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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103658/-etoposide-and-carboplatin-effective-for-treatment-of-small-cell-carcinoma-of-prostate-a-report-of-two-cases
#1
Satoru Yumiba, Toshihisa Asakura, Takayuki Okada, Mototaka Satoh, Mikio Nin, Masao Tsujihata
Case 1 : A 76-year-old man consulted a physician because of pollakisuria, decline of urinary stream. A high level of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) was detected and he came to our hospital. He was diagnosed to have prostate cancer, cT3aN0M1b, and was treated with combined androgen blockage (CAB). Two years and nine months later, postrenal failure appeared and serum level of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was 162 ng/ml. We performed re-biopsy of prostate, and pathological examination indicated small cell carcinoma of the prostate...
December 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103482/synaptic-plasticity-onto-dopamine-neurons-shapes-fear-learning
#2
Marco Pignatelli, George Kwabena Essien Umanah, Sissi Palma Ribeiro, Rong Chen, Senthilkumar Senthil Karuppagounder, Hau-Jie Yau, Stephen Eacker, Valina Lynn Dawson, Ted Murray Dawson, Antonello Bonci
Fear learning is a fundamental behavioral process that requires dopamine (DA) release. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity occurs on DA neurons while an organism is engaged in aversive experiences. However, whether synaptic plasticity onto DA neurons is causally involved in aversion learning is unknown. Here, we show that a stress priming procedure enhances fear learning by engaging VTA synaptic plasticity. Moreover, we took advantage of the ability of the ATPase Thorase to regulate the internalization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in order to selectively manipulate glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on DA neurons...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103479/subcortical-source-and-modulation-of-the-narrowband-gamma-oscillation-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#3
Aman B Saleem, Anthony D Lien, Michael Krumin, Bilal Haider, Miroslav Román Rosón, Asli Ayaz, Kimberly Reinhold, Laura Busse, Matteo Carandini, Kenneth D Harris
Primary visual cortex exhibits two types of gamma rhythm: broadband activity in the 30-90 Hz range and a narrowband oscillation seen in mice at frequencies close to 60 Hz. We investigated the sources of the narrowband gamma oscillation, the factors modulating its strength, and its relationship to broadband gamma activity. Narrowband and broadband gamma power were uncorrelated. Increasing visual contrast had opposite effects on the two rhythms: it increased broadband activity, but suppressed the narrowband oscillation...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103478/modulation-of-fast-narrowband-oscillations-in-the-mouse-retina-and-dlgn-according-to-background-light-intensity
#4
Riccardo Storchi, Robert A Bedford, Franck P Martial, Annette E Allen, Jonathan Wynne, Marcelo A Montemurro, Rasmus S Petersen, Robert J Lucas
Background light intensity (irradiance) substantially impacts the visual code in the early visual system at synaptic and single-neuron levels, but its influence on population activity is largely unexplored. We show that fast narrowband oscillations, an important feature of population activity, systematically increase in amplitude as a function of irradiance in both anesthetized and awake, freely moving mice and at the level of the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Narrowband coherence increases with irradiance across large areas of the dLGN, but especially for neighboring units...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103474/learning-about-synaptic-glua3
#5
Zhengping Jia, Graham L Collingridge
In this issue of Neuron, Gutierrez-Castellanos et al. (2017) reveal a critical role for the AMPA receptor subunit GluA3 in cerebellar synaptic plasticity and motor learning in mice.
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103471/new-light-on-gamma-oscillations
#6
Cristin G Welle, Diego Contreras
Two papers in this issue of Neuron by Saleem et al. (2017) and Storchi et al. (2017) show that increases in background light intensity trigger proportional increases in narrowband gamma oscillations with a peak at 60 Hz in retina, lateral geniculate, and primary visual cortex of the mouse visual system.
