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Carbapenemase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935481/stalking-a-lethal-superbug-by-whole-genome-sequencing-and-phylogenetics-influence-on-unraveling-a-major-hospital-outbreak-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#1
Thorsten Kaiser, Knut Finstermeier, Madlen Häntzsch, Sarah Faucheux, Martin Kaase, Tim Eckmanns, Sven Bercker, Udo X Kaisers, Norman Lippmann, Arne C Rodloff, Joachim Thiery, Christoph Lübbert
BACKGROUND: From July 2010-April 2013, Leipzig University Hospital experienced the largest outbreak of a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 2 (KPC-2)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-2-Kp) strain observed in Germany to date. After termination of the outbreak, we aimed to reconstruct transmission pathways by phylogenetics based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS). METHODS: One hundred seventeen KPC-2-Kp isolates from 89 outbreak patients, 5 environmental KPC-2-Kp isolates, and 24 K pneumoniae strains not linked to the outbreak underwent WGS...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932329/molecular-characterization-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clinical-isolates-with-elevated-resistance-to-carbapenems
#2
Rasha Barwa, Mona Shaaban
BACKGROUND: Emergence of carbapenems-resistant K. pneumoniae represents a serious challenge for antimicrobial therapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to determine different mechanisms mediating the emergence of K. pneumoniae isolates with high-level carbapenem resistance. METHOD: A total of 80 K. pneumoniae isolates were purified from sputum and urine specimens. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930017/carbapenemase-vcc-1-producing-vibrio-cholerae-in-coastal-waters-of-germany
#3
Jens A Hammerl, Claudia Jäckel, Valeria Bortolaia, Keike Schwartz, Nadja Bier, Rene S Hendriksen, Beatriz Guerra, Eckhard Strauch
During antimicrobial drug resistance testing for Vibrio spp. from coastal waters of Germany, we identified 4 nontoxigenic, carbapenem-resistant V. cholerae isolates. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the carbapenemase gene blaVCC-1. In addition, a molecular survey showed that more blaVCC-1-harboring isolates are present in coastal waters of Germany.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929963/-comparison-of-phenotypic-methods-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-production-in-clinical-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates
#4
Yamaç Tekintaş, Feriha Çilli, Bayrı Eraç, Melike Yaşar, Sabire Şöhret Aydemir, Mine Hoşgör Limoncu
Being a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that inhabits normal human microbiota and causes predominantly hospital-acquired infections. The emergence of K.pneumoniae isolates which are resistant particularly to the carbapenem group of antibiotics has led to an increase in hospitalization period, mortality and morbidity. Although different rates of resistance are observed between countries, regions and even healthcare facilities, there has been a rapid increase in the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant strains in the last 10 years...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923605/microbial-pathogenicity-and-virulence-mediated-by-integrons-on-gram-positive-microorganisms
#5
REVIEW
Yanmei Li, Ling Yang, Jie Fu, Muxia Yan, Dingqiang Chen, Li Zhang
Gram-positive microorganisms are one of leading pathogenic microorganisms in public health, including several typical "Super Bugs" as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, which caused a increasement of infections, clinical failures and expenses. Regarded as a common genetic element responsible for horizontal gene transfer, integrons are widely distributed in various pathogens considered as a determinant in the acquisition and evolution of antibiotic resistance...
September 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916900/were-all-carbapenemases-created-equal-treatment-of-ndm-producing-extensively-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Vindana Chibabhai, Trusha Nana, Norma Bosman, Teena Thomas, Warren Lowman
PURPOSE: There is currently a paucity of published literature focused on the treatment of infections caused by NDM-producing organisms. METHODS: We describe a case of a bacteraemia caused by an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Serratia marcescens and review the treatment options for XDR NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae. RESULTS: Infections caused by New Delhi beta-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide...
