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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135078/molecular-phylogeny-of-entomobrya-collembola-entomobryidae-from-china-colour-pattern-groups-and-multiple-origins
#1
Yinhuan Ding, Daoyuan Yu, Weibo Guo, Jiannan Li, Feng Zhang
Highly diversified colourations among springtails (Collembola) have been widely used for species diagnosis, but their phylogenetic significance is poorly known. We addressed this issue in the largest Entomobryinae genus Entomobrya, which possesses variable colour patterns among species. The relationships within the genus and to other genera were also rarely studied. Based on material mainly from China, we have conducted a multilocus phylogeny and topology tests with likelihood and Bayesian algorithms, and accordingly demonstrated the non-monophyly of Chinese Entomobrya...
November 14, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134724/biogeography-of-mutualistic-fungi-cultivated-by-leafcutter-ants
#2
Ulrich G Mueller, Heather D Ishak, Sofia M Bruschi, Chad C Smith, Jacob J Herman, Scott E Solomon, Alexander S Mikheyev, Christian Rabeling, Jarrod J Scott, Michael Cooper, Andre Rodrigues, Adriana Ortiz, Carlos Roberto F Brandão, John E Lattke, Fernando C Pagnocca, Stephen A Rehner, Ted R Schultz, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Rachelle M M Adams, Martin Bollazzi, Rebecca M Clark, Anna G Himler, John S LaPolla, Inara R Leal, Robert A Johnson, Flavio Roces, Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Rainer Wirth, Maurício Bacci
Leafcutter ants propagate co-evolving fungi for food. The nearly 50 species of leafcutter ants (Atta, Acromyrmex) range from Argentina to the USA, with the greatest species diversity in southern South America. We elucidate the biogeography of fungi cultivated by leafcutter ants using DNA-sequence and microsatellite-marker analyses of 474 cultivars collected across the leafcutter range. Fungal cultivars belong to two clades (Clade-A, Clade-B). The dominant and widespread Clade-A cultivars form three genotype-clusters, with their relative prevalence corresponding to southern South America, northern South America, and Central & North America...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134102/imperial-trophy-or-island-relict-a-new-extinction-paradigm-for-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-a-chinese-conservation-icon
#3
Samuel T Turvey, Ian Barnes, Melissa Marr, Selina Brace
Determining the 'dynamic biogeography' of range collapse in threatened species is essential for effective conservation, but reconstruction of spatio-temporal patterns of population vulnerability and resilience can require use of non-standard ecological data such as historical archives. Père David's deer or milu, one of the few living mammal species that has become extinct in the wild, is historically known only from a small captive herd of unknown provenance that survived until 1900 in the Imperial Hunting Park near Beijing, from which all living individuals are descended...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134015/biogeography-and-phylogenetic-position-of-enchodeloides-signyensis-loof-1975-gen-n-comb-n-from-maritime-antarctic-nematoda-nordiidae
#4
Milka Elshishka, Stela Lazarova, Georgi Radoslavov, Peter Hristov, Vlada K Peneva
The taxonomic position of the endemic Antarctic species Enchodeloides signyensis (Loof, 1975), gen. n., comb. n. (= Enchodelus signyensis Loof, 1975) is discussed on the basis of morphological study, including SEM, morphometric data, postembryonic observations, and sequence data of 18S rDNA and the D2-D3 expansion fragments of the large subunit rDNA. A number of characters such as the cuticle and stoma structures, including the presence of moderately developed cuticularised ring around the oral aperture, peculiarities of pharynx expansion, size and position of the posterior pair of pharyngeal nuclei, a less complex uterus, and the position of a posterior ventromedian supplement show that this species differs substantially from the other members of the genus Enchodelus...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133901/a-mesic-maximum-in-biological-water-use-demarcates-biome-sensitivity-to-aridity-shifts
#5
Stephen P Good, Georgianne W Moore, Diego G Miralles
Biome function is largely governed by how efficiently available resources can be used and yet for water, the ratio of direct biological resource use (transpiration, E T) to total supply (annual precipitation, P) at ecosystem scales remains poorly characterized. Here, we synthesize field, remote sensing and ecohydrological modelling estimates to show that the biological water use fraction (E T/P) reaches a maximum under mesic conditions; that is, when evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration, E P) slightly exceeds supplied precipitation...
