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Rika Fukumori, Yoji Masuda, Ayaka Takeuchi, Rina Yanai, Khurchabiling Atchalalt, Borjigin Sarentonglaga, Kazuko Ogata, Mio Yamaguchi, Asuka Hara, Akane Sato, Toshihisa Sugino, Yoshikazu Nagao
The aim of this study was to investigate how intra-duodenal infusions of fatty acids (FA) affect appetite-related gut peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in sheep. We hypothesized that these peptides can be highly reactive to unsaturated long-chain FA, because they are well known to decrease DMI. Four ewes were fitted with a duodenal cannula and a jugular vein catheter for a 6-h duodenal infusion of the nine FA (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) and water (control)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
N De Neve, B Vlaeminck, F Gadeyne, E Claeys, P Van der Meeren, V Fievez
Previously, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from linseed oil were effectively protected (>80%) against biohydrogenation through polyphenol-oxidase-mediated protein crosslinking of an emulsion, prepared with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extract from potato tuber peelings. However, until now, emulsions of only 2 wt% oil have been successfully protected, which implies serious limitations both from a research perspective (e.g. in vivo trials) as well as for further upscaling toward practical applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the oil/PPO ratio...
March 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Amir Iftikhar Malik, Muhammad Ijaz, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Avais, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Hassaan Bin Aslam, Amjad Islam Aqib, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Tayyebah Sohail, Awais Ghaffar, Ahmad Ali, Amjad Khan
Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection is an emerging hazard in small ruminants having socio-economic impacts on animals and associated people. The current study was aimed to estimate the sero-prevalence and associated risk factors in sheep and goat from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Three distinct zones (northern, central and southern) with four districts (Mansehra, Abbottabad, Swabi, and Kohat) with a higher population of small ruminants were selected. A total of n = 408 sera originating from sheep (n = 212) and goats (n = 196) were randomly collected for detection of BTV group specific antibodies through competitive ELISA (c-ELISA)...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Peyton W Weems, Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert L Goodman
Work over the last 15 years on the control of pulsatile LH secretion has focused largely on a set of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that contains two stimulatory neuropeptides, critical for fertility in humans (kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB)) and the inhibitory endogenous opioid peptide (EOP), dynorphin, and are now known as KNDy (kisspeptin-NKB-dynorphin) neurons. In this review, we consider the role of each of the KNDy peptides in the generation of GnRH pulses and the negative feedback actions of ovarian steroids, with an emphasis on NKB and dynorphin...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Dania Javaid, Rubina Hanif, Tasnim Rehna
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of intrusive and deliberate rumination on the quality of life of cancer patients. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional design. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: PIMS and NORI Hospital between July to September 2016. METHODOLOGY: A sample of 100 cancer patients participated in the study. The patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were given a written consent form. Event related Rumination Inventory and WHO Quality of Life-Bref scale was used for data collection...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Linda D Cameron, Paul Carroll, W Kyle Hamilton
This phase II trial evaluated psychosocial and health outcomes of an intervention designed to improve emotion regulation skills in adults suffering from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which 92 adults enrolled in the community-based program completed pretest measures, attended either a faith-based or secular version of the 12-week ACE Overcomers program, and then completed posttest measures. The theory-guided program involved group sessions providing education and skills training to improve emotion regulation, self-awareness, resilience, and social functioning...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
S K Abdrakhmanov, S B Tyulegenov, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, I I Sytnik, K K Beisembaev, A A Bainiyazov, A E Munsey, A M Perez, K VanderWaal
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) poses a significant obstacle to international trade and economic development, and for that reason, FMD prevention, control and eradication are major goals guiding animal health policy in most countries. The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective spatiotemporal analysis of FMD outbreaks among livestock in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) from 1955 to 2013. During that time, several FMD control strategies were implemented in RK, which culminated with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recognition of RK as a country that is FMD-free with partial vaccination (2015)...
March 15, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Janna N Vrijsen, Justin Dainer-Best, Sara M Witcraft, Santiago Papini, Paula Hertel, Christopher G Beevers, Eni S Becker, Jasper A J Smits
Memory bias is a risk factor for depression. In two independent studies, the efficacy of one CBM-Memory session on negative memory bias and depressive symptoms was tested in vulnerable samples. We compared positive to neutral (control) CBM-Memory trainings in highly-ruminating individuals (N = 101) and individuals with elevated depressive symptoms (N = 100). In both studies, participants studied positive, neutral, and negative Swahili words paired with their translations. In five study-test blocks, they were then prompted to retrieve either only the positive or neutral translations...
March 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Anusorn Cherdthong, Benjamad Khonkhaeng, Anuthida Seankamsorn, Chanadol Supapong, Metha Wanapat, Nirawan Gunun, Pongsatron Gunun, Pin Chanjula, Sineenart Polyorach
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of feeding fresh cassava root (CR) along with a feed block containing high was to sulfur (FBS) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood thiocyanate concentration in Thai native beef cattle. Four Thai male native beef cattle, initial body weight (BW) of 130 + 20.0 kg, were used in this study. The experiments were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The main factors were supplemented fresh CR levels (1...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Barbara Birk, Alexander Stähle, Mathias Meier, Markus Palm, Dorothee Funk-Weyer, Gerhard Breves, Harald Seulberger
The approving agencies for plant protection agents request xenobiotic metabolism and residue studies in rats, farm animals and plants (e.g. EU regulation 1107/2009) according to OECD guidelines. The specific intestinal physiology of ruminants might lead to specific residues, which should be investigated very carefully. Specific aspects of xenobiotic metabolism in ruminants may arise, which are investigated by performing additional in vivo studies. The aim of the present work is to asses a modified rumen simulation system (RUSITEC) for such studies in vitro...
