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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452354/alpha-synuclein-inhibits-snx3-retromer-mediated-retrograde-recycling-of-iron-transporters-in-s-cerevisiae-and-c-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Dhaval Patel, Chuan Xu, Sureshbabu Nagarajan, Zhengchang Liu, Wayne O Hemphill, Runhua Shi, Vladimir N Uversky, Guy A Caldwell, Kim A Caldwell, Stephan N Witt
We probed the role of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in modulating sorting nexin 3 (Snx3)-retromer-mediated recycling of iron transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. In yeast, the membrane-bound heterodimer Fet3/Ftr1 is the high affinity iron importer. Fet3 is a membrane-bound multicopper ferroxidase, whose ferroxidase domain is orthologous to human ceruloplasmin (Cp), that oxidizes external Fe+2 to Fe+3; the Fe+3 ions then channel through the Ftr1 permease into the cell. When the concentration of external iron is low (< 1 µM), Fet3/Ftr1 is maintained on the plasma membrane by retrograde endocytic-recycling; whereas, when the concentration of external iron is high (> 10 µM), Fet3/Ftr1 is endocytosed and shunted to the vacuole for degradation...
February 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452226/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-synaptic-dysfunction-in-the-amygdala-of-rats-susceptible-to-chronic-mild-stress
#2
Mi Zhou, Zhao Liu, Jia Yu, Shuiming Li, Min Tang, Li Zeng, Haiyang Wang, Hong Xie, Li Peng, Haojun Huang, Chanjuan Zhou, Peng Xie, Jian Zhou
The amygdala plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression, but the molecular mechanisms underlying amygdalar hyperactivity in depression remain unclear. In this study, we used a chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol to separate susceptible and insusceptible rat subgroups. Proteomes in the amygdalae were analyzed differentially across subgroups based on labeling with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with mass spectrometry. Of 2,562 quantified proteins, 102 were differentially expressed...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452192/graded-6-ohda-induced-dopamine-depletion-in-the-nigrostriatal-pathway-evokes-progressive-pathological-neuronal-activities-in-the-subthalamic-nucleus-of-a-hemi-parkinsonian-mouse
#3
Sunghee Estelle Park, Kang-Il Song, Hyungmin Kim, Seok Chung, Inchan Youn
Recent studies have established methods for establishing a rodent model that mimics progressive stages of human Parkinson's disease (PD), via injection of graded doses of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into regions within the nigrostriatal pathway. However, the electrophysiological characteristics of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in this model have not been fully elucidated in this model. This study aimed to investigate changes in the neuronal activity of the STN in a graded mouse model of PD. Increasing doses of 6-OHDA were unilaterally injected into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to produce a hemi-parkinsonian mouse model, mimicking early, moderate, advanced, and severe stages of human PD...
February 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452138/exposure-to-low-level-of-lead-during-preweaning-period-increases-metallothionein-3-expression-and-dysregulates-divalent-cation-levels-in-the-brain-of-young-rats
#4
Abdur Rahman, Khalid M Khan, Muddanna S Rao
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic heavy metal, but the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is not clearly understood. Expression of metallothioneins (MTs) is induced in response to heavy metal exposure as a protective mechanism against heavy metal toxicity. There are several isoforms of MTs (MT-1 to 4), of which MT-3 is the neuron specific isoform, which also has neurite growth inhibitory effects. Whereas, the induction of MT-1 and 2 in response to Pb has been reported, the effect of Pb on the expression of MT-3 in the brain has not been documented...
February 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452074/differential-control-of-appetitive-and-consummatory-sexual-behavior-by-neuroestrogens-in-male-quail
#5
REVIEW
Charlotte A Cornil, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart
Estrogens exert pleiotropic effects on multiple physiological and behavioral traits including sexual behavior. These effects are classically mediated via binding to nuclear receptors and subsequent regulation of target gene transcription. Estrogens also affect neuronal activity and cell-signaling pathways via faster, membrane-initiated events. Although the distinction between appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior has been criticized, this distinction remains valuable in that it facilitates the causal analysis of certain behavioral systems...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451889/effects-of-patterned-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-on-soleus-spinal-motor-neuron-excitability
#6
Samuel Jimenez, Laura Mordillo-Mateos, Michele Dileone, Michela Campolo, Carmen Carrasco-Lopez, Fabricia Moitinho-Ferreira, Tomas Gallego-Izquierdo, Hartwig R Siebner, Josep Valls-Solé, Juan Aguilar, Antonio Oliviero
Spinal plasticity is thought to contribute to sensorimotor recovery of limb function in several neurological disorders and can be experimentally induced in animals and humans using different stimulation protocols. In healthy individuals, electrical continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) of the median nerve has been shown to change spinal motoneuron excitability in the cervical spinal cord as indexed by a change in mean H-reflex amplitude in the flexor carpi radialis muscle. It is unknown whether continuous TBS of a peripheral nerve can also shift motoneuron excitability in the lower limb...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451854/tracing-stem-cell-division-in-adult-neurogenesis
#7
Nina S Corsini, Juergen A Knoblich
Neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the adult brain continuously generate differentiated neurons without depleting the stem cell pool. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Obernier et al. (2018) present the surprising finding that this occurs through mostly symmetric divisions that either generate two differentiating or two self-renewing daughter cells.