September 15, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912764/resistance-to-antibiotics-biocides-preservatives-and-metals-in-bacteria-isolated-from-seafoods-co-selection-of-strains-resistant-or-tolerant-to-different-classes-of-compounds
#7
José L Romero, María J Grande Burgos, Rubén Pérez-Pulido, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas
Multi-drug resistant bacteria (particularly those producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases) have become a major health concern. The continued exposure to antibiotics, biocides, chemical preservatives, and metals in different settings such as the food chain or in the environment may result in development of multiple resistance or co-resistance. The aim of the present study was to determine multiple resistances (biocides, antibiotics, chemical preservatives, phenolic compounds, and metals) in bacterial isolates from seafoods...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904433/risk-factors-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-renal-allograft-recipients-experience-of-a-tertiary-care-center-in-hyderabad-south-india
#8
M V N L R Mohan, M Neeraja, S Sudhaharan, S B Raju, T Gangadhar, V Lakshmi
Renal transplantation is an effective and commonly performed procedure for end-stage renal disease. Urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant patients. As data on postrenal transplant urinary tract infections from the Indian subcontinent are limited, the present study was conducted to estimate the burden of urinary tract infections in this vulnerable group of patients. This was a prospective study on patients undergoing renal transplantation in 2014 at our tertiary hospital in South India with a follow-up of 2 years to evaluate the risk factors for urinary tract infections...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901793/intravenous-fosfomycin-for-the-treatment-of-hospitalized-patients-with-serious-infections
#9
Andrew F Shorr, Jason M Pogue, John F Mohr
With the worldwide increase in the rates of antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobials with novel mechanisms of action are needed to fill a void in the antimicrobial armamentarium. Areas Covered: Intravenous fosfomycin has been studied extensively in a wide variety of infections including cUTI, lower respiratory tract infection, bone and joint infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and bacteremia outside of the United States. This paper reviews the in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic properties, and clinical experience of intravenous fosfomycin in hospitalized patients with serious infections...
September 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893775/a-nosocomial-outbreak-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-containing-blaoxa-237-encoded-on-a-plasmid
#10
Andrea M Hujer, Paul G Higgins, Susan D Rudin, Genevieve L Buser, Steven H Marshall, Kyriaki Xanthopoulou, Harald Seifert, Laura J Rojas, T Nicholas Domitrovic, P Maureen Cassidy, Margaret C Cunningham, Robert Vega, Jon P Furuno, Christopher D Pfeiffer, Zintars G Beldavs, Meredith S Wright, Michael R Jacobs, Mark D Adams, Robert A Bonomo
Carbapenem antibiotics are among the mainstay for treating infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, especially in the Northwest United States where carbapenem resistant A. baumannii remain relatively rare. However, between June 2012 and October 2014, an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii occurred in 16 patients from 5 healthcare facilities in the state of Oregon. All isolates were defined as extensively-drug resistant (XDR). MLST revealed that the isolates belonged to sequence type 2 (international clone 2, IC2), and were greater than 95% similar by rep-PCR analysis...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893689/management-of-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infections
#11
REVIEW
M Bassetti, D R Giacobbe, H Giamarellou, C Viscoli, G L Daikos, G Dimopoulos, F G De Rosa, E J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, G M Rossolini, E Righi, I Karaiskos, M Tumbarello, D P Nicolau, P L Viale, G Poulakou
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) has become one of the most important contemporary pathogens, especially in endemic areas. AIMS: our aim was to provide practical suggestion for physicians dealing with the management of KPC-KP infections in critically ill patients, based on expert opinions. SOURCES: PubMed search for relevant publications related to the management of KPC-KP infections. CONTENTS: a panel of experts developed a list of 12 questions to be addressed...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893688/whole-genome-sequencing-identification-of-a-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-strain-carrying-blandm-5-from-guangdong-china
#12
Xiaoyan Li, Yan Jiang, Kuihai Wu, Yong Zhou, Ruike Liu, Yan Cao, Aiwu Wu, Yurong Qiu
A carbapenem-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (sequence type 34 [ST34]) strain was isolated from a fecal specimen from a child with acute diarrhea. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the 84.5-kb IncFII plasmid pST41-NDM carrying the NDM-5 carbapenemase gene possesses a structure identical to that of the IncFII-type plasmid backbone. However, the blaNDM-5 flanking sequence found in this plasmid is identical to the blaNDM-5-positive IncX3 plasmids carried by 10 strains of Enterobacteriaceae identified in the same hospital...