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103389/the-use-of-antioxidants-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Whitney Venegoni, Qiuhua Shen, Amanda R Thimmesch, Meredith Bell, John B Hiebert, Janet D Pierce
AIMS: To discuss secondary traumatic brain injury, the mitochondria and the use of antioxidants as a treatment. BACKGROUND: One of the leading causes of death in young adults internationally is traumatic brain injury, affecting individuals in all demographics. Traumatic brain injury is produced by an external blunt force or penetration resulting in alterations in brain function or pathology. Often, with a traumatic brain injury, secondary injury causes additional damage to the brain tissue that can have further impact on recovery and the quality of life...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103314/expression-of-a-mutant-sema3a-protein-with-diminished-signalling-capacity-does-not-alter-als-related-motor-decline-or-confer-changes-in-nmj-plasticity-after-botoxa-induced-paralysis-of-male-gastrocnemic-muscle
#8
Elizabeth B Moloney, Barbara Hobo, Fred De Winter, Joost Verhaagen
Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) are specialized cells that envelop the motor nerve terminal, and play a role in the maintenance and regeneration of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The chemorepulsive protein semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) is selectively up-regulated in TSCs on fast-fatigable muscle fibers following experimental denervation of the muscle (BotoxA-induced paralysis or crush injury to the sciatic nerve) or in the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Re-expression of SEMA3A in this subset of TSCs is thought to play a role in the selective plasticity of nerve terminals as observed in ALS and following BotoxA-induced paralysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103235/real-time-multiplicative-memory-amplification-mediated-by-whole-cell-scaling-of-synaptic-response-in-key-neurons
#9
Iris Reuveni, Sourav Ghosh, Edi Barkai
Intense spiking response of a memory-pattern is believed to play a crucial role both in normal learning and pathology, where it can create biased behavior. We recently proposed a novel model for memory amplification where the simultaneous two-fold increase of all excitatory (AMPAR-mediated) and inhibitory (GABAAR-mediated) synapses in a sub-group of cells that constitutes a memory-pattern selectively amplifies this memory. Here we confirm the cellular basis of this model by validating its major predictions in four sets of experiments, and demonstrate its induction via a whole-cell transduction mechanism...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103228/human-specific-cortical-synaptic-connections-and-their-plasticity-is-that-what-makes-us-human
#10
Joana Lourenço, Alberto Bacci
One outstanding difference between Homo sapiens and other mammals is the ability to perform highly complex cognitive tasks and behaviors, such as language, abstract thinking, and cultural diversity. How is this accomplished? According to one prominent theory, cognitive complexity is proportional to the repetition of specific computational modules over a large surface expansion of the cerebral cortex (neocortex). However, the human neocortex was shown to also possess unique features at the cellular and synaptic levels, raising the possibility that expanding the computational module is not the only mechanism underlying complex thinking...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103118/park2-dependent-mitophagy-induced-by-acidic-postconditioning-protects-against-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-extends-the-reperfusion-window
#11
Zhe Shen, Yanrong Zheng, Jiaying Wu, Ying Chen, Xiaoli Wu, Yiting Zhou, Yang Yuan, Shousheng Lu, Lei Jiang, Zhenghong Qin, Zhong Chen, Weiwei Hu, Xiangnan Zhang
Prompt reperfusion after cerebral ischemia is critical for neuronal survival. Any strategies that extend the limited reperfusion window will be of great importance. Acidic postconditioning (APC) is a mild acidosis treatment that involves inhaling CO2 during reperfusion following ischemia. APC attenuates ischemic brain injury although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here we report that APC reinforces ischemia-reperfusion-induced mitophagy in middle cortical artery occlusion (MCAO)-treated mice, and in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated brain slices and neurons...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103057/distribution-pattern-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-synthesizing-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-different-animal-species
#12
Dalibor Kolesár, Mária Kolesárová, Ján Kyselovič
The main aim of the present review is to provide at first a short survey of the basic anatomical description of sensory ganglion neurons in relation to cell size, conduction velocity, thickness of myelin sheath, and functional classification of their processes. In addition, we have focused on discussing current knowledge about the distribution pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase containing sensory neurons especially in the dorsal root ganglia in different animal species; hence, there is a large controversy in relation to interpretation of the results dealing with this interesting field of research...
November 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102825/versatile-modular-three-dimensional-microelectrode-arrays-for-neuronal-ensemble-recordings-from-design-to-fabrication-assembly-and-functional-validation-in-non-human-primates
#13
Falk Barz, Alessandro Livi, Marco Lanzilotto, Monica Maranesi, Luca Bonini, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther
<i>Objective. </i>Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102781/a-neurodevelopmental-disorder-with-a-nonsense-mutation-in-the-ox-2-antigen-domain-of-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-app-gene
#14
Khue Vu Nguyen, Karen Leydiker, Raymond Wang, Jose Abdenur, William L Nyhan
We report a patient, an infant with a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting intractable complex partial epilepsy, bull's eye maculopathy, microcephaly, bilateral cataracts, truncal hypotonia, and spasticity of all four extremities. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed mutations in (a) exon 8 (Ox-2 antigen domain) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene: c.1075C>T, p.Arg359(*) (b) exon 8 of the senataxin (SETX) gene: c.4738C>T, p.Arg1580Cys, and (c) exon 2 of the ceroid-lipofuscinosis, neuronal 8 (CLN8) gene: c...
