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Carbapenemase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933276/acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-lebanese-patients-phenotypes-and-genotypes-of-resistance-clonality-and-determinants-of-pathogenicity
#1
Elias Dahdouh, Micheline Hajjar, Monica Suarez, Ziad Daoud
Introduction:Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that usually affects critically ill patients. High mortality rates have been associated with MDR A. baumannii infections. Carbapenem resistance among these isolates is increasing worldwide and is associated with certain International Clones (ICs) and oxacillinases (OXAs). Moreover, this organism possesses a wide range of virulence factors, whose expression is not yet fully understood. In this study, clinical A. baumannii isolates are characterized in terms of antibiotic resistance, mechanisms of carbapenem resistance, clonality, and virulence...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927915/comparative-evaluation-of-four-phenotypic-tests-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria
#2
Audrey Noël, Te-Din Huang, Catherine Berhin, Martin Hoebeke, Warda Bouchahrouf, Sami Yunus, Pierre Bogaerts, Youri Glupczynski
Four screening assays aimed for rapid detection of carbapenemase production from Gram-negative bacterial isolates i.e. the Neo-Rapid CARB kit (Rosco Diagnostica A/S), the RAPIDEC CARBA NP test (BioMérieux SA), the β CARBA test (Bio-Rad Laboratories N.V) and a home-made electrochemical assay (BYG Carba test) were evaluated against a panel comprising 328 clinical isolates (Enterobacteriaceae [n= 198], nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli [n = 130]) with previously characterized resistance mechanisms to carbapenems...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927163/phenotypic-and-molecular-detection-of-the-bla-kpc-gene-in-clinical-isolates-from-inpatients-at-hospitals-in-s%C3%A3-o-luis-ma-brazil
#3
Patricia Cristina Saldanha Ribeiro, Andrea Souza Monteiro, Sirlei Garcia Marques, Sílvio Gomes Monteiro, Valério Monteiro-Neto, Martina Márcia Melo Coqueiro, Ana Cláudia Garcia Marques, Rosimary de Jesus Gomes Turri, Simone Gonçalves Santos, Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim
BACKGROUND: Bacteria that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are resistant to broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this study was to phenotypically and genotypically characterize the antibiotic susceptibility to carbapenems of 297 isolates recovered from clinical samples obtained from inpatients at 16 hospitals in São Luis (Maranhão, Brazil). METHODS: The study was conducted using phenotypic tests and molecular methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR...
December 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923922/mechanisms-of-evolution-in-high-consequence-drug-resistance-plasmids
#4
Susu He, Michael Chandler, Alessandro M Varani, Alison B Hickman, John P Dekker, Fred Dyda
: The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923418/outbreak-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-producing-citrobacter-freundii-at-a-tertiary-acute-care-facility-in-miami-florida
#5
Adriana Jiménez, José G Castro, L Silvia Munoz-Price, Dennise de Pascale, Luis Shimose, Mustapha M Mustapha, Caressa N Spychala, Roberta T Mettus, Vaughn S Cooper, Yohei Doi
OBJECTIVE To describe the investigation and control of a rare cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Citrobacter freundii in a hospital in southern Florida. METHODS An epidemiologic investigation, review of infection prevention procedures, and molecular studies including whole genome sequencing were conducted. RESULTS An outbreak of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-3-producing C. freundii was identified at a tertiary hospital in Florida in 2014. Of the 6 cases identified, 3 occurred in the same intensive care unit and were caused by the same clone...
