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Mohammed-Amin Madoui, Julie Poulain, Kevin Sugier, Marc Wessner, Benjamin Noel, Leo Berline, Karine Labadie, Astrid Cornils, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial, Lars Stemmann, Jean-Louis Jamet, Patrick Wincker
In the epipelagic ocean the genus Oithona is considered as one of the most abundant and widespread copepods and plays an important role in the trophic food web. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the Oithona and cyclopoid copepods genomics. Therefore, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of Oithona nana. The comparative genomic analysis integrating available copepod genomes highlighted the expansions of genes related to stress response, cell differentiation, and development, including genes coding Lin12-Notch-Repeat (LNR) domain proteins...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Luís Borda-de-Água, Robert J Whittaker, Pedro Cardoso, François Rigal, Ana M C Santos, Isabel R Amorim, Aristeidis Parmakelis, Kostas A Triantis, Henrique M Pereira, Paulo A V Borges
Species abundance distributions (SAD) are central to the description of diversity and have played a major role in the development of theories of biodiversity and biogeography. However, most work on species abundance distributions has focused on one single spatial scale. Here we used data on arthropods to test predictions obtained with computer simulations on whether dispersal ability influences the rate of change of SADs as a function of sample size. To characterize the change of the shape of the SADs we use the moments of the distributions: the skewness and the raw moments...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Changkyun Kim, Kenneth M Cameron, Joo-Hwan Kim
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding the underlying mechanisms for the evolution of intercontinental disjunct patterns has long fascinated botanists. We present a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of Maianthemum s.l. (including Smilacina) with a focus on Maianthemum s.s. species, which have a disjunct distribution between Eurasia and North America. Within this evolutionary framework, we clarify the systematic classification and biogeographical history of Maianthemum s.s. METHOD: Data from two nuclear and five chloroplast DNA regions were analyzed using the programs PAUP*, RAxML, MrBayes, BEAST, and RASP...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Paul Masonick, Amy Michael, Sarah Frankenberg, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Christiane Weirauch
The ambush bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Phymatinae) are a diverse clade of predators known for their cryptic hunting behavior and morphologically diverse raptorial forelegs. Despite their striking appearance, role as pollinator predators, and intriguing biogeographic distribution, phylogenetic relationships within Phymatinae are largely unknown and the evolutionary history of the subfamily has remained in the dark. We here utilize the most extensive molecular phylogeny of ambush bugs to date, generated from a 3,328 base pair molecular dataset, to refine our understanding of phymatine relationships, estimate dates of divergence (BEAST 2), and uncover historical biogeographic patterns (S-DIVA and DEC)...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
R Toby Pennington, Matt Lavin
The Andes are the world's longest mountain chain, and the tropical Andes are the world's richest biodiversity hot spot. The origin of the tropical Andean cordillera is relatively recent because the elevation of the mountains was relatively low (400-2500 m palaeoelevations) only 10 MYA with final uplift being rapid. These final phases of the Andean orogeny are thought to have had a fundamental role in shaping processes of biotic diversification and biogeography, with these effects reaching far from the mountains themselves by changing the course of rivers and deposition of mineral-rich Andean sediments across the massive Amazon basin...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
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May 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
A S Guidolin, F L Cônsoli
Richness and abundance of facultative symbionts vary strongly with aphid species and genotype, symbiont strain, host plant, biogeography, and a number of abiotic factors. Despite indications that aphids in the same ecological niche show similar levels of facultative symbiont richness, existing reports do not consider the potential role of host plants on aphid microbial community. Little is known about how oligophagy and polyphagy may be influenced by secondary symbiont distribution, mainly because studies on secondary symbiont diversity are biased towards polyphagous aphids from the Northern Hemisphere...
