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Qinghua Chen, Lulu Zhang, Siyao Chen, Yaqian Huang, Kun Li, Xiaoqi Yu, Huijuan Wu, Xiaoyu Tian, Chunyu Zhang, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin
BACKGROUND: The study was designed to investigate if endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) was involved in cardiomyocyte autophagy and myocardial hypertrophy stimulated by angiotensin II (Ang II). METHODS: Thirty-two C57 mice were randomly divided into control, SO2, Ang II and Ang II+SO2 groups. Human myocardial cell line H9c2 was divided into four groups including control, SO2, Ang II and Ang II+SO2 groups. Blood pressure and myocardial hypertrophy of the mice were measured two weeks after Ang II administration...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Devis Peressutti, Matthew Sinclair, Wenjia Bai, Thomas Jackson, Jacobus Ruijsink, David Nordsletten, Liya Asner, Myrianthi Hadjicharalambous, Christopher A Rinaldi, Daniel Rueckert, Andrew P King
We present a framework for combining a cardiac motion atlas with non-motion data. The atlas represents cardiac cycle motion across a number of subjects in a common space based on rich motion descriptors capturing 3D displacement, velocity, strain and strain rate. The non-motion data are derived from a variety of sources such as imaging, electrocardiogram (ECG) and clinical reports. Once in the atlas space, we apply a novel supervised learning approach based on random projections and ensemble learning to learn the relationship between the atlas data and some desired clinical output...
October 11, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Karen P Hayhurst, Matthias Pierce, Matthew Hickman, Toby Seddon, Graham Dunn, John Keane, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: Although evidence points to a strong link between illicit drug use and crime, robust evidence for temporal order in the relationship is scant. We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence for pathways through opiate/crack cocaine use and offending to determine temporal order. METHODS: A systematic review sourced five databases, three online sources, bibliographies and citation mapping. Inclusion criteria were: focus on opiate/crack use, and offending; pre-drug use information; longitudinal design; corroborative official crime records...
October 19, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jie Wang, Helai Huang, Qiang Zeng
OBJECTIVES: This paper aimed to (i) differentiate the effects of contributory factors on crash risks related to different transportation modes, i.e., motor vehicle, bicycle and pedestrian; (ii) explore the potential contribution of zone-level factors which are traditionally excluded or omitted, so as to track the source of heterogeneous effects of certain risk factors in crash-frequency models by different modes. METHODS: Two analytical methods, i.e. negative binomial models (NB) and random parameters negative binomial models (RPNB), were employed to relate crash frequencies of different transportation modes to a variety of risk factors at intersections...
October 19, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Macc Rigdon, Yen-Con Hung, Alexander M Stelzleni
Sixty-four pork loins were randomly assigned to one of four treatments to evaluate the use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water as a replacement for traditional enhancement solutions. Treatments included: alkaline electrolyzed reduced water (EOH; pH≈11.5), EOH plus 2.5% potassium-lactate (EOK), industry standard (IS; 0.35% sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.14% sodium chloride, 2.5% potassium-lactate), and no enhancement (CON). After enhancement (targeting 110%) and rest period, chops were cut (2.54-cm) to test treatment effects on water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory attributes...
October 14, 2016: Meat Science
Ming-Jie Kuang, Chao Han, Jian-Xiong Ma, Fei Li, Jie Zhao, Lin Fu, Xin-Long Ma
PURPOSE: Autologous platelet gel, developed from fresh autologous blood, is a breakthrough in the promotion and acceleration of soft tissue and bone repair. The application of autologous platelet gel has been reported to improve haemostasis and promote function recovery. We screened the randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of high quality to investigate whether autologous platelet gel makes a better performance for postoperative bleeding and functional recovery in patients after total knee arthroplasty...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Eeva Kormi, Johanna Snäll, Anna-Maria Koivusalo, Anna Liisa Suominen, Hanna Thorén, Jyrki Törnwall
PURPOSE: To clarify the effect of systemic dexamethasone (DXM) on pain and postoperative opioid (oxycodone) consumption after blowout fracture surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized observer-blinded trial of 20 patients who had a blowout fracture requiring surgical intervention was conducted. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a total dose of intravenous DXM 30 mg perioperatively or no DXM (controls). Pain was assessed postoperatively using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) each time analgesics (acetaminophen every 6 hours or oxycodone upon request) were administered...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Ibrahim Oghli, Thomas List, Mike John, Pernilla Larsson
OBJECTIVES: To (i) determine the prevalences of self-report in a Swedish adult population, of temporomandibular disorders, burning mouth syndrome, dry mouth, and bad breath and (ii) determine oral health-related quality of life impairment in subjects reporting these conditions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, randomized sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N=1309 subjects) self-reported their condition from the preceding month to assess prevalences of self-report for the studied conditions together with comorbidity group of subjects who reported more than one condition...