February 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#8
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451499/characterising-the-frequency-response-of-impedance-changes-during-evoked-physiological-activity-in-the-rat-brain
#9
Mayo Faulkner, Sana Hannan, Kirill Y Aristovich, James Avery, David S Holder
&lt;i&gt;Objective&lt;/i&gt;. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) can image impedance changes associated with evoked physiological activity in the cerebral cortex using an array of epicortical electrodes. An impedance change is observed as the externally applied current, normally confined to the extracellular space is admitted into the conducting intracellular space during neuronal depolarisation. The response is largest at DC and decreases at higher frequencies due to capacitative transfer of current across the membrane...
February 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451448/donor-nerve-axotomy-and-axonal-regeneration-after-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-in-a-rodent-model
#10
Shiwei Wang, Diya Su, Jing Li, Dezhi Li, Hong Wan, Michael Schumacher, Song Liu
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors used a surgical model of end-to-side neurorrhaphy between a nerve graft and a donor tibial nerve in adult rats to investigate the optimal conditions for axonal regeneration induced by the donor nerve. They also assessed the importance of a more favorable pathway using a predegenerated nerve graft to attract regenerating axons to regrow into the graft and then directing and improving their growth toward the target in comparison with results obtained with a fresh nerve graft...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451438/reinnervation-of-the-rectum-with-transfer-of-the-genital-branch-of-the-genitofemoral-nerve-to-the-pelvic-nerve-in-rats
#11
Chuanjiang Dong, Ping Zhu, Zonglan Xie, Zheqi Fan, Ziqiang Dong
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of rectum reinnervation with transfer of a primarily genitofemoral nerve to the pelvic nerve in the rat. METHODS Thirty-six male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: rats in the nerve transfer group (n = 12) were subjected to rectal denervation and then bilateral genitofemoral nerve-pelvic nerve transfer; rats in the nerve resection group (n = 12) underwent rectum denervation without nerve transfer; and rats in the control group (n = 12) underwent sham surgery...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451372/morphological-spectra-of-adult-human-stellate-ganglia-implications-for-thoracic-sympathetic-denervation
#12
Oh Jin Kwon, Shrita Pendekanti, Jacob N Fox, Jane Yanagawa, Michael C Fishbein, Kalyanam Shivkumar, H Wayne Lambert, Olujimi Ajijola
BACKGROUND: Cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) to treat ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) requires transection at the middle or lower third of stellate (cervicothoracic) ganglia (SG). However, the morphological appearance of the adult SG and distribution of neuronal somata within it are not well described. OBJECTIVE: To determine the morphology of left and right SG (LSG and RSG) and the distribution of somata within. METHODS: LSG and RSG (n=28) from 14 embalmed adult cadavers were dissected intact...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451335/mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-against-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-damage-by-enhancing-autophagy-through-bdnf-mtor-signaling-pathway
#13
Zhen Zheng, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Guoguang Xiao, Shiping Li, Shan Bao, Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious disease for neonates. However, present therapeutic strategies are not effective enough for treating HIE. Previous study showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exert neuroprotective effects for brain damage, but its mechanism remains elusive. Using in-vitro co-culture of rat cortical primary neurons and MSCs in HI conditions, we demonstrated that MSCs help increase BDNF and autophagy markers (LC3II and Beclin1) in the cultures and decrease cells death (LDH levels)...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451327/microrna-365-modulates-astrocyte-conversion-into-neuron-in-adult-rat-brain-after-stroke-by-targeting-pax6
#14
Jia-Lin Mo, Qi Liu, Zeng-Wei Kou, Kun-Wei Wu, Ping Yang, Xian-Hua Chen, Feng-Yan Sun
Reactive astrocytes induced by ischemia can transdifferentiate into mature neurons. This neurogenic potential of astrocytes may have therapeutic value for brain injury. Epigenetic modifications are widely known to involve in developmental and adult neurogenesis. PAX6, a neurogenic fate determinant, contributes to the astrocyte-to-neuron conversion. However, it is unclear whether microRNAs (miRs) modulate PAX6-mediated astrocyte-to-neuron conversion. In the present study we used bioinformatic approaches to predict miRs potentially targeting Pax6, and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to model cerebral ischemic injury in adult rats...