March 12, 2018: ALTEX
Helen M Golder, Jennifer M Thomson, Stuart E Denman, Chris S McSweeney, Ian J Lean
Dairy heifers were subjected to a non-life-threatening challenge designed to induce ruminal acidosis by feeding grain and sugar. Large among animal variation in clinical signs of acidosis, rumen metabolite concentrations, and the rumen microbiome occurred. This exploratory study investigates sources of the variation by examining associations between the genome, metabolome, and microbiome, albeit with a limited population. The broader objective is to provide a rationale for a larger field study to identify markers for susceptibility to ruminal acidosis...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Guillaume Sallé, Roz Laing, James A Cotton, Kirsty Maitland, Axel Martinelli, Nancy Holroyd, Alan Tracey, Matthew Berriman, W David Smith, George F J Newlands, Eve Hanks, Eileen Devaney, Collette Britton
Some nematode species are economically important parasites of livestock, while others are important human pathogens causing some of the most important neglected tropical diseases. In both humans and animals, anthelmintic drug administration is the main control strategy, but the emergence of drug-resistant worms has stimulated the development of alternative control approaches. Among these, vaccination is considered to be a sustainable and cost effective strategy. Currently, Barbervax® for the ruminant strongylid Haemonchus contortus is the only registered subunit vaccine for a nematode parasite, although a vaccine for the human hookworm Necator americanus is undergoing clinical trials (HOOKVAC consortium)...
March 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Zhongyan Lu, Hong Shen, Zanming Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In animals, the immune and cellular processes of tissue largely depend on the status of local metabolism. However, in the rumen epithelium, how the cellular metabolism affects epithelial immunity, and cellular processes, when the diet is switched from energy-rich to energy-excess status, with regard to animal production and health, have not as yet been reported. METHODS: RNA-seq was applied to compare the biological processes altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 10% to 35% with those altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 35% to 65% (dietary concentrate: the non-grass component in diet, including corn, soya bean meal and additive...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Onalenna Kereilwe, Kiran Pandey, Vitaliano Borromeo, Hiroya Kadokawa
Preantral and small antral follicles may secret anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) to control gonadotrophin secretion from ruminant gonadotrophs. The present study investigated whether the main receptor for AMH, AMH receptor type 2 (AMHR2), is expressed in gonadotrophs of postpubertal heifers to control gonadotrophin secretion. Expression of AMHR2 mRNA was detected in anterior pituitaries (APs) of postpubertal heifers using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. An anti-AMHR2 chicken antibody was developed against the extracellular region near the N-terminus of bovine AMHR2...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kang Zhan, MaoCheng Jiang, Xiaoxiao Gong, GuoQi Zhao
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fibers are utilized by intestinal epithelial cells to provide an energy source for the ruminant. Although the regulation of mRNA expression and inflammatory response involved in SCFAs is established in other animals and tissues, the underlying mechanisms of the inflammatory response by SCFAs in goat jejunum epithelial cells (GJECs) have not been understood. Therefore, the objective of the study is to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the effects of SCFAs on SCFA transporters and inflammatory response in GJECs...
March 12, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Artem S Rogovskyy, Sara Lawhon, Kathryn Kuczmanski, David C Gillis, Jing Wu, Helen Hurley, Yuliya V Rogovska, Kranti Konganti, Ching-Yuan Yang, Kay Duncan
Trueperella pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative infections in animals including humans. Data on phenotypic and genotypic properties of T. pyogenes isolated from ruminants, particularly goats and sheep, are lacking. We characterized, by phenotypic and genotypic means, T. pyogenes of caprine and ovine origin, and established their phylogenetic relationship with isolates from other ruminants. T. pyogenes isolates ( n = 50) from diagnostic specimens of bovine ( n = 25), caprine ( n = 19), and ovine ( n = 6) origin were analyzed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Keiko Yamaguchi, Masaya Ito, Yoshitake Takebayashi
OBJECTIVES: Emotion regulation utilizing positive emotion during negative emotional states might be one of the effective ways to alleviate depression and anxiety problems among people with emotional disorders. This study examined the psychometric properties and incremental validity of the Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS), a newly developed self-report scale, in a sample of university students in Japan. DESIGN AND METHODS: To examine the psychometric properties of the PEIDS, the scale was completed by Japanese university students (396 men and 363 women; mean age of 19...
March 12, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
March 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
M Miyaji, K Nonaka
We evaluated the effects of different methods of conserving the total mixed ration (TMR) and processing hulled rice (Oryza sativa L.) on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and nitrogen utilization in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (126 ± 19 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The experimental diets used fresh TMR and ensiled TMR containing either dry-rolled (DR) hulled rice or steam-flaked (SF) hulled rice...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Laura B Gualdrón-Duarte, Michael S Allen
Absorbed fuels from the digestion of starch include propionic acid (PA) produced by ruminal fermentation and glucose (GLU) from intestinal digestion, which may be partially metabolized to lactic acid (LA) by intestinal tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these fuels on dry matter intake (DMI) and feeding behavior of cows in the postpartum period. We hypothesized that these fuels affect feed intake differently and that their effects are related to differences in their hepatic metabolism. Glucose was expected to have little effect on feed intake because little or no GLU is extracted from the blood by the liver...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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