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Minling Gao, Youming Dong, Ze Zhang, Wenhua Song, Yun Qi
Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are vital environmental hormone-like chemicals that are noxious to plants, animals, and human beings. In this study, the influences of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the seed germination, root morphology, and various physiological changes of wheat seedlings were investigated by analyzing superoxide anion (O2(-)) accumulation, antioxidant enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation. DBP and DEHP were found to obviously inhibit germination only at high concentrations, but significantly affected root morphology even at lower concentrations...
January 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Hai-Tao Gao, Run Xu, Wei-Xin Cao, Liang-Liang Qian, Min Wang, Lingeng Lu, Qian Xu, Shu-Qin Yu
Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PEs) surroundings. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to the mixture of six priority controlled phthalate esters (MIXPs): dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), on male rat reproductive system and further to explore the underlying mechanisms of the reproductive toxicity...
January 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Thuy T Bui, Andreia Alves, Anna Palm-Cousins, Stefan Voorspoels, Adrian Covaci, Ian T Cousins
There is a lack of knowledge regarding uptake of phthalate esters (PEs) and other chemicals into the human nail plate and thus, clarity concerning the suitability of human nails as a valid alternative matrix for monitoring long-term exposure. In particular, the relative importance of internal uptake of phthalate metabolites (from e.g. blood) compared to external uptake pathways is unknown. This study provides first insights into the partitioning of phthalate-metabolites between blood and nail using pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling and biomonitoring data from a Norwegian cohort...
January 11, 2017: Environment International
Ruth Nahurira, Lei Ren, Jinlong Song, Yang Jia, Junhuan Wang, Shuanghu Fan, Haisheng Wang, Yanchun Yan
One bacterial strain, YC-RL2, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, could utilize environmental hormone Di(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a sole carbon source for growth. Strain YC-RL2 was identified as Gordonia alkanivorans by 16S rRNA gene analysis and Biolog tests. The effects of environmental factors which might affect the degrading process were optimized at 30 °C and pH 8.0. Strain YC-RL2 showed superior halotolerance and could tolerate up to 0-5% NaCl in trace element medium supplemented with DEHP, although the DEHP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased...
January 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
Hanfeng Ye, Mei Ha, Min Yang, Ping Yue, Zhengyuan Xie, Changjiang Liu
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a widespread environmental pollutant and an endocrine disruptor, can disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs). In order to elucidate roles of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways and hepatic enzymes in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage for 30 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP with NAC, k-Ras siRNA or inhibitors (U0126 and wortmannin). Results showed that DEHP led to histopathologic changes in rat thyroid and liver, such as the decrease in thyroid follicular cavity diameter, hepatocyte edema...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xinwen Dong, Jin Dong, Yue Zhao, Jipeng Guo, Zhanju Wang, Mingqi Liu, Yunbo Zhang, Xiaolin Na
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was a widely used chemical with human toxicity. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that DEHP-exposure may be associated with altered serum thyroid hormones (THs) levels, but the underlying molecular mechanisms were largely unknown. To explore the possible molecular mechanisms, 128 Wistar rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 3 months (M) and 6 M, respectively. After exposure, expression of genes and proteins in the thyroid, pituitary, and hypothalamus tissues of rats were analyzed by Q-PCR and western blot, while the sera and urine samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay and ELISA...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Atsuko Araki, Takahiko Mitsui, Houman Goudarzi, Tamie Nakajima, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Seiko Sasaki, Kazutoshi Cho, Kimihiko Moriya, Nobuo Shinohara, Katsuya Nonomura, Reiko Kishi
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is known for its endocrine disrupting properties. We previously demonstrated that prenatal DEHP exposure is associated with decreased progesterone levels and testosterone/estradiol ratio in the cord blood. However, evidence of the effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on adrenal androgen and glucocorticoids in infants is scarce. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the association between prenatal DEHP exposure and adrenal androgen and glucocorticoids, and to discuss its effects on steroid hormone profiles in infants...
December 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Forouzan Absalan, Sadegh Saremy, Esrafil Mansori, Mahin Taheri Moghadam, Ali Reza Eftekhari Moghadam, Razie Ghanavati
OBJECTIVE: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mouse strain (6-8 weeks), were divided into seven different experimental and control groups...
2017: Cell Journal
Fang-Ping Chen, Mei-Hua Chien, Ingrid Ying-Yu Chern
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether lower concentrations of phthalates interfere with the effects of 17β-estradiol on the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCF-7 cells were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), phthalates, including butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), and di(20ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), or with both E2 and phthalates, all at 10nM. After incubation for 48 hours, the cells were harvested and extracted for MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Wang Zhang, Xin-Yue Shen, Wen-Wen Zhang, Hao Chen, Wei-Ping Xu, Wei Wei
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous industrial pollutant in our daily life, has been reported to cause adverse effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in epidemiological studies previously. Recently, it has been reported to be an endocrine disrupter and ligand to peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, which could influence the homeostasis of liver metabolic systems and contribute to the development of type-2 diabetes. However, the potential mechanisms are not known yet. This study was designed to solve these problems with male SD rats and normal human hepatocyte line, L02 cells, exposed to DEHP for toxicological experiments...
