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Julia Petit, Anaïs Wakx, Sophie Gil, Thierry Fournier, Nicolas Auzeil, Patrice Rat, Olivier Laprévote
During pregnancy, exposure to environmental contaminants can lead to adverse effects on fetal growth and development, especially by targeting the placenta. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), the most abundant chemical used in plastic materials, is known to induce toxicity on animals reproductive system and is suspected to give rise to similar effect in humans. Toxicity of DEHP is due to its main metabolite, MEHP, which is also known to disturb lipid synthesis in several organs. Moreover, mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phtalate (MEHP) is a high affinity ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ which is essential for placental development and lipid metabolism...
March 19, 2018: Biochimie
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Annamaria Colao
Phtalates are commonly found in several household products such as food packaging, furniture and toys. Humans are exposed to phtalates through different ways such as inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Due to the abundance of plastic in our society, the exposure to phtalates is ubiquitous. A growing body of evidence investigated the association of phtalate exposure with cardiovascular risk factors, i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Phtalates are thought to contribute to obesity through their binding and activation of PPARγ receptor that in turn results in the upregulation of adipocyte production...
March 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Alexandre C Bertoli, Jerusa S Garcia, Marcello G Trevisan, Teodorico C Ramalho, Matheus P Freitas
The use of theoretical calculation to determine structural properties of fulvate-metal complex (zinc, copper and iron) is here related. The species were proposed in the ratio 1:1 and 2:1 for which the molecular structure was obtained through the semi-empirical method PM6. The calculation of thermodynamic stability ([Formula: see text]) predicted that the iron complex were more exo-energetic. Metallic ions were coordinated to the phtalate groups of the model-structure of fulvic acid Suwannee River and the calculations of vibrational frequencies suggested that hydrogen bonds may help on the stability of the complex formation...
April 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Nathalie Voide, Pierre-François Kaeser, Francine Behar-Cohen
The eyes are exposed to multiple environmental factors, which affect visual development, comfort, and visual health. While overexposure to sunlight can cause ocular surface and retinal pathologies, insufficient exposure to daylight could significantly contribute to myopia progression. New artificial lights, namely LED, have a higher risk of retinal phototoxicity, and could alter ocular circadian rhythm. The significant increase of prevalence of ocular allergies could be caused by the proliferation of environmental polluting substances, like tobacco smoke, fuel combustion by-products, or phtalates, which are found in many types of plastics...
December 16, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
Julien Prados, Ludwig Stenz, Emmanuel Somm, Christelle Stouder, Alexandre Dayer, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phtalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer with endocrine disrupting properties found ubiquitously in the environment and altering reproduction in rodents. Here we investigated the impact of prenatal exposure to DEHP on spermatogenesis and DNA sperm methylation in two distinct, selected, and sequenced mice strains. FVB/N and C57BL/6J mice were orally exposed to 300 mg/kg/day of DEHP from gestation day 9 to 19. Prenatal DEHP exposure significantly decreased spermatogenesis in C57BL/6J (fold-change = 0...
2015: PloS One
Maria Celeiro, J Pablo Lamas, Carmen Garcia-Jares, Maria Llompart
Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years...
March 6, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
Natalia Grabar, Ornella Wandji Tchami, Laura Maxim
Chemical risk appears with chemical substances that are dangerous for human or animal health, or for environment, such as with Bisphenol A and phtalates. Chemical risk causes several severe health disorders and is particularly dangerous for human health. Specific agencies are involved in the verification of the suitability of products and goods to be marketed. For this, a large amount of scientific and institutional literature is manually analyzed to study the current knowledge on the associated chemical risk...
2014: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Ditte Gundermann, Kristine Niss, Tage Christensen, Jeppe C Dyre, Tina Hecksher
We present dynamic adiabatic bulk modulus data for three organic glass-forming liquids: two van der Waal's liquids, trimethyl-pentaphenyl-trisiloxane (DC705) and dibuthyl phtalate (DBP), and one hydrogen-bonded liquid, 1,2-propanediol (PD). All three liquids are found to obey time-temperature superposition within the uncertainty of the measurement in the adiabatic bulk modulus. The bulk modulus spectra are compared to the shear modulus spectra. The time scales of the two responses were found to be similar. The shapes of the shear and bulk modulus alpha loss peak are nearly identical for DBP and DC705, while the bulk modulus spectrum for PD is significantly broader than that of the shear modulus...
June 28, 2014: Journal of Chemical Physics
Dana Vlascici, Iuliana Popa, Vlad A Chiriac, Gheorghe Fagadar-Cosma, Horia Popovici, Eugenia Fagadar-Cosma
BACKGROUND: Copper is an essential trace element with a great importance in industry, environment and biological systems. The great advantage of ion-selective sensors in comparison with other proposed techniques is that they are measuring the free metal ion activity which is responsible for their toxicity. Porphyrins are known to be among the best ionophores in formulation of ion-selective sensors. RESULTS: A symmetrically substituted meso-porphyrin, namely: 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-allyloxyphenyl)porphyrin (TAPP) was used in the construction of a new copper selective-sensor and was also tested for the removal of copper from waste waters...
2013: Chemistry Central Journal
Karlo Jurica, Natalija Uršulin-Trstenjak, Darija Vukić Lušić, Dražen Lušić, Zdenko Smit
Phthalates are phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol esters used as additives to plastic in order to improve its softness, flexibility, and elongation. Phthalates are highly mobile and migrate easily from plastic products into the environment due to their physical and chemical properties. This study briefly describes the characteristics and distribution of phthalates in the environment, their toxic effects on human health, the legislation regarding the maximum allowed concentration of phthalates in drinking water and products intended for infants, as well as the tolerable daily intake...
