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Andreia Alves, Gudrun Koppen, Guido Vanermen, Adrian Covaci, Stefan Voorspoels
Phthalate esters (PEs) are easily metabolized and commonly excreted via urine within 24h, therefore their bioaccumulation potential is thought to be rather low. In the present study, we developed a sample preparation combined with a new microextraction method to measure seven PE metabolites in nails. The use of whole nails did not result in significantly different levels compared to powdered nails, which makes the method very fast and user friendly. The method was validated using whole nails showing good accuracy, satisfactory precision and low limits of quantification (2-14ng/g)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Nai-Yun Hsu, Yu-Chun Liu, Chia-Wei Lee, Ching-Chang Lee, Huey-Jen Su
Water damage and moisture in buildings may become more prevalent due to the increasing frequency of extreme precipitation and flooding events resulting from climate change. However, the effects of moisture levels on phthalate emissions from building materials are still underreported. This study aims to evaluate the effect of moisture content (MC) on the level of di-(2ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) emitted from plastic wallpaper (0.22wt% DEHP) within 15 days in a closed chamber. A scenario of short-term exposure to DEHP in buildings suffering from water damage was simulated...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Research
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Rola F Turki, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Mohd A Beg, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a common endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) present in the environment as a result of industrial activity and leaching from polyvinyl products. DEHP is used as a plasticizer in medical devices and many commercial and household items. Exposure occurs through inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. DEHP is metabolized to a primary metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) in the body, which is further metabolized to four major secondary metabolites, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxyhexyl)phthalate (5-oxo-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate (5-cx-MEPP) and mono[2-(carboxymethyl)hexyl]phthalate (2-cx-MMHP)...
September 30, 2016: BMC Structural Biology
Ji-Feng Yang, Li-Ming Yang, Li-Ying Zheng, Guang-Guo Ying, Cheng-Bin Liu, Sheng-Lian Luo
Concentrations of six phthalates were determined in 69 plastic bottled non-alcoholic beverages collected from marketplaces in China. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Di- (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) were the most detected compounds with frequencies of 100%. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) was found less, with a mean frequency of almost 34%. The samples were divided in 7 groups. The frequencies of phthalates in these groups ranged from 6.67 to 100%, which indicated that different types of beverages were differently contaminated by phthalates...
October 9, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Yufeng Miao, Runhuai Wang, Chan Lu, Jinping Zhao, Qihong Deng
The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is ubiquitous in the environment and considered as carcinogen; however, the carcinogenic risk of human exposure to DEHP in the air via inhalation is lacking. A probabilistic incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model was implemented to quantitatively estimate the potential cancer risk of DEHP via human inhalation by using Monte Carlo simulation. We assessed the cancer risk in different age groups (children, adolescents, and adults) exposed to different DEHP concentrations (background low, indoor moderate, and occupational high) for different durations (2, 8, and 20 years)...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marisa Morgan, Alok Deoraj, Quentin Felty, Deodutta Roy
BACKGROUND: Estrogen-mimicking endocrine disruptors (EEDs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates have been found ubiquitously throughout our environment. Although exposure to EEDs has the ability to interfere with endocrine control of reproductive function and development in both humans and wildlife, inconsistent reports have made it difficult to draw conclusions concerning the hypothesized increased risk of breast cancer associated with EEDs. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between exposure to PCBs, BPA or phthalates; and risk of breast cancer in U...
October 4, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Maryam Zarean, Mojtaba Keikha, Parinaz Poursafa, Pooyan Khalighinejad, Mohammadmehdi Amin, Roya Kelishadi
Di (ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a global environmental pollutant. This study aims to systematically review the literature on health effects of exposure to DEHP including effects on reproductive health, carcinogenesis, pregnancy outcome, and respiratory system. The literature search was done through Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, and the reference lists of previous review articles to identify relevant articles published to June 2016 in each subject area. The inclusion criteria were as follows: original research, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, interventional studies, and review articles...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sheela Sathyanarayana, Emily Barrett, Ruby Nguyen, Bruce Redmon, Wren Haaland, Shanna H Swan
Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010-2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Adil Bakir, Isabel A O'Connor, Steven J Rowland, A Jan Hendriks, Richard C Thompson
It has been hypothesised that, if ingested, plastic debris could act as vector for the transfer of chemical contaminants from seawater to organisms, yet modelling suggest that, in the natural environment, chemical transfer would be negligible compared to other routes of uptake. However, to date, the models have not incorporated consideration of the role of gut surfactants, or the influence of pH or temperature on desorption, whilst experimental work has shown that these factors can enhance desorption of sorbed contaminants several fold...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Xin-Li Song, Yue Chen, Jin-Peng Yuan, Yu-Jun Qin, Ru-Song Zhao, Xiao Wang
