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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654900/specific-microrna-library-of-ifn-%C3%AF-on-bovine-endometrial-epithelial-cells
#1
Haichong Wu, Tao Zhang, Xiaofei Ma, Kangfeng Jiang, Gan Zhao, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng
IFN-τ is specifically secreted by the conceptus in ruminants during early pregnancy, and it plays a vital role in the immunological function of pregnancy. However, its mechanism involving microRNA (miRNA) is still not well understood. Deep sequencing was used to explore the specific miRNA library of IFN-τ on bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEECs). The results showed that 574 known bovine miRNAs and 109 novel miRNAs were identified. We found 74 differentially expressed miRNAs, including 30 commonly expressed miRNAs in the experiment...
June 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654774/fkbp5-moderation-of-the-relationship-between-childhood-trauma-and-maladaptive-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-adolescents
#2
Thorhildur Halldorsdottir, Ana Paula Soares de Matos, Yvonne Awaloff, Eiríkur Örn Arnarson, W Edward Craighead, Elisabeth B Binder
Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as rumination and catastrophizing, are transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology. FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5) has been found to moderate the relationship between stressful life events and various psychiatric disorders. Given the cross-disorder moderation effect of FKBP5 at the diagnostic level, the aim of the current study was to examine whether the relationship between exposure to childhood trauma and transdiagnostic maladaptive emotion regulation processes would also be moderated by genetic FKBP5 variation in a community sample of adolescents...
June 17, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653795/reduced-energy-density-of-close-up-diets-decrease-ruminal-ph-and-increase-concentration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-postpartum-in-holstein-cows
#3
Wenming Huang, Yujia Tian, Shengli Li, Zhaohai Wu, Zhijun Cao
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NEL /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NEL /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum...
June 27, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652925/effect-of-feeding-garlic-leaves-on-rumen-fermentation-methane-emission-plasma-glucose-kinetics-and-nitrogen-utilization-in-sheep
#4
Arvinda Panthee, Ayana Matsuno, Mohammad Al-Mamun, Hiroaki Sano
BACKGROUND: Garlic and its constituents are reported to have been effective in reducing methane emission and also influence glucose metabolism in body; however, studies in ruminants using garlic leaves are scarce. Garlic leaves contain similar compounds as garlic bulbs, but are discarded in field after garlic bulb harvest. We speculate that feeding garlic leaves might show similar effect as garlic constituents in sheep and could be potential animal feed supplement. Thus, we examined the effect of freeze dried garlic leaves (FDGL) on rumen fermentation, methane emission, plasma glucose kinetics and nitrogen utilization in sheep...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651566/arginine-kinase-from-haemonchus-contortus-decreased-the-proliferation-and-increased-the-apoptosis-of-goat-pbmcs-in-vitro
#5
Muhammad Ehsan, WenXiang Gao, Javaid Ali Gadahi, MingMin Lu, XinChao Liu, YuJian Wang, RuoFeng Yan, LiXin Xu, XiaoKai Song, XiangRui Li
BACKGROUND: Arginine kinase (AK), an important member of phosphagen kinase family has been extensively studied in various vertebrates and invertebrates. Immunologically, AKs are important constituents of different body parts, involved in various biological and cellular functions, and considered as immune-modulator and effector for pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, immunoregulatory changes of host cells triggered by AK protein of Haemonchus contortus, a parasitic nematode of ruminants, are still unknown...
June 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651048/nutritional-and-metabolic-characteristics-of-brassica-carinata-coproducts-from-biofuel-processing-in-dairy-cows
#6
Yajing Ban, Nazir Ahmad Khan, Peiqiang Yu
The increased utilization of Brassica carinata in the biofuel industry in Canada has resulted in the large scale production of coproducts that can be potentially exploited as alternative protein ingredient in dairy ration. The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritive value of carinata presscake and meal for dairy cows in terms of (1) nutrient and anti-nutrient composition; (2) rumen degradation kinetics of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber; (3) hourly effective degradation ratio and potential N to energy synchronization; (4) intestinal digestion of rumen undegraded protein (RUP); and (5) total metabolizable protein (MP) supply to the small intestine...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650188/being-present-focusing-on-the-present-predicts-improvements-in-life-satisfaction-but-not-happiness
#7
Peter Felsman, Philippe Verduyn, Ozlem Ayduk, Ethan Kross
Mindfulness theorists suggest that people spend most of their time focusing on the past or future rather than the present. Despite the prevalence of this assumption, no research that we are aware of has evaluated whether it is true or what the implications of focusing on the present are for subjective well-being. We addressed this issue by using experience sampling to examine how frequently people focus on the present throughout the day over the course of a week and whether focusing on the present predicts improvements in the 2 components of subjective well-being over time-how people feel and how satisfied they are with their lives...