January 19, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102519/nmdar-encephalitis-following-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#15
REVIEW
Jonathan Galli, Stacey L Clardy, Amanda L Piquet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and despite appropriate treatment with antivirals, worsening of neurological symptoms or relapse occurs in a subset of patients. Recent data suggests that many relapses are likely caused by a secondary immune response, with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody being the most commonly associated autoantibody. We provide a review of the relevant literature, examining the relationship between HSVE and development of autoimmunity...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102473/the-role-of-glun2a-in-cerebral-ischemia-promoting-neuron-death-and-survival-in-the-early-stage-and-thereafter
#16
REVIEW
Yongjun Sun, Xiaokun Cheng, Jie Hu, Zibin Gao
Over-activation of NMDA receptors is a crucial step required for brain damage following a stroke. Although clinical trials for NMDA receptor blockers have failed, the role of GluN2A subunit in cerebral ischemia has been extensively evaluated in recent years. However, the effect of GluN2A on neuron damage induced by cerebral ischemia remains a matter of controversy. The underlying reason may be that GluN2A mediates both pro-death and pro-survival effects. These two effects result from two mutually excluding pathways, Ca(2+) overload-dependent pro-death signaling and C-terminal-dependent pro-survival signaling, respectively...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102470/neuronal-ryanodine-receptors-in-development-and-aging
#17
REVIEW
Nawaf Abu-Omar, Jogita Das, Vivian Szeto, Zhong-Ping Feng
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium-release channels found on the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells. All three RyR isoforms, RyR1-3, are expressed in the brain, with RyR2 predominating. RyRs are localized within the soma, axons, dendritic spines, and presynaptic terminals of neurons. RyRs are highly expressed in the cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory region, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. During the physiological processes of development and aging, the intracellular calcium homeostasis is largely regulated by RyRs...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102469/lanosterol-suppresses-the-aggregation-and-cytotoxicity-of-misfolded-proteins-linked-with-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Arun Upadhyay, Ayeman Amanullah, Ribhav Mishra, Amit Kumar, Amit Mishra
Accumulation of misfolded or aberrant proteins in neuronal cells is linked with neurodegeneration and other pathologies. Which molecular mechanisms fail and cause inappropriate folding of proteins and what is their relationship to cellular toxicity is not well known. How does it happen and what are the probable therapeutic or molecular approaches to counter them are also not clear. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of lanosterol diminishes aberrant proteotoxic aggregation and mitigates their cytotoxicity via induced expression of co-chaperone CHIP and elevated autophagy...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102468/mutation-of-the-herc-1-ubiquitin-ligase-impairs-associative-learning-in-the-lateral-amygdala
#19
Eva Mª Pérez-Villegas, José V Negrete-Díaz, Mª Elena Porras-García, Rocío Ruiz, Angel M Carrión, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, José A Armengol
Tambaleante (tbl/tbl) is a mutant mouse that carries a spontaneous Gly483Glu substitution in the HERC1 (HECT domain and RCC1 domain) E3 ubiquitin ligase protein (HERC1). The tbl/tbl mutant suffers an ataxic syndrome given the almost complete loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells during adult life. More recent analyses have identified alterations at neuromuscular junctions in these mice, as well as in other neurons of the central nervous system, such as motor neurons in the spinal cord, or pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region and the neocortex...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102462/cerebellar-pathways-in-mouse-model-of-purkinje-cell-degeneration-detected-by-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging-tractography
#20
Yuri Kanamaru, Jianxue Li, Natalie Stewart, Richard L Sidman, Emi Takahashi
Cerebellar MR imaging has several challenging aspects, due to the fine, repetitive layered structure of cortical folia with underlying axonal pathways. In this MR study, we imaged with high-angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) abnormal cerebellar cortical structure (gray matter) and myelinated axonal pathways (white matter) of a mouse spontaneous mutation, Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd), in which almost all Purkinje neurons degenerate, mainly between postnatal days 20 and 35. Mouse brains at postnatal day 20 (P20) and at 8 months were scanned, and known or expected abnormalities, such as reduction of the white matter volume, disorganized pathways likely linked to parallel fibers, mossy fibers, and other fibers running from/to the cerebellar cortex were observed in mutant mice...
January 19, 2017: Cerebellum
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