December 23, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Hui Gao, Yuan-Yuan Xu, Kun Huang, Xing Ge, Yun-Wei Zhang, Hui-Yuan Yao, Ye-Qing Xu, Shuang-Qin Yan, Zhong-Xiu Jin, Jie Sheng, Peng Zhu, Jia-Hu Hao, Fang-Biao Tao
A prospective cohort study of a Chinese population of mother-neonate pairs (n = 3103) was conducted to investigate the relationship between the cumulative hazard index (HI) of combined diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dibenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure and birth outcomes. The estimated HI for phthalates was based on phthalate metabolite concentrations in urine collected between 5th and 14th gestational weeks. The median HI values according to the European Food Safety Authority tolerable daily intake (HITDI) and U...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Rongli Li, Jing Liang, Zhenbin Gong, Ningning Zhang, Hualing Duan
The occurrence and spatial distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Jiulong River of southeast China were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from 35 stations along the river in Mar. 2014. The historical trend of the past 26years was reconstructed with a sediment core collected in Dec. 2012 via a (210)Pb dating technique. The potential ecological risk of PAEs was assessed using the risk quotient (RQ) method. Of the 16 PAE congeners analyzed, only 6 PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP), were identified and quantified; the remaining 10 PAEs were below their respective limits of quantification (LOQs) for the analytical methods used here...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hitomi Ozaki, Kazumi Sugihara, Yoko Watanabe, Kyoko Moriguchi, Naoto Uramaru, Tomomichi Sone, Shigeru Ohta, Shigeyuki Kitamura
Phthalates are used in food packaging, and are transferred to foods as contaminants. In this study, we examined the hydrolytic metabolism of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) by rat tissue microsomes. We found that carboxylesterase and lipase contribute differently to these activities. When DMP, DBP and DEHP were incubated with rat liver microsomes, DBP was most effectively hydrolyzed to the phthalate monoester, followed by DMP, and the activity toward DEHP was marginal...
December 19, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Chih-Feng Chen, Chiu-Wen Chen, Yun-Ru Ju, Cheng-Di Dong
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are known organic endocrine disruptors. The distribution of 10 PAEs in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor of Taiwan was studied using organic solvents extraction and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The average concentration of total PAEs (ΣPAEs) in the sediment was 8713±11,454ng/g dw with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (3630ng/g-dw) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) (3497ng/g dw) being the major species, which constitutes of 41.7% and 40.1% of ΣPAEs. PAEs concentration was relatively high near the river mouths, especially in Love River mouth, and diminished toward the harbor...
December 20, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Wang Zhang, Xin-Yue Shen, Wen-Wen Zhang, Hao Chen, Wei-Ping Xu, Wei Wei
Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to be an inevitable factor related to metabolic disease. Our previous study demonstrated that excess DEHP could exacerbate Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease(NAFLD) in SD rats. Addressing the terra incognita in DEHP-induced metabolic dysfunction, this study used HepG2 cells to investigate the potential mechanisms involved in DEHP-induced toxicity in vitro. The cells were established lipid overload model with oleic acid and BSA, then exposed to different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 μmol/l DEHP) of DEHP for further analysis...
December 20, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Jun Ling, Zenaida P Lopez-Dee, Colby Cottell, Laura Wolfe, Derek Nye
Phthalates are a group of plasticizers that are widely used in many consumer products and medical devices, thus generating a huge burden to human health. Phthalates have been known to cause a number of developmental and reproductive disorders functioning as endocrine modulators. They are also involved in carcinogenesis with mechanisms less understood. To further understand the molecular mechanisms of phthalate toxicity, in this study we reported a new effect of phthalates on mRNA translation/protein synthesis, a key regulatory step of gene expression...
2016: PloS One
D Kalo, Z Roth
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolite, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), are reproductive toxicants. However, disruptive effects of MEHP at low concentrations on the oocyte and developing blastocyst are unknown. Previously, we detected low levels of MEHP in follicular fluid aspirated from DEHP-treated cows associated with reduced estradiol levels. Moreover, the MEHP concentrations found were similar to those reported for follicular fluid aspirated from women who have undergone IVF cycles...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology
Evan D Borman, Warren G Foster, Denys deCatanzaro
Many people are repeatedly exposed to both bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), but there has been little research concerning their effects in combination. Both can disrupt blastocyst implantation in inseminated females, albeit at high doses. We exposed mice on gestation days (GD) 1-4 to combinations of BPA and DEHP in doses below the threshold necessary to disrupt implantation on their own. On GD 6, there were fewer normally-developed implantation sites and more underdeveloped implantation sites in females given the combined subthreshold doses...
December 9, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Young Ah Kim, Younglim Kho, Kyoung Chul Chun, Jae Whoan Koh, Jeong Woo Park, Melisa Bunderson-Schelvan, Yoon Hee Cho
We assessed the urinary concentration of 16 phthalate metabolites in 57 women with and without uterine leiomyoma (n = 30 and 27; respectively) to determine the association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. To evaluate exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); we calculated the molar sum of DEHP metabolites; ∑3-DEHP (combining mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP); mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP); and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate); ∑4-DEHP (∑3-DEHP plus mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate); and ∑5-DEHP (∑4-DEHP plus mono (2-(carboxylmethyl)hexyl) phthalate (2cx-MMHP))...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Srimurali Sampath, Krishna Kumar Selvaraj, Govindaraj Shanmugam, Vimalkumar Krishnamoorthy, Paromita Chakraborty, Babu Rajendran Ramaswamy
Usage of phthalates as plasticizers has resulted in worldwide occurrence and is becoming a serious concern to human health and environment. However, studies on phthalates in Indian atmosphere are lacking. Therefore, we studied the spatio-temporal trends of six major phthalates in Tamil Nadu, southern India, using passive air samplers. Phthalates were ubiquitously detected in all the samples and the average total phthalates found in decreasing order is pre-monsoon (61 ng m(-3)) > summer (52 ng m(-3)) > monsoon (17 ng m(-3))...
February 2017: Environmental Pollution
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