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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540925/microorganisms-and-ocean-global-change
#1
REVIEW
David A Hutchins, Feixue Fu
The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that drive the pelagic ocean's biogeochemical cycles are currently facing an unprecedented set of comprehensive anthropogenic changes. Nearly every important control on marine microbial physiology is currently in flux, including seawater pH, pCO2, temperature, redox chemistry, irradiance and nutrient availability. Here, we examine how microorganisms with key roles in the ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles may respond to these changes in the Earth's largest ecosystem...
May 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536984/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-the-genus-stevia-asteraceae-eupatorieae-an-example-of-diversification-in-the-asteraceae-in-the-new-world
#2
Akiko Soejima, Akifumi S Tanabe, Izumi Takayama, Takayuki Kawahara, Kuniaki Watanabe, Miyuki Nakazawa, Misako Mishima, Tetsukazu Yahara
The genus Stevia comprises approximately 200 species, which are distributed in North and South America, and are representative of the species diversity of the Asteraceae in the New World. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships using sequences of ITS and cpDNA and estimated the divergence times of the major clade of this genus. Our results suggested that Stevia originated in Mexico 7.0-7.3 million years ago (Mya). Two large clades, one with shrub species and another with herb species, were separated at about 6...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533083/another-look-at-the-phylogenetic-relationships-and-intercontinental-biogeography-of-eastern-asian-north-american-rhus-gall-aphids-hemiptera-aphididae-eriosomatinae-evidence-from-mitogenome-sequences-via-genome-skimming
#3
Zhumei Ren, A J Harris, Rebecca B Dikow, Enbo Ma, Yang Zhong, Jun Wen
The Rhus gall aphids are sometimes referred to as subtribe Melaphidina (Aphididae: Eriosomatinae: Fordini) and comprise a unique group that forms galls on the primary host plants, Rhus. We examined the evolutionary relationships within the Melaphidina aphids using sequences of the complete mitochondrial genome and with samples of 11 of the 12 recognized species representing all six genera. Bayesian, maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the mitochondrial genome data support five well-supported clades within Melaphidina: (1) Nurudea (except N...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531262/biogeography-of-cryoconite-bacterial-communities-on-glaciers-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#4
Yongqin Liu, Trista J Vick-Majors, John C Priscu, Tandong Yao, Shichang Kang, Keshao Liu, Ziyuang Cong, Jingbo Xiong, Yang Li
Cryoconite holes, water-filled pockets containing biological and mineralogical deposits that form on glacier surfaces, play important roles in glacier mass balance, glacial geochemistry, and carbon cycling. The presence of cryoconite material decreases surface albedo and accelerates glacier mass loss, a problem of particular importance in the rapidly melting Tibetan Plateau. No studies have addressed the microbial community composition of cryoconite holes and their associated ecosystem processes on Tibetan glaciers...
May 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528903/equilibrium-bird-species-diversity-in-atlantic-islands
#5
Luis Valente, Juan Carlos Illera, Katja Havenstein, Tamara Pallien, Rampal S Etienne, Ralph Tiedemann
Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]...
May 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522869/ancient-river-inference-explains-exceptional-oriental-freshwater-mussel-radiations
#6
Ivan N Bolotov, Alexander V Kondakov, Ilya V Vikhrev, Olga V Aksenova, Yulia V Bespalaya, Mikhail Yu Gofarov, Yulia S Kolosova, Ekaterina S Konopleva, Vitaly M Spitsyn, Kitti Tanmuangpak, Sakboworn Tumpeesuwan
The concept of long-lived (ancient) lakes has had a great influence on the development of evolutionary biogeography. According to this insight, a number of lakes on Earth have existed for several million years (e.g., Baikal and Tanganyika) and represent unique evolutionary hotspots with multiple intra-basin radiations. In contrast, rivers are usually considered to be variable systems, and the possibility of their long-term existence during geological epochs has never been tested. In this study, we reconstruct the history of freshwater basin interactions across continents based on the multi-locus fossil-calibrated phylogeny of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515478/molecular-phylogenetics-and-biogeography-of-the-mint-tribe-elsholtzieae-nepetoideae-lamiaceae-with-an-emphasis-on-its-diversification-in-east-asia
#7
Pan Li, Zhe-Chen Qi, Lu-Xian Liu, Tetsuo Ohi-Toma, Joongku Lee, Tsung-Hsin Hsieh, Cheng-Xin Fu, Kenneth M Cameron, Ying-Xiong Qiu
Elsholtzia and its allied genera such as Collinsonia and Perilla (tribe Elsholtzieae, Lamiaceae) are an ecologically and economically important plant group consisting of ~71 species, with most species distributed in East and Southeast Asia, and several species in North America. Their phylogeny and historical biogeography resulting in a distant intercontinental disjunction are poorly understood. Here we use two nuclear (ETS, ITS) and five chloroplast (rbcL, matK, trnL-F, ycf1, ycf1-rps15) fragments to reconstruct the phylogeny, biogeographic history, and patterns of diversification of Elsholtzieae...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515204/a-genetic-legacy-of-introgression-confounds-phylogeny-and-biogeography-in-oaks