February 16, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451306/supraspinal-modulation-of-neuronal-synchronization-by-nociceptive-stimulation-induces-an-enduring-reorganization-of-dorsal-horn-neuronal-connectivity
#15
E Contreras-Hernández, D Chávez, E Hernández, E Velázquez, P Reyes, J Bejar, M Martín, U Cortés, S Glusman, P Rudomin
Despite the profuse information on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the central sensitization produced by intense nociceptive stimulation, the changes in the patterns of functional connectivity between spinal neurones associated with the development of secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia remain largely unknown. Here we show that the state of central sensitization produced by the intradermal injection of capsaicin is associated with structured transformations in neuronal synchronization that lead to an enduring reorganization of the functional connectivity within a segmentally distributed ensemble of dorsal horn neurones...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451229/m-aaa-proteases-mitochondrial-calcium-homeostasis-and-neurodegeneration
#16
REVIEW
Maria Patron, Hans-Georg Sprenger, Thomas Langer
The function of mitochondria depends on ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane. These ATP-dependent peptidases form hexameric complexes built up of homologous subunits. AFG3L2 subunits assemble either into homo-oligomeric isoenzymes or with SPG7 (paraplegin) subunits into hetero-oligomeric proteolytic complexes. Mutations in AFG3L2 are associated with dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) characterized by the loss of Purkinje cells, whereas mutations in SPG7 cause a recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7) with motor neurons of the cortico-spinal tract being predominantly affected...
February 16, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451219/low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-pretreated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-regeneration-of-crush-injured-rat-mental-nerve
#17
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451218/pten-knockdown-with-the-y444f-mutant-aav2-vector-promotes-axonal-regeneration-in-the-adult-optic-nerve
#18
Zheng-Ru Huang, Hai-Ying Chen, Zi-Zhong Hu, Ping Xie, Qing-Huai Liu
The lack of axonal regeneration is the major cause of vision loss after optic nerve injury in adult mammals. Activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway has been shown to enhance the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons and to facilitate axonal regeneration in the central nervous system after injury. The deletion of the mTOR negative regulator phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) enhances regeneration of adult corticospinal neurons and ganglion cells. In the present study, we used a tyrosine-mutated (Y444F) AAV2 vector to efficiently express a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for silencing PTEN expression in retinal ganglion cells...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451215/effect-of-moxibustion-on-mtor-mediated-autophagy-in-rotenone-induced-parkinson-s-disease-model-rats
#19
Shu-Ju Wang, Qi Wang, Jun Ma, Pei-Hao Yu, Zhong-Ming Wang, Bin Wang
Defects in autophagy-mediated clearance of α-synuclein may be one of the key factors leading to progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Moxibustion therapy for Parkinson's disease has been shown to have a positive effect, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Based on this, we explored whether moxibustion could protect dopaminergic neurons by promoting autophagy mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), with subsequent elimination of α-syn. A Parkinson's disease model was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of rotenone at the back of their necks, and they received moxibustion at Zusanli (ST36), Guanyuan (CV4) and Fengfu (GV16), for 10 minutes at every point, once per day, for 14 consecutive days...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451214/optimization-of-micropatterned-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-films-for-enhancing-dorsal-root-ganglion-cell-orientation-and-extension
#20
Ching-Wen Li, Brett Davis, Jill Shea, Himanshu Sant, Bruce Kent Gale, Jayant Agarwal
Nerve conduits have been a viable alternative to the 'gold standard' autograft for treating small peripheral nerve gap injuries. However, they often produce inadequate functional recovery outcomes and are ineffective in large gap injuries. Ridge/groove surface micropatterning has been shown to promote neural cell orientation and guide growth. However, optimization of the ratio of ridge/groove parameters to promote orientation and extension for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films has not been previously conducted...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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