October 22, 2016: Oral Diseases
L Pelligand, A Soubret, J N King, J Elliott, J P Mochel
The objective of this study was to model the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of robenacoxib in cats using a nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) approach, leveraging all available information collected from cats receiving robenacoxib s.c. and/or i.v.: 47 densely sampled laboratory cats and 36 clinical cats sparsely sampled preoperatively. Data from both routes were modeled sequentially using Monolix 4.3.2. Influence of parameter correlations and available covariates (age, gender, bodyweight, and anesthesia) on population parameter estimates were evaluated by using multiple samples from the posterior distribution of the random effects...
October 22, 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
C Teljeur, P S Moran, S Walshe, S M Smith, F Cianci, L Murphy, P Harrington, M Ryan
AIMS: To systematically review the evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of self-management support interventions for people with diabetes. BACKGROUND: Self-management support is the provision of education and supportive interventions to increase patients' skills and confidence in managing their health problems, potentially leading to improvements in HbA1c levels in people with diabetes. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials, observational studies or economic modelling studies were eligible for inclusion in the review...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
I Schütz-Fuhrmann, J Castañeda, Y Reznik, R Aronson, I Conget, S Liabat, S Runzis, S de Portu, O Cohen
The recent OpT2mise randomized trial compared the efficacy of insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in people with Type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels that remained ≥64 mmol/mol (8.0%) despite insulin dose optimization [1,2]. During the initial 6-month randomized phase of the study, pump therapy was shown to produce a significant improvement in glycaemic control and a 20% reduction in total daily insulin dose, compared with MDI therapy [1], and these benefits were sustained during the subsequent 6-month extension phase during which all participants received pump therapy [2]...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Eric Lawitz, Fred Poordad, Julio A Gutierrez, Jennifer T Wells, Carmen E Landaverde, Barbara Evans, Anita Howe, Hsueh-Cheng Huang, Jerry Jing Li, Peggy Hwang, Frank J Dutko, Michael Robertson, Janice Wahl, Eliav Barr, Barbara Haber
Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) represent the standard of care for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Combining DAAs with different mechanisms may allow for shorter treatment durations that are effective across multiple genotypes. The aim of the C-SWIFT study was to identify the minimum effective treatment duration across multiple genotypes. C-SWIFT was an open-label, single-center trial in treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype (GT)1 or 3 infection. All patients received elbasvir (EBR) 100 mg/grazoprevir (GZR) 50 mg with sofosbuvir (SOF) 400 mg for 4-12 weeks...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Joanne E Brady, Danielle K Liffmann, Anthony Yartel, Natalie Kil, Alex D Federman, Joseph Kannry, Cynthia Jordan, Omar I Massoud, David R Nerenz, Kimberly A Brown, Bryce D Smith, Claudia Vellozzi, David B Rein
BACKGROUND: From December 2012-March 2014, three randomized trials, each implementing a unique intervention in primary care settings (mail recruitment [repeated-mailing], an electronic health record best practice alert [BPA], and patient-solicitation [patient-solicitation]), evaluated HCV antibody testing, diagnosis, and costs for each of the interventions compared to standard-of-care testing. Multilevel multivariable models were used to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for receiving an HCV antibody test, and costs were estimated using activity-based costing...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Zi-Qi Shen, Shan-Yan Gao, Shawn Xiang Li, Tie-Ning Zhang, Cai-Xia Liu, Hai-Chen Lv, Yuan Zhang, Ting-Ting Gong, Xin Xu, Chao Ji, Qi-Jun Wu, Da Li
AIM: To perform a meta-analysis of available cohort studies on the association between sertraline use by pregnant women in the first trimester and the findings of congenital anomalies in infants. METHODS: A comprehensive search of articles published from the index date through December 31, 2015 investigating the aforementioned associations was conducted on PubMed and Web of Science. Mesh headings used included the terms "serotonin reuptake inhibitor," "sertraline," "congenital anomalies" and "obstetrical outcome...