#8
John D McVay, Andrew L Hipp, Paul S Manos
Oaks (Quercus L.) have long been suspected to hybridize in nature, and widespread genetic exchange between morphologically defined species is well documented in two- to six-species systems, but the phylogenetic consequences of hybridization in oaks have never been demonstrated in a phylogenetically diverse sample. Here, we present phylogenomic analyses of a ca 30 Myr clade that strongly support morphologically defined species and the resolution of novel clades of white oaks; however, historical hybridization across clade boundaries is detectable and, undiagnosed, would obscure the imprint of biogeographic history in the phylogeny...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504344/following-rapoport-s-rule-the-geographic-range-and-genome-size-of-bacterial-taxa-decline-at-warmer-latitudes
#9
Gavin Lear, Kelvin Lau, Anne-Marie Perchec, Hannah L Buckley, Bradley S Case, Martin Neale, Noah Fierer, Jonathan W Leff, Kim M Handley, Gillian Lewis
We sought to test whether stream bacterial communities conform to Rapoport's Rule, a pattern commonly observed for plants and animals whereby taxa exhibit decreased latitudinal range sizes closer to the equator. Using a DNA sequencing approach, we explored the biogeography of biofilm bacterial communities in 204 streams across a ∼1,000km latitudinal gradient. The range sizes of bacterial taxa were strongly correlated with latitude, decreasing closer to the equator, which coincided with a greater than five-fold increase in bacterial taxonomic richness...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501611/multilocus-phylogeny-and-statistical-biogeography-clarify-the-evolutionary-history-of-major-lineages-of-turtles
#10
Anieli G Pereira, Juliana Sterli, Filipe R R Moreira, Carlos G Schrago
Despite their complex evolutionary history and the rich fossil record, the higher level phylogeny and historical biogeography of living turtles have not been investigated in a comprehensive and statistical framework. To tackle these issues, we assembled a large molecular dataset, maximizing both taxonomic and gene sampling. As different models provide alternative biogeographical scenarios, we have explicitly tested such hypotheses in order to reconstruct a robust biogeographical history of Testudines. We scanned publicly available databases for nucleotide sequences and composed a dataset comprising 13 loci for 294 living species of Testudines, which accounts for all living genera and 85% of their extant species diversity...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498987/genetic-structure-and-phylogeography-of-the-leopard-cat-prionailurus-bengalensis-inferred-from-mitochondrial-genomes
#11
Riddhi P Patel, Saskia Wutke, Dorina Lenz, Shomita Mukherjee, Uma Ramakrishnan, Géraldine Veron, Jörns Fickel, Andreas Wilting, Daniel W Förster
The Leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis is a habitat generalist that is widely distributed across Southeast Asia. Based on morphological traits, this species has been subdivided into 12 subspecies. Thus far, there have been few molecular studies investigating intraspecific variation, and those had been limited in geographic scope. For this reason, we aimed to study the genetic structure and evolutionary history of this species across its very large distribution range in Asia. We employed both PCR-based (short mtDNA fragments, 94 samples) and high throughput sequencing based methods (whole mitochondrial genomes, 52 samples) on archival, noninvasively collected and fresh samples to investigate the distribution of intraspecific genetic variation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497651/harnessing-the-power-of-digital-droplet-pcr-to-conduct-real-world-microbial-competitions
#12
Helen A Murphy
The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has a long and storied history as a model organism for genetic, cellular and molecular biological research. More recently, researchers have sought to understand the ecology and evolution of its sister species, Saccharomyces paradoxus, in part to put our vast knowledge of the model yeast into its natural context (Replansky et al. ). However, the research tools have been limited, and most investigations into natural populations have either been descriptions of patterns of biogeography or taken the organism back into the laboratory for mating, growth and competition assays (Kuehne et al...
May 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493088/establishing-a-framework-for-a-natural-area-taxonomy
#13
Malte C Ebach, Bernard Michaux
The identification of areas of endemism is essential in building an area classification, but plays little role in how natural areas are discovered. Rather area monophyly, derived from cladistics, is essential in the discovery of natural area classifications or area taxonomy. We propose Area Taxonomy to be a new sub-discipline of historical biogeography, one that can be revised and debated, and which has its own area nomenclature. Separately to area taxonomy, we outline how natural areas may be discovered by transcribing the concepts of homology and monophyly from biological systematics to historical biogeography, in the form of area homologues, area homologies and area monophyly...
