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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317537/diversity-in-the-botryosphaeriales-looking-back-looking-forward
#1
REVIEW
Bernard Slippers, Pedro Willem Crous, Fahimeh Jami, Johannes Zacharias Groenewald, Michael John Wingfield
The Botryosphaeriales are amongst the most widespread, common and important fungal pathogens of woody plants. Many are also known to exist as endophytes in healthy plant tissues. This special issue highlights a number of key themes in the study of this group of fungi. In particular, there have been dramatic taxonomic changes over the past decade; from one family to nine (including two in this special issue) and from 10 to 33 genera known from culture. It is also clear from many studies that neither morphology nor single locus sequence data are sufficient to define taxa...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303312/neutral-evolution-and-dispersal-limitation-produce-biogeographic-patterns-in-microcystis-aeruginosa-populations-of-lake-systems
#2
Sahar Shirani, Ferdi L Hellweger
Molecular observations reveal substantial biogeographic patterns of cyanobacteria within systems of connected lakes. An important question is the relative role of environmental selection and neutral processes in the biogeography of these systems. Here, we quantify the effect of genetic drift and dispersal limitation by simulating individual cyanobacteria cells using an agent-based model (ABM). In the model, cells grow (divide), die, and migrate between lakes. Each cell has a full genome that is subject to neutral mutation (i...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289728/opticlust-an-improved-method-for-assigning-amplicon-based-sequence-data-to-operational-taxonomic-units
#3
Sarah L Westcott, Patrick D Schloss
Assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) is a computational bottleneck in the process of analyzing microbial communities. Although this has been an active area of research, it has been difficult to overcome the time and memory demands while improving the quality of the OTU assignments. Here, we developed a new OTU assignment algorithm that iteratively reassigns sequences to new OTUs to optimize the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), a measure of the quality of OTU assignments...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288943/cophylogenetics-and-biogeography-reveal-a-coevolved-relationship-between-sloths-and-their-symbiont-algae
#4
Emily D Fountain, Jonathan N Pauli, Jorge E Mendoza, Jenna Carlson, M Zachariah Peery
Specialized species, like arboreal folivores, often develop beneficial relationships with symbionts to exploit ecologically constrained lifestyles. Although coevolution can drive speciation by specialization of a symbiont to a host, a symbiotic relationship is not indicative of coevolution between host and symbiont. We tested for coevolved relationships between highly specialized two- and three-toed sloths (Choloepus spp. and Bradypus spp., respectively) and their symbiotic algae using cophylogenies and phylogeography...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286360/biogeography-and-molecular-diversity-of-coral-symbionts-in-the-genus-symbiodinium-around-the-arabian-peninsula
#5
Maren Ziegler, Chatchanit Arif, John A Burt, Sergey Dobretsov, Cornelia Roder, Todd C LaJeunesse, Christian R Voolstra
AIM: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. LOCATION: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG)...
March 2017: Journal of Biogeography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286101/the-biogeographic-and-evolutionary-history-of-an-endemic-clade-of-middle-american-sparrows-melozone-and-aimophila-aves-passerellidae
#6
Luis Sandoval, Kevin L Epperly, John Klicka, Daniel J Mennill
The large number of endemic species in Middle America is frequently attributed to the interplay of geographical barriers and historical climatic changes in the region. This process promotes genetic divergence between populations, and given enough time, may yield new species. Animals that inhabit mid-elevation or highland habitats may be disproportionately affected in this way. Genetic analyses of animals in this region allow us to better understand how historical patterns of isolation have influenced the generation of new species in this biodiversity hotspot...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284110/protistan-biogeography-a-snapshot-across-a-major-shipping-corridor-spanning-two-oceans
#7
Katrina M Pagenkopp Lohan, Robert C Fleischer, Mark E Torchin, Gregory M Ruiz
Deciphering patterns of protistan taxa is a crucial step for understanding anthropogenic and environmental impacts on biogeography. We characterized and compared protistan communities from environmental samples collected along a major shipping corridor, the Panama Canal, and the Bocas del Toro archipelago. We used metabarcoding with high throughput sequencing (HTS) with the V4 hypervariable region of the ribosomal gene complex (rDNA). We detected many protistan taxa, including a variety of parasitic and toxic taxa...