December 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919898/a-prolonged-outbreak-of-kpc-3-producing-enterobacter-cloacae-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-driven-by-multiple-mechanisms-of-resistance-transmission-at-a-large-academic-burn-center
#6
Hajime Kanamori, Christian M Parobek, Jonathan J Juliano, David van Duin, Bruce A Cairns, David J Weber, William A Rutala
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacter cloacae have been recently recognized in the United States. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has become a useful tool for analysis of outbreaks and for determining transmission networks of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We experienced a prolonged outbreak of CRE of E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae over a three-year period at a large academic burn center despite rigorous infection control measures...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919894/carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-recovered-from-the-environment-of-a-swine-farrow-to-finish-operation-in-the-united-states
#7
Dixie F Mollenkopf, Jason W Stull, Dimitria A Mathys, Andrew S Bowman, Sydnee M Feicht, Susan V Grooters, Joshua B Daniels, Thomas E Wittum
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) present an urgent threat to public health. While carbapenem antimicrobials are restricted in food-producing animals, other β-lactams, such as ceftiofur, are used in livestock. This use may provide selection pressure favoring the amplification of carbapenem resistance but this relationship has not been established. Previously unreported from US livestock, plasmid-mediated CREs have been reported from livestock in Europe and Asia.Environmental and fecal samples were collected from a 1,500 sow, US farrow-to-finish operation during 4 visits over a 5 month period, 2015...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919893/carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-swine-production-in-the-united-states-impact-and-opportunities
#8
Timothy J Johnson
The discovery of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in U.S. swine production is troubling, and underscores a tumultuous period where the outlook on the battle against superbugs is bleak. However, all is not lost. This commentary highlights both the good and the bad that can come from such findings.
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919890/prevalence-of-esbl-and-or-carbapenemase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-yellow-legged-gulls-from-barcelona-spain
#9
Andrea Vergara, Cristina Pitart, Tomás Montalvo, Ignasi Roca, Sara Sabaté, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Raquel Planell, Francesc Marco, Beatriz Ramírez, Víctor Peracho, Mercé de Simón, Jordi Vila
Seventy two (54.5%) out of 132 fecal samples were positive for either extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (51.5%), carbapenemase (1.5%) or cephamycinase (1.5%) producing Escherichia coli from a group of yellow-legged gulls in Barcelona, Spain. The isolation of two carbapenemase-producing E. coli strains is a matter of concern.
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916604/carbapenem-resistant-and-cephalosporin-susceptible-a-worrisome-phenotype-among-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates-in-brazil
#10
Eloiza Helena Campana, Danilo Elias Xavier, Fernanda Villas-Boas Petrolini, Jhonatha Rodrigo Cordeiro-Moura, Maria Rita Elmor de Araujo, Ana Cristina Gales
The mechanisms involved in the uncommon resistance phenotype, carbapenem resistance and broad-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility (Carb-R/Ceph-S), were investigated in 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates that exhibited this phenotype, which were recovered from three different hospitals located in São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by CLSI broth microdilution. β-Lactamase-encoding genes were investigated by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Carbapenem hydrolysis activity was investigated by spectrophotometer and MALDI-TOF assays...
December 1, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915487/the-epidemiology-of-carbapenemases-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#11
Kevin Escandón-Vargas, Sergio Reyes, Sergio Gutiérrez, María V Villegas
Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and Acinetobacter spp. infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially due to the emergence and spread of β-lactamases. Carbapenemases, which are β-lactamases with the capacity to hydrolyze or inactivate carbapenems, have become a serious concern as they have the largest hydrolytic spectrum and therefore limit the utility of most β-lactams, including the carbapenems. Areas covered: Here, we present an update of the current status of carbapenemases in Latin America and the Caribbean...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915087/genetically-unrelated-multidrug-and-carbapenem-resistant-citrobacter-freundii-detected-in-outpatients-admitted-to-a-portuguese-hospital
#12
Cátia Santos, Elmano Ramalheira, Gabriela Da Silva, Sónia Mendo
OBJECTIVES: Non-clonal, carbapenem- and multidrug-resistant Citrobacter freundii isolates were collected from unrelated outpatients admitted to a Portuguese hospital emergency department. One patient lived in a nursing home and was never hospitalised, whereas the other patient was repeatedly hospitalised in this hospital. The aim of this study was to unveil the molecular mechanisms associated with the carbapenem resistance of these isolates and to assess its potential dissemination. METHODS: Isolate identification was performed by VITEK(®)2 and was confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#13
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912842/the-rapid-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#14
REVIEW
Robert F Potter, Alaric W D'Souza, Gautam Dantas