November 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130757/international-barcode-of-life-focus-on-big-biodiversity-in-south-africa
#6
Sarah J Adamowicz, Peter M Hollingsworth, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Michelle van der Bank
Participants in the 7th International Barcode of Life Conference (Kruger National Park, South Africa, 20-24 November 2017) share the latest findings in DNA barcoding research and its increasingly diversified applications. Here, we review prevailing trends synthesized from among 429 invited and contributed abstracts, which are collated in this open-access special issue of Genome. Hosted for the first time on the African continent, the 7th Conference places special emphasis on the evolutionary origins, biogeography, and conservation of African flora and fauna...
November 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129942/priorities-for-research-in-soil-ecology
#7
Nico Eisenhauer, Pedro M Antunes, Alison E Bennett, Klaus Birkhofer, Andrew Bissett, Matthew A Bowker, Tancredi Caruso, Baodong Chen, David C Coleman, Wietse de Boer, Peter de Ruiter, Thomas H DeLuca, Francesco Frati, Bryan S Griffiths, Miranda M Hart, Stephan Hättenschwiler, Jari Haimi, Michael Heethoff, Nobuhiro Kaneko, Laura C Kelly, Hans Petter Leinaas, Zoë Lindo, Catriona Macdonald, Matthias C Rillig, Liliane Ruess, Stefan Scheu, Olaf Schmidt, Timothy R Seastedt, Nico M van Straalen, Alexei V Tiunov, Martin Zimmer, Jeff R Powell
The ecological interactions that occur in and with soil are of consequence in many ecosystems on the planet. These interactions provide numerous essential ecosystem services, and the sustainable management of soils has attracted increasing scientific and public attention. Although soil ecology emerged as an independent field of research many decades ago, and we have gained important insights into the functioning of soils, there still are fundamental aspects that need to be better understood to ensure that the ecosystem services that soils provide are not lost and that soils can be used in a sustainable way...
July 2017: Pedobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122650/phylogeny-new-generic-level-classification-and-historical-biogeography-of-the-eucera-complex-hymenoptera-apidae
#8
A Dorchin, M M López-Uribe, C J Praz, T Griswold, B N Danforth
The longhorn bee tribe Eucerini (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a diverse, widely distributed group of solitary bees that includes important pollinators of both wild and agricultural plants. About half of the species in the tribe are currently assigned to the genus Eucera and to a few other related genera. In this large genus complex, comprising ca. 390 species, the boundaries between genera remain ambiguous due to morphological intergradation among taxa. Using ca. 6700 aligned nucleotide sites from six gene fragments, 120 morphological characters, and more than 100 taxa, we present the first comprehensive molecular, morphological, and combined phylogenetic analyses of the 'Eucera complex'...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118596/revision-of-torrent-mites-parasitengona-torrenticolidae-torrenticola-of-the-united-states-and-canada-90-descriptions-molecular-phylogenetics-and-a-key-to-species
#9
J Ray Fisher, Danielle M Fisher, Michael J Skvarla, Whitney A Nelson, Ashley P G Dowling
The descriptive biology of torrent mites (Parasitengona: Torrenticolidae: Torrenticola) of North America (north of Mexico) is investigated using integrative methods. Material examined includes approximately 2,300 specimens from nearly 500 localities across the United States and Canada, and a few collections in Mexico and Central America. Species hypotheses are derived from a phylogenetic analysis of the barcoding region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) for 476 specimens and supported with morphology and biogeography...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118595/a-taxonomic-review-of-the-selenophori-group-coleoptera-carabidae-harpalini-in-the-west-indies-with-descriptions-of-new-species-and-notes-about-classification-and-biogeography
#10
Danny Shpeley, Wesley Hunting, George E Ball
Primarily a taxonomic review of the West Indian elements of the selenophorine Harpalini, this paper includes a classification, a key, descriptions and illustrations of taxa, re-rankings, and new synonymies. In total, 45 species and subspecies are treated, six of which are described as new. A new genus and new species are as follows, with type localities in parentheses: Paraulacoryssusgen. n., (type species Selenophorus puertoricensis Mutchler, 1934); Neodiachipteryx davidsonisp. n., (Zamba, Dominican Republic); Selenophorus spinosussp...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118049/the-first-microbial-colonizers-of-the-human-gut-composition-activities-and-health-implications-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota
#11
REVIEW
Christian Milani, Sabrina Duranti, Francesca Bottacini, Eoghan Casey, Francesca Turroni, Jennifer Mahony, Clara Belzer, Susana Delgado Palacio, Silvia Arboleya Montes, Leonardo Mancabelli, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Juan Miguel Rodriguez, Lars Bode, Willem de Vos, Miguel Gueimonde, Abelardo Margolles, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially) driven and modulated by specific compounds present in human milk. It has been shown that certain genomes of infant gut commensals, in particular those of bifidobacterial species, are genetically adapted to utilize specific glycans of this human secretory fluid, thus representing a very intriguing example of host-microbe coevolution, where both partners are believed to benefit...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113924/why-are-there-so-many-sedges-sumatroscirpeae-a-missing-piece-in-the-evolutionary-puzzle-of-the-giant-genus-carex-cyperaceae
#12
Étienne Léveillé-Bourret, Julian R Starr, Bruce A Ford
For over a century, the origins and mechanisms underlying the diversification of the enormous temperate genus Carex (>2,100 species; Cariceae, Cyperaceae) have remained largely speculative. Characteristics such as its diverse ecology, varied biogeography, and intriguing cytology have made Carex a powerful model for studying plant evolution, but its uncertain sister-group relationships hinder its use in studies that depend on accurate ancestral state estimates and biogeographic inferences. To identify the sister to Carex, we estimated the phylogeny of all genera in the Cariceae-Dulichieae-Scirpeae clade (CDS) using three plastid and two nuclear ribosomal markers...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109701/microbial-community-and-biochemical-dynamics-of-biological-soil-crusts-across-a-gradient-of-surface-coverage-in-the-central-mojave-desert
#13
Rakesh Mogul, Parag Vaishampayan, Mina Bashir, Chris P McKay, Keith Schubert, Rosalba Bornaccorsi, Ernesto Gomez, Sneha Tharayil, Geoffrey Payton, Juliana Capra, Jessica Andaya, Leonard Bacon, Emily Bargoma, David Black, Katie Boos, Michaela Brant, Michael Chabot, Danny Chau, Jessica Cisneros, Geoff Chu, Jane Curnutt, Jessica DiMizio, Christian Engelbrecht, Caroline Gott, Raechel Harnoto, Ruben Hovanesian, Shane Johnson, Britne Lavergne, Gabriel Martinez, Paul Mans, Ernesto Morales, Alex Oei, Gary Peplow, Ryan Piaget, Nicole Ponce, Eduardo Renteria, Veronica Rodriguez, Joseph Rodriguez, Monica Santander, Khamille Sarmiento, Allison Scheppelmann, Gavin Schroter, Devan Sexton, Jenin Stephenson, Kristin Symer, Tatiane Russo-Tait, Bill Weigel, Mary B Wilhelm
In this study, we expand upon the biogeography of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and provide molecular insights into the microbial community and biochemical dynamics along the vertical BSC column structure, and across a transect of increasing BSC surface coverage in the central Mojave Desert, CA, United States. Next generation sequencing reveals a bacterial community profile that is distinct among BSCs in the southwestern United States. Distribution of major phyla in the BSC topsoils included Cyanobacteria (33 ± 8%), Proteobacteria (26 ± 6%), and Chloroflexi (12 ± 4%), with Phormidium being the numerically dominant genus...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108906/phylogeography-and-connectivity-of-molluscan-parasites-perkinsus-spp-in-panama-and-beyond
#14
Katrina M Pagenkopp Lohan, Kristina M Hill-Spanik, Mark E Torchin, Robert C Fleischer, Ryan B Carnegie, Kimberly S Reece, Gregory M Ruiz
Panama is a major hub for commercial shipping between two oceans, making it an ideal location to examine parasite biogeography, potential invasions, and the spread of infectious agents. Our goals were to (i) characterise the diversity and genetic connectivity of Perkinsus spp. haplotypes across the Panamanian Isthmus and (ii) combine these data with sequences from around the world to evaluate the current phylogeography and genetic connectivity of these widespread molluscan parasites. We collected 752 bivalves from 12 locations along the coast of Panama including locations around the Bocas del Toro archipelago and the Caribbean and Pacific entrances to the Panama Canal, from December 2012 to February 2013...
