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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908482/development-of-tactile-sensory-circuits-in-the-cns
#1
REVIEW
Takuji Iwasato, Reha S Erzurumlu
Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganization including dendritic refinement of cortical layer 4 neurons occur contemporaneously and a multitude of molecular signals are used in differing combinations...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908350/exome-sequencing-identified-a-de-novo-mutation-of-pura-gene-in-a-patient-with-familial-xp22-31-microduplication
#2
Ying Qiao, Hani Bagheri, Flamingo Tang, Chansonette Badduke, Sally Martell, Suzanne M E Lewis, Wendy Robinson, Mary B Connolly, Laura Arbour, Evica Rajcan-Separovic
The clinical significance of Xp22.31 microduplication is controversial as it is reported in subjects with developmental delay (DD), their unaffected relatives and unrelated controls. We performed multifaceted studies in a family of a boy with hypotonia, dysmorphic features and DD who carried a 600 Kb Xp22.31 microduplication (7515787-8123310bp, hg19) containing two genes, VCX and PNPLA4. The duplication was transmitted from his cognitively normal maternal grandfather. We found no evidence of the duplication causing the proband's DD and congenital anomalies based on unaltered expression of PNPLA4 in the proband and his mother in comparison to controls and preferential activation of the paternal chromosome X with Xp22...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908325/dopamine-d2-receptor-activation-potently-inhibits-striatal-glutamatergic-transmission-in-a-g2019s-lrrk2-genetic-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Alessandro Tozzi, Valentina Durante, Guendalina Bastioli, Petra Mazzocchetti, Salvatore Novello, Alessandro Mechelli, Michele Morari, Cinzia Costa, Andrea Mancini, Massimiliano Di Filippo, Paolo Calabresi
Among genetic abnormalities identified in Parkinson's disease (PD), mutations of the leucine-rich repeat kinase2 (LRRK2) gene, such as the G2019S missense mutation linked to enhanced kinase activity, are the most common. While the complex role of LRRK2 has not been fully elucidated, evidence that mutated kinase activity affects synaptic transmission has been reported. Thus, our aim was to explore possible early alterations of neurotransmission produced by the G2019S LRRK2 mutation in PD. We performed electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in the G2019S-Lrrk2 knock-in (KI) mouse model of PD, in D1994S kinase-dead (KD), Lrrk2 knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908312/detection-of-neural-light-scattering-activity-in-vivo-optical-transmittance-studies-in-the-rat-brain
#4
Wen-Ju Pan, Seung Yup Lee, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Waqas Majeed, Erin Buckley, Shella Keilholz
Optical studies of ex vivo brain slices where blood is absent show that neural activity is accompanied by significant intrinsic optical signals (IOS) related to activity-dependent scattering changes in neural tissue. However, the neural scattering signals have been largely ignored in vivo in widely-used IOS methods where absorption contrast from hemoglobin was employed. Changes in scattering were observed on a time scale of seconds in previous brain slice IOS studies, similar to the time scale for the hemodynamic response...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908265/retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-as-a-therapeutic-tool-and-target-against-retinopathies
#5
REVIEW
Barbara Pavan, Alessandro Dalpiaz
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a cell monolayer essential for photoreceptor function and forming the blood-retinal barrier. RPE and retinal neurons share the same origin and a polarized cytoarchitecture. Several factors determine the phagocytosis and permeability of RPE, influencing photoreceptor renewal and drug delivery, efficacy and toxicity. Adult human RPE expresses neuronal markers in vitro, indicating a potential transdifferentiation. Degeneration of the RPE leads to death of photoreceptors and retinal neurons, resulting in the vision loss of retinopathy...
