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Rika Fukumori, Yoji Masuda, Ayaka Takeuchi, Rina Yanai, Khurchabiling Atchalalt, Borjigin Sarentonglaga, Kazuko Ogata, Mio Yamaguchi, Asuka Hara, Akane Sato, Toshihisa Sugino, Yoshikazu Nagao
The aim of this study was to investigate how intra-duodenal infusions of fatty acids (FA) affect appetite-related gut peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in sheep. We hypothesized that these peptides can be highly reactive to unsaturated long-chain FA, because they are well known to decrease DMI. Four ewes were fitted with a duodenal cannula and a jugular vein catheter for a 6-h duodenal infusion of the nine FA (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) and water (control)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Valentina Serra, Alessandra Cafiso, Nicoletta Formenti, Hélène Verheyden, Olivier Plantard, Chiara Bazzocchi, Davide Sassera
Midichloria mitochondrii is a tick-borne intracellular bacterium of the order Rickettsiales, found with high prevalence in the sheep tick ( Ixodes ricinus). Midichloria mitochondrii is capable of vertical transmission in the tick, but recently evidence of potential horizontal transmission to the tick hosts through the blood meal has been reported. We investigated the presence of the bacterium in the blood of roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus) collected from an area known to be highly infested with I. ricinus ticks...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Amir Iftikhar Malik, Muhammad Ijaz, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Avais, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Hassaan Bin Aslam, Amjad Islam Aqib, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Tayyebah Sohail, Awais Ghaffar, Ahmad Ali, Amjad Khan
Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection is an emerging hazard in small ruminants having socio-economic impacts on animals and associated people. The current study was aimed to estimate the sero-prevalence and associated risk factors in sheep and goat from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Three distinct zones (northern, central and southern) with four districts (Mansehra, Abbottabad, Swabi, and Kohat) with a higher population of small ruminants were selected. A total of n = 408 sera originating from sheep (n = 212) and goats (n = 196) were randomly collected for detection of BTV group specific antibodies through competitive ELISA (c-ELISA)...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Elizabeth W Uhl
Although vitamin D is critical to calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, bone formation and remodeling, there is evolution-based variation between species in vitamin D metabolism and susceptibility to rickets and osteomalacia. Most herbivores produce vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, but dogs and cats have generally lost the ability as carnivore diets are rich in vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies and/or poor exposure to sunlight can induce rickets in birds, swine, cattle and sheep, but horses are less susceptible as they have evolved a calcium homeostasis that is quite different than other animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Peyton W Weems, Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert L Goodman
Work over the last 15 years on the control of pulsatile LH secretion has focused largely on a set of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that contains two stimulatory neuropeptides, critical for fertility in humans (kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB)) and the inhibitory endogenous opioid peptide (EOP), dynorphin, and are now known as KNDy (kisspeptin-NKB-dynorphin) neurons. In this review, we consider the role of each of the KNDy peptides in the generation of GnRH pulses and the negative feedback actions of ovarian steroids, with an emphasis on NKB and dynorphin...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Frank Niemeyer, Lutz Claes, Anita Ignatius, Nicholaus Meyers, Ulrich Simon
Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for generating large amounts of bone in situ for treating pathologies such as large bone defects or skeletal malformations, for instance leg-length discrepancies. While an optimized distraction procedure might have the potential to reduce the rate of complications significantly, our knowledge of the underlying mechanobiological processes is still insufficient for systematic optimization of treatment parameters such as distraction rate or fixation stiffness. We present a novel numerical model of lateral distraction osteogenesis, based on a mechanically well-controlled in vivo experiment...
2018: PloS One
Luca Palazzese, Marta Czernik, Domenico Iuso, Paola Toschi, Pasqualino Loi
Recently we have demonstrated the possibility to replace histones with protamine, through the heterologous expression of human protamine 1 (hPrm1) gene in sheep fibroblasts. Here we have optimized protaminization of somatic nucleus by adjusting the best concentration and exposure time to trichostatin A (TSA) in serum-starved fibroblasts (nuclear quiescence), before expressing Prm1 gene. To stop cell proliferation, we starved cells in 0.5% FBS in MEM ("starved"-ST group), whereas in the Control group (CTR) the cells were cultured in 10% FBS in MEM...