June 26, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649238/clostridium-chauvoei-an-evolutionary-dead-end-pathogen
#8
Lorenz Rychener, Saria InAlbon, Steven P Djordjevic, Piklu R Chowdhury, Rosangela E Ziech, Agueda C de Vargas, Joachim Frey, Laurent Falquet
Full genome sequences of 20 strains of Clostridium chauvoei, the etiological agent of blackleg of cattle and sheep, isolated from four different continents over a period of 64 years (1951-2015) were determined and analyzed. The study reveals that the genome of the species C. chauvoei is highly homogeneous compared to the closely related species C. perfringens, a widespread pathogen that affects human and many animal species. Analysis of the CRISPR locus is sufficient to differentiate most C. chauvoei strains and is the most heterogenous region in the genome, containing in total 187 different spacer elements that are distributed as 30 - 77 copies in the various strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647669/-engage-therapy-prediction-of-change-of-late-life-major-depression
#9
George S Alexopoulos, Robert O'Neil, Samprit Banerjee, Patrick J Raue, Lindsay W Victoria, Jennifer N Bress, Cristina Pollari, Patricia A Arean
OBJECTIVE: Engage grew out of the need for streamlined psychotherapies that can be accurately used by community therapists in late-life depression. Engage was based on the view that dysfunction of reward networks is the principal mechanism mediating depressive symptoms. Accordingly, Engage uses "reward exposure" (exposure to meaningful activities) and assumes that repeated activation of reward networks will normalize these systems. This study examined whether change in a behavioral activation scale, an index of reward system function, predicts change in depressive symptomatology...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647332/longitudinal-relationship-between-fecal-culture-fecal-quantitative-pcr-and-milk-elisa-in-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis-infected-cows-from-low-prevalence-dairy-herds
#10
A Beaver, R W Sweeney, E Hovingh, D R Wolfgang, Y T Gröhn, Y H Schukken
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of ruminant Johne's disease, presents a particular challenge with regard to infection mitigation on dairy farms. Diagnostic testing strategies to identify and quantify MAP and associated antibodies are imperfect, and certain facets of the relationship between diagnostic tests remain to be explored. Additional repeated-measures data from known infected animals are needed to complement the body of cross-sectional research on Johne's disease-testing methods...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642977/molecular-characteristics-and-prevalence-of-small-ruminant-lentiviruses-in-goats-in-japan
#11
Saki Kokawa, Mami Oba, Teppei Hirata, Shiro Tamaki, Miki Omura, Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Makoto Nagai, Tsutomu Omatsu, Tetsuya Mizutani
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), which comprise caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV), are prevalent in goats and sheep worldwide, including in Japan. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of goat lentiviruses in Japan. In this study, a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the long gag region was performed. The phylogenic tree demonstrated that all samples belonged to SRLV subtype B1. Two clusters were identified, with one cluster distinct from previously reported strains of subtype B1...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640745/the-amino-terminal-subdomain-of-glycoprotein-gc-of-schmallenberg-virus-disulfide-bonding-and-structural-determinants-of-neutralization
#12
Gleyder Roman-Sosa, Axel Karger, Franziska Kraatz, Andrea Aebischer, Kerstin Wernike, Pavlo Maksimov, Christopher H Lillig, Ilona Reimann, Emiliana Brocchi, Markus Keller, Martin Beer
Orthobunyaviruses are enveloped viruses that can cause human and animal diseases. A novel and major member is the Schmallenberg virus (SBV), the etiological agent of an emerging disease of ruminants that has been spreading all over Europe since 2011. The glycoproteins Gn and Gc of orthobunyaviruses mediate the viral entry, and specifically Gc is a major target for the humoral immune response. For example, the N terminal subdomain of the SBV glycoprotein Gc is targeted by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize conformational epitopes...