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on polystyrene (PS) microspheres have been designed and prepared by layer-by-layer assembly via electrostatic interaction. MWCNTs@PS was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The new materials were employed as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating to enrich trace level of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in water samples. Five PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP), were studied in this work...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Lauren E Johns, Kelly K Ferguson, John D Meeker
CONTEXT: Recent research suggests that environmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may alter circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in humans. To date, no studies have assessed the associations between phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) and total 25(OH)D in the U.S. general population. OBJECTIVE: To explore relationships between urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites and BPA and serum total 25(OH)D in a representative sample of U...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ida Petrovičová, Branislav Kolena, Miroslava Šidlovská, Tomáš Pilka, Soňa Wimmerová, Tomáš Trnovec
The aim of our work was to find associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and occupation, consumer practices and body composition. We divided our cohort (n = 129) into occupationally exposed subjects, community service workers (group A; n = 45) and workers from plastic industry (group B; n = 35) and group of general population (control group C, n = 49). To estimate levels of five phthalate metabolites, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
September 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Diogo H Kita, Katlyn B Meyer, Amanda C Venturelli, Rafaella Adams, Daria L B Machado, Rosana N Morais, Shanna H Swan, Chris Gennings, Anderson J Martino-Andrade
We examined the anogenital distance (AGD) plasticity in rats through the manipulation of the androgen environment in utero and during puberty. Dams were treated from gestation days 13-20 with vehicle, flutamide (20mg/kg/day), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP, 750mg/kg/day), or testosterone (1.0mg/kg/day). After weaning, male pups were randomly assigned to one of four postnatal groups, which received the same treatments given prenatally. Sixteen treatment groups were established based on the combination of pre- and postnatal exposures...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
Sailas Benjamin, Naofumi Kamimura, Kenji Takahashi, Eiji Masai
This study provides physical and analytical evidences for the efficient utilization of most of the commercially available phthalate diesters by Achromobacter denitrificans SP1, coupled with the demonstration of a plausible degradation pathway. We tested 17 phthalate diesters [viz., ditridecyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP), bis(2-ethylhexyl)isophthalate (BEIP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), diamyl phthalate (DAmP), diisobutyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, dially phthalate (DAlP), diethyl phthalate, diethyl terephthalate and dimethyl phthalate (DMP)], and their major degradation products for the degradation efficiency of A...
September 8, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert significant effects on health and physiology, many traceable to effects on stem cell programming underlying development. Understanding risk of low-level, chronic EDC exposure will be enhanced by knowledge of effects on stem cells. We exposed rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells to low levels of five EDCs [bisphenol A (BPA), atrazine (ATR), tributyltin (TBT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)] for 28days, and evaluated effects on gene expression by RNAseq transcriptome profiling...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Yu Ait Bamai, Atsuko Araki, Toshio Kawai, Tazuru Tsuboi, Ikue Saito, Eiji Yoshioka, Shi Cong, Reiko Kishi
Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in household products. Several studies have reported an association between phthalate exposure and an increased risk of allergies. The present study estimated phthalate exposure in children aged 6-12years and assessed potential correlations with allergies. House dust samples were collected from floors and multi-surface objects >35cm above the floor. Urine samples were collected from the first morning void of the day. Daily phthalate intake (DIdust and DI) was estimated using both house dust and urinary metabolite concentrations...
August 30, 2016: Environment International
Chunying Li, Xiaoguo Ma, Xiaojun Zhang, Rui Wang, Yuan Chen, Zhongyang Li
Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MMIPs) were synthesized by surface imprinting technology with a sol-gel process, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) as the template. The MMIPs were characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The MMIPs displayed good adsorption selectivity for DEHP, with selectivity coefficients of 5.2 and 4.8 with respect to di-n-octyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate, respectively...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Julia R Varshavsky, Ami R Zota, Tracey J Woodruff
Phthalates are ubiquitous chemicals linked to hormonal disruptions that affect reproduction and development. Multiple antiandrogenic phthalates exposure during fetal development can have greater impacts than individual exposure; thus, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) recommends them for cumulative assessment. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (NHANES, 2001-2012), we developed a potency-weighted sum of daily intake (∑androgen-disruptor; μg/kg/day) of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) based on NAS recommendations, and included diethyl phthalate (DEP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) in additional metrics (2005-2012)...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Hai-Tao Gao, Run Xu, Wei-Xin Cao, Xu Zhou, Ye-Hui-Mei Yan, Lingeng Lu, Qian Xu, Yang Shen
Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs)...
2016: PloS One
Kostyantyn Pivnenko, David Laner, Thomas Fruergaard Astrup
This study provides a systematic approach for assessment of contaminants in materials for recycling. Paper recycling is used as an illustrative example. Three selected chemicals - bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) - are evaluated within the paper cycle. The approach combines static material flow analysis (MFA) with dynamic material and substance flow modeling. The results indicate that phasing out of chemicals is the most effective measure for reducing chemical contamination...
August 30, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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