2018: PloS One
Nancy L Segal
This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes...
March 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Wu Yuan, Robert Brown, Wayne Mitzner, Lonny Yarmus, Xingde Li
The original version of this Article contained an error in the third sentence of the 'Animal studies' section of the Methods, which incorrectly read 'The sheep anesthesia was initiated with ketamine (25 mg kg-1 ) and then maintained by continuous intravascular (IV) infusion of propofol (800 mg kg-1  h-1 ) during imaging.' The correct version states '800 µg kg-1  h-1 ' in place of '800 mg kg-1  h-1 '. This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the article.
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Mohamed Ghanem, Mohamed Zeineldin, Attia Eissa, Eman El Ebissy, Rasha Mohammed, Yassein Abdelraof
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of varying degrees of water salinity on the ultrasonographical and histopathological appearance of the liver and kidneys in Barki sheep. Thirty Barki sheep (initial weight, 29.48 ± 0.81 kg) were allocated into three groups (n=10 per group) based on the type of drinking water for 9 months: the tap water (TW) group (350 ppm total dissolved solids [TDS]); the moderate saline water (MSW) group (4557 ppm TDS); and the high saline water (HSW) group (8934 ppm TDS)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Joanne Lello, Susan J McClure, Kerri Tyrrell, Mark E Viney
It is normal for hosts to be co-infected by parasites. Interactions among co-infecting species can have profound consequences, including changing parasite transmission dynamics, altering disease severity and confounding attempts at parasite control. Despite the importance of co-infection, there is currently no way to predict how different parasite species may interact with one another, nor the consequences of those interactions. Here, we demonstrate a method that enables such prediction by identifying two nematode parasite groups based on taxonomy and characteristics of the parasitological niche...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Uma Mahesh R Avula, Jonathan J Hernandez, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Carmen R Valdivia, Antony Chu, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Kuljeet Kaur, Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, Justus M Anumonwo, Stanley Nattel, Héctor H Valdivia, Jérôme Kalifa
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with atrial ischemia/infarction are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying spontaneous AF in an ovine model of left atrial myocardial infarction (LAMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: LAMI was created by ligating the atrial branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. ECG loop recorders were implanted to monitor AF episodes. In 7 sheep, dantrolene-a ryanodine receptor blocker-was administered in vivo during the 8-day observation period (LAMI-D, 2...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
D P Berry, A O'Brien, J O'Donovan, N McHugh, E Wall, S Randles, K McDermott, R E O'Connor, M A Patil, J Ho, A Kennedy, N Byrne, D C Purfield
Early detection of karyotype abnormalities, including aneuploidy, could aid producers in identifying animals which, for example, would not be suitable candidate parents. Genome-wide genetic marker data in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now being routinely generated on animals. The objective of the present study was to describe the statistics that could be generated from the allele intensity values from such SNP data to diagnose karyotype abnormalities; of particular interest was whether detection of aneuploidy was possible with both commonly used genotyping platforms in agricultural species, namely the Applied BiosystemsTM AxiomTM and the Illumina platform...
March 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Alison Holdhus Small, Danila Marini, Maxime le Floch, David Paull, Caroline Lee
Mulesing is a painful husbandry procedure commonly used to reduce the risk of breech strike in sheep. This study assessed the behavioural (over 6 h), cortisol, haptoglobin and haematology responses to surgical mulesing plus tail hot knife docking (mulesing); modulated by a buccal meloxicam formulation (Buccalgesic), a topical local anaesthetic wound dressing (Tri-Solfen) or both agents. 24 lambs were allocated to each of: 1) Placebo and sham handled (Sham); 2) Placebo and mulesing (Mules); 3) Buccalgesic and mulesing (Mules + B); 4) Tri-Solfen and mulesing (Mules + T); 5) Placebo, Tri-Solfen and mulesing (Mules + T + P); 6) Buccalgesic, Tri-Solfen and mulesing (Mules + T + B)...