October 22, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Louisa Gilbert, Tina Jiwatram-Negron, Danil Nikitin, Olga Rychkova, Tara McCrimmon, Irena Ermolaeva, Nadejda Sharonova, Aibek Mukambetov, Timothy Hunt
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV) are serious public health threats among women who use drugs or engage in binge drinking in Kyrgyzstan. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of a two-session IPV and GBV screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment model (WINGS) with HIV counselling and testing for women who use drugs or engage in binge drinking in Kyrgyzstan, using a pre/post-design...
October 22, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
M Kajaia, M Butsashvili, L Gulbiani, Kh Khatiashvili, K Mindeli, N Osepaishvili, K Gordeladze, A Kobaek, G Kamkamidze
In 2014-2016, the Georgia Red Cross Society (GRCS) implemented a project to improve diabetes prevention, detection and care in rural Georgia, namely in the Gardabani district. The KAP survey was conducted to determine current levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding diabetes among the general population in the Gardabani district. We compared current findings with baseline results from a 2014 survey to identify trends. A cross sectional study design with multi-stage random sampling was used to select participants...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
R Khukhunaishvili, S Tskvitinidze, M Koridze, M Nagervadze, N Chelidze
The ability to sense phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) bitterness represents a well-known and convenient genetic marker for human populations and biomedical studies. Two basic phenotypes can be dichotomized by PTC sensitivity: PTC-sensitive or "tester" and PTC-insensitive or "non-tester". The majority of the population (approximately 70%) belong to the PTC-sensitive phenotype, while the remaining 30% are PTC-insensitive. The distribution of PTC sensitivities varies by consumption of alcohol, bitter coffee and cigarettes...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M Butsashvili, M Kajaia, M Kochlamazashvili, M Zarandia, T Gagua, D Meskhishvili, N Avaliani, G Kamkamidze
Of the 100 types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), approximately 35 infect the genital tract. The viruses are categorized as "high risk" and "low risk" depending on whether they are known to cause cancer or not. Cervical cancer is an important cause of cancer mortality in Georgia, and worldwide. Only limited and incomplete data are available about the epidemiology of HPV infection and related molecular and cellular changes in Georgia. Objectives of our study included the estimation of the prevalence and the distribution of HPV genotypes among women in Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
N Gamkrelidze, N Pavliashvili, R Otarashvili
This study describes hematocrit values and quantitative changes in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels according to the severity of crush syndrome (CS) compression and decompression periods. The experiments were carried out on 50 randomly selected 200-250 gr mass Wistar rats with the use of the standard crush syndrome modeling method. The plasma level of ET-1 was determined by the immuneenzyme method with the use of ELISA REDEAR URIT 660. Hematocrit was determined using the standard method and measured according to tube column divisions...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M Topuridze, D Baliashvili, T Komakhidze, M Shishniashvili, N Grdzelidze, M Butsashvili
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. RV causes approximately half a million deaths each year among children aged <5 years. According to WHO estimates for 2008, there were approximately 10 to 50 deaths annually in young children due to rotavirus diarrhea in Georgia. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to rotavirus diarrhea and the rotavirus vaccine among health care workers (HCWs). The National Center for Disease Control and Public Health (NCDC) conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs involved in the expanded program of immunization (EPI)...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
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