June 13, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908259/astroglial-camp-signalling-in-space-and-time
#6
REVIEW
Anemari Horvat, Nina Vardjan
To maintain a high level of specificity and normal cell function, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway is tightly regulated in space and time. Recent advances in cAMP reporter technology have provided insights into spatial-temporal characteristics of cAMP signalling in individual living cells, including astrocytes. Astrocytes are glial cells in the central nervous system with many homeostatic functions. In contrast to neurons, astrocytes are electrically silent, but, in response to extracellular stimuli through activation of surface receptors, they can increase intracellular levels of secondary messengers, e...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908258/orexin-a-presynaptically-decreases-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-locus-coeruleus-neurons
#7
Hossein Mohammad-Pour Kargar, Hossein Azizi, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Ali Reza Mani, Saeed Semnaniann
Locus coeruleus nucleus (LC) is a major noradrenergic nucleus in the brain. It receives dense orexinergic projections from lateral hypothalamus. Whilst it is known that orexin A increases firing rate of LC neurons, its effect on spontaneous and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and eIPSCs, respectively) has not been yet identified. In this research, we investigated the effect of orexin A on eIPSCs and sIPSCs in LC neurons. Whole-cell recordings revealed that orexin A suppresses eIPSCs amplitude in which this effect was blocked by an orexin type-1 receptors antagonist (SB-334867) and cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors antagonist (AM251)...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908255/genetic-overexpression-of-glutathione-peroxidase-1-attenuates-microcystin-leucine-arginine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice
#8
Eun-Joo Shin, Yeong Gwang Hwang, Duc Toan Pham, Ji Won Lee, Yu Jeung Lee, Dongjin Pyo, Xin Gen Lei, Ji Hoon Jeong, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) is the most common form of microcystins, which are environmental toxins produced by cyanobacteria, and its hepatotoxicity has been well-documented. However, the neurotoxic potential of MCLR remains to be further elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of MCLR induces mortality and neuronal loss in the hippocampus of mice. Because we found that MCLR impairs memory function in the hippocampus at a low dose (4 ng/μl/mouse, i...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908254/the-neurotoxin-diethyl-dithiophosphate-impairs-glutamate-transport-in-cultured-bergmann-glia-cells
#9
Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Isabel Martínez-Hernández, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Libia Vega, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate Central Nervous System, is involved in almost every aspect of brain physiology, and its signaling properties are severely affected in most neurodegenerative diseases. This neurotransmitter has to be efficiently removed from the synaptic cleft in order to prevent an over-stimulation of glutamate receptors that leads to neuronal death. Specific sodium-dependent membrane transporters, highly enriched in glial cells, elicit the clearance of glutamate...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908249/signals-from-the-caudal-diencephalon-are-required-for-the-projection-of-the-interstitial-nuclei-of-cajal
#10
Juan C Solís-S, Pablo García-Solís, Nancy G Hernández-Chan, Daniela A Zamorano-Martínez, Ma Elena Villagrán-Herrera, Gabriela Hernández-Puga, Haydé A Vergara-Castañeda, Ana A Sánchez-Tusie, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría, Hebert L Hernández-Montiel
Axonal projection is controlled by discrete regions localized at the neuroepithelium, guiding the neurite growth during embryonic development. These regions exert their effect through the expression of a family of chemotropic molecules, which actively participate in the formation of neuronal connections of the central nervous system in vertebrates. Previous studies describe prosomere 1 (P1) as a possible organizer of axonal growth of the rostral rhombencephalon, contributing to the caudal projection of reticulospinal rhombencephalic neurons...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908242/medium-chain-triglyceride-diet-reduces-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-enhances-social-competitiveness-in-rats
#11
Fiona Hollis, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Carles Canto, Dongmei Wang, Carmen Sandi
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are emerging as unique dietary supplements potentially relevant to improve brain dysfunctions. MCT are converted into ketones and free medium chain fatty acids that, in the brain, are highly effective energy sources to mitochondria and potentially less harmful than glucose metabolism to neurons. Given the recently established link between mitochondrial dysfunction and high anxiety and depression, we set this study to investigate the effectiveness of an MCT-enriched diet to ameliorate anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in rats...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908240/the-gabaergic-gudden-s-dorsal-tegmental-nucleus-a-new-relay-for-serotonergic-regulation-of-sleep-wake-behavior-in-the-mouse
#12
Marine Chazalon, Sylvie Dumas, Jean-François Bernard, Iman Sahly, François Tronche, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Michel Hamon, Joëlle Adrien, Véronique Fabre, Patricia Bonnavion
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons are involved in wake promotion and exert a strong inhibitory influence on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Such effects have been ascribed, at least in part to the action of 5-HT at post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1A R) in the brainstem, a major wake/REM sleep regulatory center. However, the neuroanatomical substrate through which 5-HT1A R influence sleep remains elusive. We therefore investigated whether a brainstem structure containing a high density of 5-HT1A R mRNA, the GABAergic Gudden's dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTg), may contribute to 5-HT-mediated regulatory mechanisms of sleep-wake stages...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908238/small-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-sk-channel-dependent-and-independent-effects-of-riluzole-on-neuropathic-pain-related-amygdala-activity-and-behaviors-in-rats
#13
Jeremy M Thompson, Vadim Yakhnitsa, Guangchen Ji, Volker Neugebauer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic neuropathic pain is an important healthcare issue with significant emotional components. The amygdala is a brain region involved in pain and emotional-affective states and disorders. The central amygdala output nucleus (CeA) contains small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels that can control neuronal activity. A clinically available therapeutic, riluzole can activate SK channels and may have antinociceptive effects through a supraspinal action...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908237/a-role-for-lin-28-in-growth-and-metamorphosis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Sergio González-Itier, Esteban G Contreras, Juan Larraín, Álvaro Glavic, Fernando Faunes
Insect metamorphosis has been a classic model to understand the role of hormones in growth and timing of developmental transitions. In addition to hormones, transitions in some species are regulated by genetic programs, such as the heterochronic gene network discovered in C. elegans. However, the functional link between hormones and heterochronic genes is not clear. The heterochronic gene lin-28 is involved in the maintenance of stem cells, growth and developmental timing in vertebrates. In this work, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments to study the role of Lin-28 in larval growth and the timing of metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster...