Carbapenems, our one-time silver bullet for multidrug resistant bacterial infections, are now threatened by widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Successful expansion of Enterobacteriaceae clonal groups and frequent horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase expressing plasmids are causing increasing carbapenem resistance. Recent advances in genetic and phenotypic detection facilitate global surveillance of CRE diversity and prevalence. In particular, whole genome sequencing enabled efficient tracking, annotation, and study of genetic elements colocalized with carbapenemase genes on chromosomes and on plasmids...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905467/direct-identification-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-on-single-plasmid-molecules-using-crispr-cas9-in-combination-with-optical-dna-mapping
#15
Vilhelm Müller, Fredrika Rajer, Karolin Frykholm, Lena K Nyberg, Saair Quaderi, Joachim Fritzsche, Erik Kristiansson, Tobias Ambjörnsson, Linus Sandegren, Fredrik Westerlund
Bacterial plasmids are extensively involved in the rapid global spread of antibiotic resistance. We here present an assay, based on optical DNA mapping of single plasmids in nanofluidic channels, which provides detailed information about the plasmids present in a bacterial isolate. In a single experiment, we obtain the number of different plasmids in the sample, the size of each plasmid, an optical barcode that can be used to identify and trace the plasmid of interest and information about which plasmid that carries a specific resistance gene...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902398/clonal-spread-and-accumulation-of-beta-lactams-resistance-determinants-in-enterobacter-aerogenes-and-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-isolates-from-infection-and-colonization-in-patients-at-a-public-hospital-in-recife-pernambuco-brazil
#16
Adriane Borges Cabral, Maria Amélia Vieira Maciel, Josineide Ferreira Barros, Marcelo Maranhão Antunes, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa de Castro, Ana Catarina Souza Lopes
Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae complex are the species of this genus most involved in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), that are ESBL and carbapenemase producers. This study has characterized phenotypically and genotypically 51 isolates of E. aerogenes and E. cloacae complex as originated from infection or colonization in patients admitted to public hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, by antimicrobial susceptibility profile, analysis of β-lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaSPM), PCR and DNA sequencing, plasmid profile and ERIC-PCR...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902381/detection-of-escherichia-coli-st131-complex-st705-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st15-among-fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-betalactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#17
Esther Rios, Maria Carmen López, Iciar Rodríguez-Avial, Esther Culebras, Juan Jose Picazo
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in non-selected hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients from the same geographic area of Madrid. Among the 501 patients enrolled, 43 (8.6%) carried ESBL-E and 8 (1.6%) patients exhibited CPE. The main intestinal colonizer among ESBL-E was CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates in both settings (community and hospital)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899921/high-prevalence-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-dogs-in-shaanxi-china
#18
Xiaoqiang Liu, Haixia Liu, Yinqian Li, Caiju Hao
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) and carbapenemases as well as plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant (PMQR) among extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli from dogs in Shaanxi province in China. Methods: A total of 40 ESC-R Escherichia coli selected from 165 Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolated from dogs were screened and characterized for the genes encoding for the ESBLs, pAmpC, carbapenemases and PMQR genes by PCR and sequencing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897435/-evaluation-of-an-immunochromatographic-test-for-the-detection-of-oxa-48-carbapenemase
#19
C Mediavilla-Gradolph, R Sáinz-Rodriguez, M Valverde-Troya, I de Toro-Peinado, M P Bermudez-Ruíz, B Palop-Borrás
OBJECTIVE: Detection and differentiation of various types of carbapenemases is crucial to their control and dissemination. OXA-48 is the most common carbapenemase in Spain and in our environment. The aim of this study is the evaluation of a new immunochromatographic test OXA-48 Card letitest (Coris, BioConcept Belgium) to detect this carbapenemase from solid media. METHODS: During the last year 151 strains of carbapenemase producing bacteria have been isolated, of which 136 were OXA-48 (126 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 5 Escherichia coli, 4 Enterobacter cloacae), and 15 producing other carbapenemases ...
November 25, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890667/investigation-of-carbapenem-resistance-and-the-first-identification-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-enzyme-among-escherichia-coli-isolates-in-turkey-a-prospective-study
#20
Mert Ahmet Kuskucu, Asiye Karakullukcu, Mailihaba Ailiken, Barıs Otlu, Bilgul Mete, Gokhan Aygun
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of carbapenem resistance and carbapenemase production in Escherichia coli isolates from clinical samples in Turkey. METHODS: The prospective study included a total of 4.052 Escherichia coli isolates collected from patients admitted to a hospital from March 2011 to May 2012. We used ertapenem disc for screening carbapenemase production, and the confirmation was performed by using Etest. The resistance mechanisms and genetic relatedness of the carbapenem resistant strains were investigated by using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively...
November 23, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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