor species delimitation. For example, it has not been resolved to date, how many species the European harvester ant Messor "structor" (Latreille, 1798) represents. Since its first description, splitting into additional taxa was often proposed but not accepted later on due to inconsistent support from morphology and ecology. Here, we took an iterative integrative-taxonomy approach - comparing multiple, independent data sets of the same sample - and used traditional morphometrics, Wolbachia symbionts, mitochondrial DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and ecological niche modelling...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Chester Kalinda, Moses J Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
BACKGROUND: The speedy rate of change in the environmental and socio-economics factors may increase the incidence, prevalence and risk of schistosomiasis infections in Zambia. However, available information does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the biogeography and distribution of the disease, ecology and population dynamics of intermediate host snails. The current study used an information-theoretical approach to understand the biogeography and prevalence schistosomiasis and identified knowledge gaps that would be useful to improve policy towards surveillance and eradication of intermediate hosts snails in Zambia...
April 30, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Naoya Sata
To clarify how the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites has developed, molecular phylogenetic analyses of Meteterakis spp., multi-host endoparasitic nematodes of reptiles and amphibians from the East Asian islands, were conducted. The results demonstrated the existence of two major clades, the J- and A-groups, with exclusive geographic ranges that are discordant with the host faunal province. However, diversification within the J-group was concordant with the host biogeography and suggested co-divergence of this group with vicariance of the host fauna...
April 24, 2018: Parasitology International
Rowan J Schley, Manuel de la Estrella, Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Anne Bruneau, Timothy Barraclough, Félix Forest, Bente Klitgård
The flora of the Neotropics is unmatched in its diversity, however the mechanisms by which diversity has accumulated are debated and largely unclear. The Brownea clade (Leguminosae) is a characteristic component of the Neotropical flora, and the species within it are diverse in their floral morphology, attracting a wide variety of pollinators. This investigation aimed to estimate species divergence times and infer relationships within the group, in order to test whether the Brownea clade followed the 'cradle' or 'museum' model of diversification, i...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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