February 28, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Na Jia, Yuan-Chun Zheng, Jia-Fu Jiang, Rui-Ruo Jiang, Bao-Gui Jiang, Ran Wei, Hong-Bo Liu, Qiu-Bo Huo, Yi Sun, Yan-Li Chu, Hang Fan, Qiao-Cheng Chang, Nan-Nan Yao, Wen-Hui Zhang, Hong Wang, Dong-Hui Guo, Xue Fu, Ya-Wei Wang, Peter J Krause, Ju-Liang Song, Wu-Chun Cao
Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging health problem in China. Methods: Babesia were identified in ticks, sheep, and humans in northeastern China using PCR followed by genetic sequencing. We enrolled residents of Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces between 2015 and 2016 who reported a recent tick bite and experienced a viral like illness after recent tick bite or were healthy residents. We evaluated them for Babesia infection using history; physical examination; and blood smear, PCR, and genetic sequencing...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
O Alejadro Aleuy, Kathreen Ruckstuhl, Eric P Hoberg, Alasdair Veitch, Norman Simmons, Susan J Kutz
Gastrointestinal helminths can have a detrimental effect on the fitness of wild ungulates. Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are ideal for the study of host-parasite interactions due to the comparatively simple ecological interactions and limited confounding factors. We used a unique dataset assembled in the early seventies to study the diversity of gastrointestinal helminths and their effect on fitness indicators of Dall's sheep, Ovis dalli dalli, in the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Parasite diversity included nine species, among which the abomasal nematode Marshallagia marshalli occurred with the highest prevalence and infection intensity...
2018: PloS One
Mustafa M Almuqbel, Gareth Leeper, Ross Keenan, David N Plamer, Tracy R Melzer
OBJECTIVES: To highlight specific instances when radial k-space acquisitions in magnetic resonance imaging result in image artifacts and how to ameliorate such artifacts. METHODS: We acquired axial T2  weighted MR images on (1) the American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom and (2) a sedated sheep with rectilinear and multi-blade radial k-space filling acquisitions. Images were acquired on four (2 × 1.5T and 2 × 3T) different MRI scanners. For the radial k-space acquisitions, we acquired images with and without motion correction...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Annabel Jain Sorby-Adams, Robert Vink, Renee Jade Turner
Acute central nervous system injury, encompassing traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, accounts for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies in animal models have greatly enhanced our understanding of the complex pathophysiology that underlies TBI and stroke and enabled the pre-clinical screening of over 1000 novel therapeutic agents. Despite this, the translation of novel therapeutics from experimental models to clinical therapies has been extremely poor. One potential explanation for this poor clinical translation is the choice of experimental model, given that the majority of pre-clinical TBI and ischemic stroke studies have been conducted in small animals, such as rodents, which have small lissencephalic brains...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Adham M Alifarag, Christopher D Lopez, Rodrigo Neiva, Nick Tovar, Lukasz Witek, Paulo G Coelho
Osseointegration, the direct functional and structural connection between device and bone is influenced by multiple factors such as implant macrogeometry and surgical technique. This study investigated the effects of osseodensification drilling techniques on implant stability and osseointegration using trabecular metal (TM) and tapered-screw vent (TSV) implants in a low-density bone. Six skeletally mature sheep were used where six osteotomy sites were prepared in each of the ilia, (n = 2/technique: regular [R] (subtractive), clockwise [CW], and counterclockwise [CCW])...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Yang Ya, Li Jian-Bing, Liu Hao, Li Shi-Gui, He Zhong, Cai Bin, Li Lin-Han, Cheng Wan-Ting, Yang Yu, Zhou Jie, Li Zhi-Yang, Ren Guang-Hui, Luo Zhi-Hong, Zhou Yi-Biao, Jiang Qing-Wu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures with focus on total removal of cattle and sheep in Juanshan District, Yueyang City. METHODS: The schistosome infection status of human, cattle, sheep and Oncomelania hupensis snails and costs of control measures were gathered during the period of 2006 to 2016. The costs for different periods and cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of schistosome infection in residents in the pilot villages decreased from 3...
December 26, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
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