June 15, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
Boris Sauterey, Ben Ward, Jonathan Rault, Chris Bowler, David Claessen
Models of community assembly have been used to illustrate how the many functionally diverse species that compose plankton food webs can coexist. However, the evolutionary processes leading to the emergence of plankton food webs and their interplay with migratory processes and spatial heterogeneity are yet to be explored. We study the eco-evolutionary dynamics of a modeled plankton community structured in both size and space and physiologically constrained by empirical data. We demonstrate that a complex yet ecologically and evolutionarily stable size-structured food web can emerge from an initial set of two monomorphic phytoplankton and zooplankton populations...
July 2017: American Naturalist
J Martínez-Padilla, A Estrada, R Early, F Garcia-Gonzalez
Understanding and forecasting the effects of environmental change on wild populations requires knowledge on a critical question: do populations have the ability to evolve in response to that change? However, our knowledge on how evolution works in wild conditions under different environmental circumstances is extremely limited. We investigated how environmental variation influences the evolutionary potential of phenotypic traits. We used published data to collect or calculate 135 estimates of evolvability of morphological traits of European wild bird populations...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Liliya Serbina, Daniel Burckhardt
The Neotropical genus Russelliana (Psyllidae: Aphalaroidinae) is revised and its phylogenetic, host-plant and biogeographical relationships are discussed. Twenty-four species are described as new, bringing the number of known species to 43. An identification key is provided for the adults. A phylogenetic analysis of 26 morphological characters resulted in 54 most parsimonious trees. The consensus tree is well resolved at the base but poorly at the crown. Most Russelliana species are monophagous or oligophagous with the exception of R...
May 12, 2017: Zootaxa
Günther Fleck
Based on a single male specimen, a remarkable new species of the genus Navicordulia is described from the Massif du Mitaraka in French Guiana (Tumuc-Humac Mountains). Another new species of this genus is also reported from the same locality but is not described. This is the first record of the genus from French Guiana, hitherto being unknown within a radius of more than 1000 km. Apparent rarity or absence of records is probably due to its secretive habits. Navicordulia tumucurakensis sp. nov. presents unique characters not present in other species of the genus including: almost no excavation of the anal angle, proximal sternal pilose ridge of abdominal segment 7 transformed into two large lateral oreillets disconnected from the median carina, additional distal sternal pilose ridge transformed into a medial knob, epiproct not extending beyond the distal half of the cerci, very long cerci surpassing those of described species, cerci lacking ventro-medial carina and tubercle and exhibiting a distal ventral brush of hair-like setae...
May 29, 2017: Zootaxa
Carmen Zamora-Muñoz, Tomáš Derka, Cesc Múrria
Four new species of the genus Atopsyche Banks (Hydrobiosidae) from Pantepui biogeographical region (Venezuela) are described and illustrated: Atopsyche (Atopsaura) inmae n. sp., Atopsyche (Atopsaura) cristinae n. sp., Atopsyche (Atopsaura) svitoki n. sp., and Atopsyche (Atopsaura) carmenae n. sp. Molecular analyses (cox1 sequences) allowed larva-adult associations and the morphological description of larvae of two of the new species (A. inmae and A. cristinae). A phylogenetic tree is performed to assess the molecular validity of the species, establish evolutionary relation among them and interpret historical biogeography of tepuis...
May 29, 2017: Zootaxa
Roy A Norton, Sergey G Ermilov
Based on the study of type material, other historical specimens, and new collections, the adult of the thelytokous oribatid mite Oribata curva Ewing, 1907 (Galumnidae) is redescribed and the name is recombined to Trichogalumna curva (Ewing, 1907) comb. nov. A confusing history of synonymies and misidentifications is traced in detail, and their effect on published statements about biogeography is assessed. Reliable records of T. curva are only those from North America. The tropical mite Pergalumna ventralis (Willmann, 1932) is not a subspecies of T...