June 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640339/special-metabolites-isolated-from-urochloa-humidicola-poaceae
#13
Débora R DE Oliveira, Delci D Nepomuceno, Rosane N Castro, Raimundo Braz, Mário G DE Carvalho
This study aims to identify special metabolites in polar extracts from Urochloa humidicola (synonym Brachiaria humidicola) that have allelopathic effects and induce secondary photosensitization in ruminants. The compounds were isolated and identified via chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The compounds 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoic acid, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid; the flavonols isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and methyl quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronate; and kaempferitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, and tricin were identified in the extract from the leaves of Urochloa humidicola...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638072/diet-induced-reconstruction-of-mucosal-microbiota-associated-with-alterations-of-epithelium-lectin-expression-and-regulation-in-the-maintenance-of-rumen-homeostasis
#14
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Zanming Shen
It is unknown whether lectins of the rumen epithelium contribute to the recognition of mucosal microbes and activation of tolerogenic cytokines in ruminant animals. We applied an integrated method of RNA-seq and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate alterations of epithelial lectin expression and regulation with a diet-induced reconstruction of the mucosal microbiota in the goat rumen. Our results showed that the diversity and richness of the rumen mucosal microbiota were promoted by the dietary concentrate...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637516/feeding-heat-oxidized-oil-to-dairy-cows-affects-milk-fat-nutritional-quality
#15
M Kaleem, F Enjalbert, Y Farizon, A Meynadier
Heating oil and oilseeds results in oxidation products that affect ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, altering milk fatty acids profile, and could be transferred to milk. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oil heating on rumen and milk fatty acids profile and the transfer of oxidation products to milk. Sunflower oil was heated at 150°C for 15 h and given to lactating dairy cows in a 2×2 arrangement: two groups of two cows, equipped with a ruminal cannula and receiving two diets (containing either heated or unheated oil) during two experimental periods...
June 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637223/millions-of-years-behind-slow-adaptation-of-ruminants-to-grasslands
#16
Olja Toljagic, Kjetil L Voje, Michael Matschiner, Lee Hsiang Liow, Thomas F Hansen
The Late-Cretaceous appearance of grasses, followed by the Cenozoic advancement of grasslands as dominant biomes, has contributed to the evolution of a range of specialized herbivores adapted to new diets, as well as to increasingly open and arid habitats. Many mammals including ruminants, the most diversified ungulate suborder, evolved high-crowned (hypsodont) teeth as an adaptation to tooth-wearing diets and habitats. The impact of different causes of tooth wear is still a matter of debate, and the temporal pattern of hypsodonty evolution in relation to the evolution of grasslands remains unclear...
June 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636835/use-of-bacteriophages-to-control-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-domestic-ruminants-meat-products-and-fruits-and-vegetables
#17
Lili Wang, Kunli Qu, Xiaoyu Li, Zhenhui Cao, Xitao Wang, Zhen Li, Yaxiong Song, Yongping Xu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen that causes severe bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ruminant manure is a primary source of E. coli O157:H7 contaminating the environment and food sources. Therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence of fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle and sheep and the elimination of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of meat products as well as fruits and vegetables are required. Bacteriophages offer the prospect of sustainable alternative approaches against bacterial pathogens with the flexibility of being applied therapeutically or for biological control purposes...
June 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634453/relaxin-family-peptide-receptors-1-and-2-are-fully-functional-in-the-bovine
#18
Yanzhenzi Dai, Richard Ivell, Xuan Liu, Dana Janowski, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
In most mammals the peptide hormone relaxin is a key physiological component regulating early pregnancy and birth. However, synteny analysis shows that the gene encoding ovarian relaxin-2 is deleted in cows and sheep. While, these ruminants appear to exhibit a relaxin-like physiology, as in other mammals, until now a molecular understanding of this has been lacking. Cloning and expression analysis of the cognate bovine receptor for relaxin, RXFP1, as well as of the structurally related receptor, RXFP2, in female tissues, shows that these are expressed in a similar way to other mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632107/linking-attentional-control-and-ptsd-symptom-severity-the-role-of-rumination
#19
Rebecca C Cox, Bunmi O Olatunji
Although deficits in attentional control have been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the mechanism that may account for this association has not been fully elucidated. The present study examined rumination as a mediator of the relationship between attentional control and PTSD symptoms. Veterans with PTSD and trauma-exposed veterans without PTSD completed measures of attentional control, rumination, and PTSD symptom severity. As predicted, the findings showed that veterans with PTSD reported significantly lower levels of attentional control than veterans without PTSD...
March 3, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631053/characterization-of-an-orf-virus-isolate-from-an-outbreak-in-heilongjiang-province-china
#20
Yongzhong Yu, Qiang Tan, Wenbo Zhao, Xue Zhang, Jinzhu Ma, Zhijun Wu, Zhanbo Zhu, Yudong Cui
Contagious ecthyma, caused by orf virus (ORFV), is an epitheliotrophic contagious disease with zoonotic implications that mainly affects sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans. Recently, a novel ORFV strain, OV/HLJ/04, was successfully isolated from the skin and mucosal lesions of a goat with severe clinical sore mouth symptoms in Heilongjiang province of China. The OV/HLJ/04 isolate was characterized by electron microscopy, serological tests, and experimental reproduction of disease. The purified virions exhibited a typical ovoid shape when observed by electron microscopy...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
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