June 13, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908188/a-computational-study-of-the-role-of-spatial-receptive-field-structure-in-processing-natural-and-non-natural-scenes
#15
Victor J Barranca, George Zhu
The center-surround receptive field structure, ubiquitous in the visual system, is hypothesized to be evolutionarily advantageous in image processing tasks. We address the potential functional benefits and shortcomings of spatial localization and center-surround antagonism in the context of an integrate-and-fire neuronal network model with image-based forcing. Utilizing the sparsity of natural scenes, we derive a compressive-sensing framework for input image reconstruction utilizing evoked neuronal firing rates...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908165/consequences-of-tuning-network-function-by-tonic-and-phasic-locus-coeruleus-output-and-stress-regulating-detection-and-discrimination-of-peripheral-stimuli
#16
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908127/sphingolipid-metabolism-an-ambiguous-regulator-of-autophagy-in-the-brain
#17
Gerhild van Echten-Deckert, Shah Alam
In mammals, the brain exhibits the highest lipid content in the body next to adipose tissue. Complex sphingolipids are characteristic compounds of neuronal membranes. Vital neural functions including information flux and transduction occur along these membranes. It is therefore not surprising that neuronal function and survival is dependent on the metabolism of these lipids. Autophagy is a critical factor for the survival of post-mitotic neurons. On one hand it fulfils homeostatic and waste-recycling functions and on the other hand it constitutes an effective strategy to eliminate harmful proteins that cause neuronal death...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908069/serum-neurofilament-light-chain-levels-as-a-marker-of-upper-motor-neuron-degeneration-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Benjamin Gille, Maxim De Schaepdryver, Janne Goossens, Lieselot Dedeene, Joke De Vocht, Emanuela Oldoni, An Goris, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Bart Depreitere, Kristl G Claeys, Jos Tournoy, Philip Van Damme, Koen Poesen
AIMS: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron degeneration disease with a diagnostic delay of about one year after symptoms onset. In ALS, blood neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels are elevated, but it is not entirely clear what drives this increase and what the diagnostic performance of serum NfL is in terms of predictive values and likelihood ratios. The aims of this study were to further explore the prognostic and diagnostic performances of serum NfL to discriminate between patients with ALS and ALS mimics, and to investigate the relationship between serum NfL with motor neuron degeneration...
June 16, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908063/oligonucleotide-therapy-mitigates-disease-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-mice
#19
Hayley S McLoughlin, Lauren R Moore, Ravi Chopra, Robert Komlo, Megan McKenzie, Kate G Blumenstein, Hien Zhao, Holly B Kordasiewicz, Vikram G Shakkottai, Henry L Paulson
OBJECTIVE: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease, is the most common dominantly inherited ataxia. Despite advances in understanding this CAG repeat/polyglutamine expansion disease, there are still no therapies to alter its progressive fatal course. Here we investigate whether an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting the SCA3 disease gene, ATXN3, can prevent molecular, neuropathological, electrophysiological and behavioral features of the disease in a mouse model of SCA3...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908048/effects-of-nerve-bundle-geometry-on-neurotrauma-evaluation
#20
Ilaria Cinelli, Michel Destrade, Peter McHugh, Maeve Duffy
OBJECTIVE: We confirm that alteration of a neuron structure can induce abnormalities in signal propagation for nervous systems, as observed in brain damage. Here, we investigate the effects of geometrical changes and damage of a neuron structure in two scaled nerve bundle models, made of myelinated nerve fibres or unmyelinated nerve fibres. METHODS: We propose a 3D finite element model of nerve bundles, combining a real-time full electro-mechanical coupling, a modulated threshold for spiking activation and independent alteration of the electrical properties for each fibre...
June 16, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
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