May 31, 2017: Zootaxa
David C Marshall, Kathy B R Hill
A morphologically cryptic subspecies of Neotibicen similaris (Smith and Grossbeck) is described from forests of the Apalachicola region of the southeastern United States. Although the new form exhibits a highly distinctive male calling song, it hybridizes extensively where it meets populations of the nominate subspecies in parapatry, by which it is nearly surrounded. This is the first reported example of hybridization between North American nonperiodical cicadas. Acoustic and morphological characters are added to the original description of the nominate subspecies, and illustrations of complex hybrid song phenotypes are presented...
May 31, 2017: Zootaxa
S Ramya Roopa, C Selvakumar, K A Subramanian, K G Sivaramakrishnan
Prosopistoma someshwarensis n. sp. is described based on larvae collected from the streams of central Western Ghats, and P. indicum Peters, 1967 is redescribed based on fresh material from additional localities of the southern and central Western Ghats of peninsular India. A brief discussion on their ecology and biogeography, and a key to the Indian species of Prosopistoma, are also provided. The Indian species may be distinguished from one another based on the segmentation of the antennae, carapace colourations, the setation of the tibiae and mandibular canines, and the morphology of gills 2...
March 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Robert Perger, Antonio Santos-Silva, Fernando Guerra
The male of Phoebe ornator (Tippmann, 1960) is described. Chromatic gender dimorphism is also reported for the first time in the Hemilophini. In addition, new records are presented for P. ornator for the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia and São Paulo, and the Bolivian department of La Paz. The biogeography of P. ornator is analyzed.
April 6, 2017: Zootaxa
Nibia Berois, Graciela Garcia, Rafael Omar de Sá
Over the last 50 years, annual killifishes arose as alternative model organisms for studies of vertebrate biology. The annual fish offers exceptional advantages for studies of genetics, genomics, developmental biology, population dynamics, ecology, biogeography, and evolution. They inhabit extremely variable freshwater environments in Africa and South America, have a short lifespan and a set of unique and fascinating developmental characteristics. Embryos survive within the dry substrate during the dry season, whereas the adult population dies...
June 12, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Sylvia Hofmann, Matthias Stöck, Yuchi Zheng, Francesco G Ficetola, Jia-Tang Li, Ulrich Scheidt, Joachim Schmidt
The Himalaya presents an outstanding geologically active orogen and biodiversity hotspot. However, our understanding of the historical biogeography of its fauna is far from comprehensive. Many taxa are commonly assumed to have originated from China-Indochina and dispersed westward along the Himalayan chain. Alternatively, the "Tibetan-origin hypothesis" suggests primary diversification of lineages in Paleo-Tibet, and secondary diversification along the slopes of the later uplifted Greater Himalaya. We test these hypotheses in high-mountain megophryid anurans (Scutiger)...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhaohe Luo, Bernd Krock, Kenneth Neil Mertens, Elisabeth Nézan, Nicolas Chomérat, Gwenael Bilien, Urban Tillmann, Haifeng Gu
The marine planktonic dinophyceaen genus Azadinium is a primary source of azaspiracids, but due to their small size its diversity may be underestimated and information on its biogeography is still limited. A new Azadinium species, A. zhuanum was obtained from the East China Sea and Yellow Sea of China by incubating surface sediments. Five strains were established by isolating single germinated cells and their morphology was examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Azadinium zhuanum was characterized by a plate pattern of Po, cp, X, 4', 2a, 6'', 6C, 5S, 6''', 2'''', by a distinct ventral pore at the junction of Po, the first and fourth apical plates, and a conspicuous antapical spine...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
Gideon Ney, Johannes Schul
Biogeography plays a significant role in species' dispersal, and in turn population structure, across the landscape. The North American katydid Neoconocephalus melanorhinus belongs to a genus with high mobility. Unlike other members of the genus, N. melanorhinus is a salt marsh specialist restricted to a narrow corridor along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. In addition, their range crosses at least one known biogeographic barrier and possesses biogeographic characteristics of the stepping-stone as well as the hierarchical island model of dispersal...
2017: PloS One
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