June 2013: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Osvaldo J Ponzo, Carbone Silvia
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous...
September 6, 2013: Toxicology
I A Revelsky, Yu S Yashin
The mass-spectra of a number of different hydrocarbons were obtained using atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPhI) and photochemical ionization (APPhCI) mass-spectrometry. The respective mass-spectra consisted mainly of molecular (M(+)) or quasimolecular (MH(+)) ion peaks or both. The composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in straight-run gasoline was investigated using standard PIONA method, based on capillary GC and retention time indexes, and GC/MS (APPhI). 56 aromatic hydrocarbons were identified using GC/MS (APPhI) and 43-using standard PIONA method...
December 15, 2012: Talanta
Stéphanie Greco, Jean-René Authelin, Caroline Leveder, Audrey Segalini
PURPOSE: To predict the crystallization time of amorphous solid dispersions by controlling the combined effect of temperature and moisture content. METHODS: The authors exposed amorphous samples of spray-dried API and Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose Phtalate to various temperature and humidity conditions below and above the glass transition temperature (Tg) until crystallization of the API was observed. The crystallization of API was detected by XRPD, while the T ( g ) and the water absorption by the amorphous dispersion are quantified by mDSC and water sorption analysis...
October 2012: Pharmaceutical Research
K Haarstad, H J Bavor, T Mæhlum
A literature review shows that more than 500 compounds occur in wetlands, and also that wetlands are suitable for removing these compounds. There are, however, obvious pitfalls for treatment wetlands, the most important being the maintenance of the hydraulic capacity and the detention time. Treatment wetlands should have an adapted design to target specific compounds. Aquatic plants and soils are suitable for wastewater treatment with a high capacity of removing nutrients and other substances through uptake, sorption and microbiological degradation...
2012: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ivana Sýkorová, Martina Havelcová, Antonín Zeman, Hana Trejtnarová
Thin black surface layers or black coloured gypsum crusts can be observed on stones of many buildings and sculptures around the world. The black weathered stone and mortar surface from selected sections of the Prague Castle were studied by microscopic methods, GC/MS and pyrolysis-GC/MS analysis. Microscopically, we found an authigenic gypsum formation with an outer layer of an admixture of fine grains of quartz, clay minerals, thermally altered clay minerals, fly ash, and carbonaceous particles of natural and anthropogenic origin particularly chars, cokes, soots...
October 1, 2011: Science of the Total Environment
Carlota Saldanha, Nuno C Santos, J Martins-Silva
A biochemistry laboratory class protocol is described in order to create an opportunity for students to apply by doing the theoretical concepts underlying biomolecules and vesicles properties, together with the principles of centrifugation and colorimetric methodologies. Through simple procedures the students will i) observe the segregation of the vesicles suspensions into two separate phases (phtalate esters gradient and vesicle aggregates); ii) visualize the vesicle aggregates by protein, enzyme, and phospholipids coloration processes; and iii) discuss and explain the visualized colors by proper biochemical reactions...
July 2004: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
M I González-Castro, M F Olea-Serrano, A M Rivas-Velasco, E Medina-Rivero, Leandro G Ordoñez-Acevedo, A De León-Rodríguez
The presence of endocrine disruptors bisphenol-A, bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether, phthalic-acid, dibutyl-phthalate, diethyl-phthalate and dioctyl-phthalate was determined in vegetable cans, baby bottles and microwaveable containers from the Mexican market. Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry was used for the identification and High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography with UV/Visible light and fluorescence detectors was used for the quantification. Endocrine disruptors were found in all samples...
June 2011: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Badr Benmansour, Ludovic Stephan, Jean-Yves Cabon, Laure Deschamps, Philippe Giamarchi
This work presents spectroscopic properties of some Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), frequently found in food and in natural water. Studied molecules belong to the groups of phenolic and phthalate EDCs. In a first part, we have examined their absorption and fluorescence properties. Fluorescence emission wavelengths are about 300 nm for phenolic compounds and 360 nm for phtalate compounds; main excitation wavelengths being comprised between 210 nm and 230 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes measured are short (about 4 ns) and the fluorescence quantum yield has been determined...
May 2011: Journal of Fluorescence
Nour Kayali, Fernando G Tamayo, Luis M Polo-Díez
Difficulties detected in the determination of the diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) at trace levels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using SPME, due to its ubiquitous distribution in the environment has been overcome and a new method for the determination of DEHP in drinking water has been proposed. The method is based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection was carried out spectrophotometrically. Calibration graph was linear in the range 10-110 microg/L with a regression coefficient of r(2)=0...
July 15, 2006: Talanta
T Comoglu, N Gonul, A Dogan, N Basci
Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor prodrug used in the treatment of gastric ulcers and gastroesophageal disease. Pantoprazole must be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and because it is unstable under acidic conditions, enteric delivery systems are required. The purpose of this study was to prepare pantoprazole-loaded microspheres by emulsion-solvent evaporation technique using two different types of enteric-coating polymers: Eudragit S 100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phtalate. The microspheres have been characterized in terms of their morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and ability of stabilizing pantoprazole in acidic media...
June 2008: Drug Delivery
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