May 10, 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487259/the-role-of-niche-divergence-and-geographic-arrangement-in-the-speciation-of-eared-pheasants-crossoptilon-hodgson-1938
#14
Pengcheng Wang, Yang Liu, Yinong Liu, Yajing Chang, Nan Wang, Zhengwang Zhang
One of the most contentious theories in current ecology is the ecological niche conservatism, which is defined as conservatism among closely related species; however, the ecological niche can also be shifted, as documented in several cases. Genetic drift and ecological divergent selection may cause ecological niche divergence. The current study aims to test whether the ecological niche is conserved or divergent and to determine the main factor that drives ecological niche divergence or conservation. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationship, ecological niche model (ENM) and demographic history of Eared Pheasants in the genus Crossoptilon (Galliformes: Phasianidae) to test niche conservatism with respect to different geographically distributed patterns...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481257/characterisation-of-arctic-bacterial-communities-in-the-air-above-svalbard
#15
Lewis Cuthbertson, Herminia Amores-Arrocha, Lucie A Malard, Nora Els, Birgit Sattler, David A Pearce
Atmospheric dispersal of bacteria is increasingly acknowledged as an important factor influencing bacterial community biodiversity, biogeography and bacteria-human interactions, including those linked to human health. However, knowledge about patterns in microbial aerobiology is still relatively scarce, and this can be attributed, in part, to a lack of consensus on appropriate sampling and analytical methodology. In this study, three different methods were used to investigate aerial biodiversity over Svalbard: impaction, membrane filtration and drop plates...
May 6, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480140/high-diversity-and-suggested-endemicity-of-culturable-actinobacteria-in-an-extremely-oligotrophic-desert-oasis
#16
Hector Fernando Arocha-Garza, Ricardo Canales-Del Castillo, Luis E Eguiarte, Valeria Souza, Susana De la Torre-Zavala
The phylum Actinobacteria constitutes one of the largest and anciently divergent phyla within the Bacteria domain. Actinobacterial diversity has been thoroughly researched in various environments due to its unique biotechnological potential. Such studies have focused mostly on soil communities, but more recently marine and extreme environments have also been explored, finding rare taxa and demonstrating dispersal limitation and biogeographic patterns for Streptomyces. To test the distribution of Actinobacteria populations on a small scale, we chose the extremely oligotrophic and biodiverse Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB), an endangered oasis in the Chihuahuan desert to assess the diversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in the Churince System with a culture-dependent approach over a period of three years, using nine selective media...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480010/testing-the-role-of-ancient-and-contemporary-landscapes-on-structuring-genetic-variation-in-a-specialist-grasshopper
#17
Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J Cordero, Joaquín Ortego
Understanding the processes underlying spatial patterns of genetic diversity and structure of natural populations is a central topic in evolutionary biogeography. In this study, we combine data on ancient and contemporary landscape composition to get a comprehensive view of the factors shaping genetic variation across the populations of the scrub-legume grasshopper (Chorthippus binotatus binotatus) from the biogeographically complex region of southeast Iberia. First, we examined geographical patterns of genetic structure and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach to compare different plausible scenarios of population divergence...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479990/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-the-scaleless-scale-worm-pisione-sigalionidae-annelida
#18
Brett C Gonzalez, Haidi Cecilie B Petersen, Maikon Di Domenico, Alejandro Martínez, Maickel Armenteros, Erik García-Machado, Peter Rask Møller, Katrine Worsaae
Pisione is a scaleless group of small scale worms inhabiting sandy bottoms in shallow marine waters. This group was once considered rare, but now 45 described species can be characterized, among others, by their paired, segmental copulatory organs (one to multiple external pairs), which display a complexity of various accessory structures. The evolutionary significance of these unique organs was suggested in the late 1960s, but has been heavily debated since the late 1990s and remains controversial. In the present paper, we study the internal relationships within Pisione, employing combined phylogenetic analyses of both molecular and morphological data from 16 terminals of Pisione, as well as two terminals of Pisionidens, and eight additional scale worms as outgroups...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454930/integrative-inference-of-population-history-in-the-ibero-maghrebian-endemic-pleurodeles-waltl-salamandridae
#19
Jorge Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A Márcia Barbosa, Íñigo Martínez-Solano
Inference of population histories from the molecular signatures of past demographic processes is challenging, but recent methodological advances in species distribution models and their integration in time-calibrated phylogeographic studies allow detailed reconstruction of complex biogeographic scenarios. We apply an integrative approach to infer the evolutionary history of the Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl), an Ibero-Maghrebian endemic with populations north and south of the Strait of Gibraltar. We analyzed an extensive multilocus dataset (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci) and found a deep east-west phylogeographic break in Iberian populations dating back to the Plio-Pleistocene...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453569/molecular-exploration-of-hidden-diversity-in-the-indo-west-pacific-sciaenid-clade
#20
Pei-Chun Lo, Shu-Hui Liu, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor, Wei-Jen Chen
The family Sciaenidae, known as croakers or drums, is one of the largest perciform fish families. A recent multi-gene based study investigating the phylogeny and biogeography of global sciaenids revealed that the origin and early diversification of this family occurred in tropical America during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene before undergoing range expansions to other seas including the Indo-West Pacific, where high species richness is observed. Despite this clarification of the overall evolutionary history of the family, knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogeny of sciaenid genera endemic to the Indo-West Pacific is still limited due to lack of a thorough survey of all taxa...
2017: PloS One
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