November 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104436/taxonomy-and-biogeography-without-frontiers-whatsapp-facebook-and-smartphone-digital-photography-let-citizen-scientists-in-more-remote-localities-step-out-of-the-dark
#15
Nano Suprayitno, Raden Pramesa Narakusumo, Thomas von Rintelen, Lars Hendrich, Michael Balke
Background: Taxonomy and biogeography can benefit from citizen scientists. The use of social networking and open access cooperative publishing can easily connect naturalists even in more remote areas with in-country scientists and institutions, as well as those abroad. This enables taxonomic efforts without frontiers and at the same time adequate benefit sharing measures. New information: We present new distribution and habitat data for diving beetles of Bali island, Indonesia, as a proof of concept...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102477/active-disturbance-rejection-controller-design-for-dynamically-positioned-vessels-based-on-adaptive-hybrid-biogeography-based-optimization-and-differential-evolution
#16
Defeng Wu, Fengkun Ren, Lei Qiao, Weidong Zhang
Vessels with a dynamic positioning system (DPS) are widely applied in ocean resource exploration. Because of the inaccuracy and coupling of the vessel dynamic model, it is important to design a controller that performs well in an oceanic environment. The active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is introduced in this study to control the vessel movement and positioning in the DPS. The merit of the ADRC is that it does not need an accurate plant and disturbance model. In the proposed method, an adaptive hybrid biogeography-based optimization (BBO) and differential evolution (DE) are developed...
November 1, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100541/the-phylogenetic-position-of-the-enigmatic-balkan-aulopyge-huegelii-teleostei-cyprinidae-from-the-perspective-of-host-specific-dactylogyrus-parasites-monogenea-with-a-description-of-dactylogyrus-omenti-n-sp
#17
Michal Benovics, Maria Lujza Kičinjaová, Andrea Šimková
BACKGROUND: The host specificity of fish parasites is considered a useful parasite characteristic with respect to understanding the biogeography of their fish hosts. Dactylogyrus Diesing, 1850 (Monogenea) includes common parasites of cyprinids exhibiting different degrees of host specificity, i.e. from strict specialism to generalism. The phylogenetic relationships and historical dispersions of several cyprinid lineages, including Aulopyge huegelii Heckel, 1843, are still unclear. Therefore, the aims of our study were to investigate (i) the Dactylogyrus spp...
November 3, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094340/integrating-phylogenomic-and-population-genomic-patterns-in-avian-lice-provides-a-more-complete-picture-of-parasite-evolution
#18
Andrew D Sweet, Bret M Boyd, Julie M Allen, Scott M Villa, Michel P Valim, Jose L Rivera-Parra, Robert E Wilson, Kevin P Johnson
Parasite diversity accounts for most of the biodiversity on earth, and is shaped by many processes (e.g. cospeciation, host-switching). To identify the effects of the processes that shape parasite diversity, it is ideal to incorporate both deep (phylogenetic) and shallow (population) perspectives. To this end, we developed a novel workflow to obtain phylogenetic and population genetic data from whole genome sequences of body lice parasitizing New World ground-doves. Phylogenies from these data showed consistent, highly resolved species-level relationships for the lice...
November 2, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080673/inferring-the-demographic-history-of-an-oligophagous-grasshopper-effects-of-climatic-niche-stability-and-host-plant-distribution
#19
Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J Cordero, Joaquín Ortego
Understanding the consequences of past environmental changes on the abiotic and biotic components of the landscape and deciphering their impacts on the demographic trajectories of species is a major issue in evolutionary biogeography. In this study, we combine nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to study the phylogeographical structure and lineage-specific demographic histories of the scrub-legume grasshopper (Chorthippus binotatus binotatus), a montane taxon distributed in the Iberian Peninsula and France that exclusively feeds on certain scrub-legume species...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075237/patterns-and-processes-in-marine-microeukaryotic-community-biogeography-from-xiamen-coastal-waters-and-intertidal-sediments-southeast-china
#20
Weidong Chen, Yongbo Pan, Lingyu Yu, Jun Yang, Wenjing Zhang
Microeukaryotes play key roles in the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Little is known about the relative importance of the processes that drive planktonic and benthic microeukaryotic biogeography in subtropical offshore areas. This study compares the microeukaryotic community compositions (MCCs) from offshore waters (n = 12) and intertidal sediments (n = 12) around Xiamen Island, southern China, using high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA. This work further quantifies the relative contributions of spatial and environmental variables on the distribution of marine MCCs (including total, dominant, rare and conditionally rare taxa)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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