September 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893647/coexistence-of-multidrug-resistance-mechanisms-and-virulence-genes-in-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-south-india
#13
Kalaiarasan Ellappan, Harish Belgode Narasimha, Saravana Kumar
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the multiple drug resistance mechanisms and various virulence genes in high level carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa (CARPA) isolates collected from patients hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital, South India. METHODOLOGY: A total of 156 CARPA isolates were included in this study. Multiplex PCR was optimized to detect carbapenemases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, respectively. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was optimized to evaluate OprD deficiency...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893449/successful-control-of-2-simultaneous-outbreaks-of-oxa-48-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-and-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#14
A Robustillo-Rodela, V Pérez-Blanco, M A Espinel Ruiz, G Ruiz Carrascoso, J C Figueira Iglesias, D Abad Martín
BACKGROUND: This report describes a double outbreak of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae (OXA-48-PE) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the effectiveness of measures implemented, including decontamination with vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP). METHODS: Affected patients were isolated in a confined area and cared for by dedicated personnel. Four percent chlorhexidine soap was used for patient daily hygiene...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892891/distribution-of-class-d-carbapenemase-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-burn-wound-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-infections
#15
Maryam Mohammadi, Setareh Soroush, Somayeh Delfani, Iraj Pakzad, Abolfazl Abbaszadeh, Mahmoud Bahmani, Lidija Bogdanovic, Morovat Taherikalani
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii is dramatically on the rise in Iran. Therefore, it is important to study resistance pattern among Acinetobacter isolates which is a common cause of nosocomial infections. AIM: To investigate antibiotic resistance patterns and the role of resistant genes and biofilm formation in the induction of resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn wound and ventilator associated pneumonia infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 103 isolates such as 33 burn samples from Rasool Akram Hospital and 70 isolates from ventilated patients in Shahid Motahhari Hospital were identified with A...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890516/molecular-characterization-of-non-carbapenemase-producing-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolates-with-reduced-carbapenem-susceptibility-from-a-thai-university-hospital
#16
Sawitree Nuramrum, Aroonwadee Chanawong, Kamonwan Lunha, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Arunnee Sangka, Chotechana Wilailuckana, Sunpetch Angkititrakul, Nicha Charoensri, Lumyai Wonglakorn, Prajuab Chaimanee, Ploenchan Chetchotisakd
Twelve non-replicate carbapenemase-negative ertapenem-non-susceptible (CNENS) Escherichia coli isolates from a Thai university hospital between 2010 and 2014 were characterized and compared with two carbapenemase-producing E. coli isolates from the same hospital. Eight unique PFGE patterns were obtained. All produced CTX-M-15 β-lactamase and two isolates co-expressed either CMY-2 cephalosporinase or increased efflux pump. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that OmpF defect (seven isolates) due to mutations generating premature proteins or an IS1 insertion was more prevalent than in OmpC (no truncated proteins found)...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888401/detection-of-carbapenemases-and-other-mechanisms-of-enzymatic-resistance-to-%C3%AE-lactams-in-enterobacteriaceae-with-diminished-susceptibility-to-carbapenems-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#17
Marta María Gómara-Lomero, Ana Isabel López-Calleja, Berta María Pilar Vela Iglesia, Isabel Ferrer Cerón, Antonio Rezusta López, María José Revillo Pinilla
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to characterize the enzymatic β-lactam resistance in clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates with diminished susceptibility to carbapenems from 2013 to 2014 at Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet. MATERIAL/METHODS: A total of 63 clinical isolates were analyzed for the presence of carbapenemases (KPC, OXA-48 and MBL), ESBLs and AmpC enzymes by combined disk methods and PCR detection of carbapenemase-encoding and beta-lactamase-encoding genes...
September 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882642/risk-factors-for-acquisition-of-producing-oxa-48-klebsiella-pneumonia-among-contact-patients-a-multicenter-study
#18
D Hilliquin, R Le Guern, V Thepot Seegers, C Neulier, A Lomont, V Marie, C Legeay, J Merrer, D Lepelletier, A M Rogues, B Grandbastien, J C Lucet, J R Zahar
Cohorting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) carriers during hospitalisation limits the in hospital spreading. Our objective was to identify risk factors for CPE acquisition among contacts of an index patient in non-cohorted populations. A multicentre retrospective matched case-control study was conducted in five hospitals. Each contact patient (case) who acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae OXA-48 from an index patient was compared to three contact (controls) with the same index patients matched with hospitalization in the same unit and similar exposure-times...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882013/antimicrobial-management-in-nosocomial-peritonitis-microbiota-drug-and-time
#19
REVIEW
A Montero, P Salgado Aranda, F Gilsanz, E Maseda
Complicated intra-abdominal infection requires surgical treatment and broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic treatment used early. The rapid spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has become a serious threat, especially in critical care units. The excessive use of carbapenems has led to carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, leaving tigecycline and colistin as therapeutical options. The new antimicrobials, ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftolozane-tazobactam open new horizons in the treatment of multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876169/ndm-1-hazard-in-the-balkan-states-evidence-of-the-first-outbreak-of-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-bulgaria
#20
Encho Savov, Lida Politi, Nicholas Spanakis, Angelina Trifonova, Elena Kioseva, Athanasios Tsakris
New Delhi MBL (NDM) carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has become one of the most concerning multidrug-resistant pathogens. The Balkan counties are considered a reservoir for the spread of such strains based on several reports documenting NDM infections after hospitalization in this region. Nevertheless, NDM-producing K. pneumoniae have been only occasionally documented from Balkans. The current study documents the first polyclonal outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae in Bulgaria. From July 2015 to April 2016, all 25 single-patient carbapenem-nonsusceptible K...
September 6, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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