January 6, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283520/biogeography-of-a-novel-clade-of-ensifer-meliloti-associated-with-the-australian-legume-trigonella-suavissima
#8
Bertrand Eardly, Patrick Elia, John Brockwell, Daniel Golemboski, Peter van Berkum
Here we describe a novel clade within Ensifer meliloti and consider how geographic and ecological isolation contributed to the limited distribution of this group. Members of the genus Ensifer are best known for their ability to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with forage legumes of three related genera, Medicago L., Melilotus Mill., and Trigonella L., which are members of the tribe Trifoleae. They have a natural distribution extending from the Mediterranean basin through west Asia, where there is an unsurpassed number of species belonging to these genera...
March 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281334/warm-cold-colonization-response-of-oaks-to-uplift-of-the-himalaya-hengduan-mountains
#9
Hong-Hu Meng, Tao Su, Xiao-Yang Gao, Jie Li, Xiao-Long Jiang, Hang Sun, Zhe-Kun Zhou
Clarifying the relationship between distribution patterns of organisms and geological events is critical to understanding the impact of environmental changes on organismal evolution. Quercus sect. Heterobalanus is now distributed across the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) and warm lowland in East China, yet how the distribution patterns of this group changed in response to the HHM uplift remains largely unknown. This study examines the effect of tectonic events in the HHM region on the oaks, providing a biological perspective on the geological history of this region...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279810/madagascar-sheds-new-light-on-the-molecular-systematics-and-biogeography-of-grammitid-ferns-new-unexpected-lineages-and-numerous-long-distance-dispersal-events
#10
Lucie Bauret, Myriam Gaudeul, Michael A Sundue, Barbara S Parris, Tom A Ranker, France Rakotondrainibe, Sabine Hennequin, Jaona Ranaivo, Marc-André Selosse, Germinal Rouhan
Based on a worldwide phylogenetic framework filling the taxonomic gap of Madagascar and surrounding islands of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), we revisited the systematics of grammitid fern species (Polypodiaceae). We also investigated the biogeographic origin of the extant diversity in Madagascar and estimated the relative influence of vicariance, long-distance dispersals (LDD) and in situ diversification. Phylogenetic inferences were based on five plastid DNA regions (atpB, rbcL, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF) and the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling ever assembled (224 species belonging to 31 out of 33 recognized grammitids genera)...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279809/historical-biogeography-of-the-highly-diverse-brown-seaweed-lobophora-dictyotales-phaeophyceae
#11
Christophe Vieira, Olga Camacho, Zhongmin Sun, Suzanne Fredericq, Frederik Leliaert, Claude Payri, Olivier De Clerck
The tropical to warm-temperate marine brown macroalgal genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) recently drew attention because of its striking regional diversity. In this study we reassess Lobophora global species diversity, and species distributions, and explore how historical factors have shaped current diversity patterns. We applied a series of algorithmic species delineation techniques on a global mitochondrial cox3 dataset of 598 specimens, resulting in an estimation of 98-121 species. This diversity by far exceeds traditional diversity estimates based on morphological data...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264392/revision-of-i-chimarrogale-i-lipotyphla-soricidae-from-vietnam-with-comments-on-taxonomy-and-biogeography-of-asiatic-water-shrews
#12
Alexei V Abramov, Anna A Bannikova, Vladimir S Lebedev, Viatcheslav V Rozhnov
We analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene and fragments of four nuclear loci: ApoB, RAG2, IRBP1 and BRCA1. These data allowed us to provide new insights into the diversity of the Asiatic water shrews of Indochina. A new, highly divergent genetic lineage of Chimarrogale was found in southern Vietnam, and this lineage included specimens from the provinces of Kon Tum, Dak Lak, and Lam Dong. Such finding represents the newest and southernmost records of Chimarrogale in Indochina. Morphological analysis classified the specimens from southern Vietnam as C...
February 15, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262955/global-biogeography-of-seed-dormancy-is-determined-by-seasonality-and-seed-size-a-case-study-in-the-legumes
#13
Rafael Rubio de Casas, Charles G Willis, William D Pearse, Carol C Baskin, Jerry M Baskin, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
Seed dormancy is expected to provide ecological advantages by adjusting germination to the favorable growth period. However, many species produce nondormant seeds, particularly in wet tropical forests, a biogeographic pattern that is not well accounted for in current models. We hypothesized that the global distribution of dormant seeds derives from their adaptive value in predictably fluctuating (i.e. seasonal) environments. However, the advantage conferred by dormancy might ultimately depend on other seed attributes, particularly size...
March 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258012/bryozoan-diversity-around-the-falkland-and-south-georgia-islands-overcoming-antarctic-barriers
#14
Blanca Figuerola, David K A Barnes, Paul Brickle, Paul E Brewin
There are a number of remote archipelagos distributed between 45 and 60 °S. The biota of these islands provide useful information to describe and understand patterns in biodiversity and biogeography as well as potential impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. They are in key locations either side of the Polar Front but also have limited influence from human activities. Here we investigate one taxon, bryozoans, on South Atlantic shelf habitats of the Falkland (FI) and the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia (SG)...
February 21, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251115/the-aegean-archipelago-a-natural-laboratory-of-evolution-ecology-and-civilisations
#15
REVIEW
Spyros Sfenthourakis, Kostas A Triantis
The Aegean archipelago, comprising numerous islands and islets with great heterogeneity in topographic, geological, historical and environmental properties, offers an ideal natural laboratory for ecological and evolutionary research, and has been the stage for a very long interaction between human civilizations and local ecosystems. This work presents insights that have been gained from past and current relevant research in the area, highlighting also the importance of the Aegean archipelago as a useful model to address many major questions in biogeography, ecology and evolutionary processes...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249741/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-the-imperial-pigeons-aves-columbidae-in-the-pacific-ocean
#16
Alice Cibois, Jean-Claude Thibault, Céline Bonillo, Christopher E Filardi, Eric Pasquet
We reconstruct the phylogeny of imperial pigeons (genus Ducula) using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. We evaluate the most likely biogeographic scenario for the evolution of this group that colonized many islands of the Pacific Ocean. The divergence time analysis suggests that the basal divergences within Ducula occurred more recently than in the fruit doves (genus Ptilinopus), a group that is also well diversified in Oceania. The imperial pigeons colonized the Melanesian region several times independently, and the diversification within this region led to several species in sympatry, in particular in the Bismarck archipelago...
February 27, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240772/biogeography-predicts-macro-evolutionary-patterning-of-gestural-display-complexity-in-a-passerine-family
#17
Meredith C Miles, Samantha Cheng, Matthew J Fuxjager
Gestural displays are incorporated into the signaling repertoire of numerous animal species. These displays range from complex signals that involve impressive and challenging maneuvers, to simpler displays or no gesture at all. The factors that drive this evolution remain largely unclear, and we therefore investigate this issue in New World blackbirds by testing how factors related to a species' geographical distribution and social mating system predict macro-evolutionary patterns of display elaboration. We report that species inhabiting temperate regions produce more complex displays than species living in tropical regions, and we attribute this to i) ecological factors that increase the competitiveness of the social environment in temperate regions, and ii) different evolutionary and geological contexts under which species in temperate and tropical regions evolved...
February 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235581/first-occurrence-of-cylindrospermopsin-in-portugal-a-contribution-to-its-continuous-global-dispersal
#18
Cristiana Moreira, Rita Mendes, Joana Azevedo, Vitor Vasconcelos, Agostinho Antunes
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was found to occur in Portugal for the first time. In this study CYN values varied from a minimum of 1.4 μg L(-1) to a maximum of 12 μg L(-1) detected through HPLC technique and confirmed by LC-MS method. Amplification of the cyrC gene was done and was confirmed to be from the genera Aphanizomenon. This study is therefore an important contribution to the knowledge on the dispersal and biogeography of CYN.
February 21, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231621/the-biogeography-of-tropical-reef-fishes-endemism-and-provinciality-through-time
#19
Peter F Cowman, Valeriano Parravicini, Michel Kulbicki, Sergio R Floeter
The largest marine biodiversity hotspot straddles the Indian and Pacific Oceans, driven by taxa associated with tropical coral reefs. Centred on the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), this biodiversity hotspot forms the 'bullseye' of a steep gradient in species richness from this centre to the periphery of the vast Indo-Pacific region. Complex patterns of endemism, wide-ranging species and assemblage differences have obscured our understanding of the genesis of this biodiversity pattern and its maintenance across two-thirds of the world's oceans...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228511/the-opiliones-tree-of-life-shedding-light-on-harvestmen-relationships-through-transcriptomics
#20
Rosa Fernández, Prashant P Sharma, Ana Lúcia Tourinho, Gonzalo Giribet
Opiliones are iconic arachnids with a Palaeozoic origin and a diversity that reflects ancient biogeographic patterns dating back at least to the times of Pangea. Owing to interest in harvestman diversity, evolution and biogeography, their relationships have been thoroughly studied using morphology and PCR-based Sanger approaches to infer their systematic relationships. More recently, two studies utilized transcriptomics-based phylogenomics to explore their basal relationships and diversification, but sampling was limiting for understanding deep evolutionary patterns, as they lacked good taxon representation at the family level...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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