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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453544/predicting-herbivore-faecal-nitrogen-using-a-multispecies-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy-calibration
#1
Miriam Villamuelas, Emmanuel Serrano, Johan Espunyes, Néstor Fernández, Jorge R López-Olvera, Mathieu Garel, João Santos, María Ángeles Parra-Aguado, Maurizio Ramanzin, Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Ignasi Marco, Santiago Lavín, Jordi Bartolomé, Elena Albanell
Optimal management of free-ranging herbivores requires the accurate assessment of an animal's nutritional status. For this purpose 'near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy' (NIRS) is very useful, especially when nutritional assessment is done through faecal indicators such as faecal nitrogen (FN). In order to perform an NIRS calibration, the default protocol recommends starting by generating an initial equation based on at least 50-75 samples from the given species. Although this protocol optimises prediction accuracy, it limits the use of NIRS with rare or endangered species where sample sizes are often small...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449044/vernakalant-does-not-alter-early-repolarization-or-contractility-in-normal-and-electrically-remodelled-atria
#2
Arne van Hunnik, Hussein Nasrallah, Dennis H Lau, Marion Kuiper, Sander Verheule, Ulrich Schotten
Aims: Besides the inhibition of the sodium inward current, vernakalant also inhibits the ultra rapid rectifier (IKur) and transient outward current (Ito). Inhibition of these currents increases contractility in canine atrial myocytes and goat atria. We investigated the effect of vernakalant on early repolarization and contractility in normal and electrically remodelled atria. Methods and results: Goats were implanted a pressure catheter, piezoelectric crystals, and electrodes to obtain atrial contractility and effective refractory period (ERP)...
April 25, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447361/the-effect-of-dietary-chlorella-vulgaris-inclusion-on-goat-s-milk-chemical-composition-fatty-acids-profile-and-enzymes-activities-related-to-oxidation
#3
E Tsiplakou, M A M Abdullah, A Mavrommatis, M Chatzikonstantinou, D Skliros, K Sotirakoglou, E Flemetakis, N E Labrou, G Zervas
The impact of dietary supplementation with microalgae on goat's milk chemical composition, fatty acids (FA) profile and enzymes activities related to antioxidant mechanism has not been well documented. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of Chlorella vulgaris on the following: (i) milk yield, chemical composition and FA profile, (ii) the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood plasma and (iii) the activities of SOD, GR and lactoperoxidase (LPO) in milk of goats...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446002/effects-of-fungal-lentinussajor-caju-treated-oil-palm-frond-on-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-in-finishing-goats
#4
Pin Chanjula, Vasun Petcharat, Anusorn Cherdthong
OBJECTIVE: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fungal treated oil palm fronds (FTOPF) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. METHODS: Eighteen growing crossbred male goats (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) with 18.7±2.0 kg of initial body weight (BW) were stratified and blocked by BW in a randomized complete block design. Three diets containing 30% of oil palm fronds (OPF) either untreated (UOPF) or treated with Lentinussajor-caju (FTOPF) with or without urea (FTOPFU) were used as roughage sources in total mixed rations (TMRs)...
June 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442041/cytokine-gene-expression-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface-after-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-pregnancies-in-small-ruminants
#5
Heloisa M Rutigliano, Amanda Wilhelm, Justin Hall, Bi Shi, Qinggang Meng, Rusty Stott, Thomas D Bunch, Kenneth L White, Christopher J Davies, Irina A Polejaeva
The present retrospective study investigated pregnancy rates, the incidence of pregnancy loss and large offspring syndrome (LOS) and immune-related gene expression of sheep and goat somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) pregnancies. We hypothesised that significantly higher pregnancy losses observed in sheep compared with goat SCNT pregnancies are due to the increased amounts of T-helper 1 cytokines and proinflammatory mediators at the maternal-fetal interface. Sheep and goat SCNT pregnancies were generated using the same procedure...
April 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439100/ventral-striatal-regulation-of-crem-mediates-impulsive-action-and-drug-addiction-vulnerability
#6
M L Miller, Y Ren, H Szutorisz, N A Warren, C Tessereau, G Egervari, A Mlodnicka, M Kapoor, B Chaarani, C V Morris, G Schumann, H Garavan, A M Goate, M J Bannon, J M Halperin, Y L Hurd
Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat model, we demonstrate that impulsive animals are neurochemically and behaviorally more sensitive to heroin and exhibit reduced Crem expression in the nucleus accumbens core...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438095/arcobacter-an-emerging-food-borne-zoonotic-pathogen-its-public-health-concerns-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control-a-comprehensive-review
#7
Thadiyam Puram Ramees, Kuldeep Dhama, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ramswaroop Singh Rathore, Ashok Kumar, Mani Saminathan, Ruchi Tiwari, Yashpal Singh Malik, Raj Kumar Singh
Arcobacter has emerged as an important food-borne zoonotic pathogen, causing sometimes serious infections in humans and animals. Newer species of Arcobacter are being incessantly emerging (presently 25 species have been identified) with novel information on the evolutionary mechanisms and genetic diversity among different Arcobacter species. These have been reported from chickens, domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, dogs), reptiles (lizards, snakes and chelonians), meat (poultry, pork, goat, lamb, beef, rabbit), vegetables and from humans in different countries...
April 25, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437622/sexually-active-bucks-counterbalance-the-seasonal-negative-feedback-of-estradiol-on-lh-in-ovariectomized-goats
#8
A L Muñoz, D Chesneau, H Hernández, M Bedos, G Duarte, J Vielma, L A Zarazaga, P Chemineau, M Keller, J A Delgadillo
We showed previously that the permanent presence of bucks rendered sexually active by photoperiodic treatments, thereafter called photostimulated bucks, prevents the occurrence of seasonal anovulation; also, the introduction of these sexually active bucks induces ovulations during seasonal anestrus. Here, we studied the response of ovariectomized goats bearing 12-mm subcutaneous implants filled or not with estradiol to sexually active males to determine (1) whether the permanent presence of such bucks prevents the decrease of LH despite the presence of a negative feedback by estradiol mimicking that of seasonal anestrus (experiment 1) and (2) whether the introduction of photostimulated bucks increases the plasma LH concentrations in spite of this negative feedback (experiment 2)...
March 31, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434741/dietary-linseed-oil-increases-trans-10-cis-15-18-2-in-caprine-milk-fat
#9
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, M Juárez, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Trans-10,cis-15 18:2 has been recently detected and characterized in digestive contents and meat and adipose tissue of ruminants, but its presence in milk and dairy products is hardly known. The aim of this study was to quantify trans-10,cis-15 18:2 in milk fat, better understand its metabolic origin, and help to elucidate the mechanisms of rumen biohydrogenation when the diet composition might affect ruminal environment. To address these objectives, 16 dairy goats were allocated to 2 simultaneous experiments (2 groups of goats and 2 treatments in each experiment)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434735/effects-of-graded-removal-of-lysine-from-an-intravenously-infused-amino-acid-mixture-on-lactation-performance-and-mammary-amino-acid-metabolism-in-lactating-goats
#10
C L Guo, Y T Li, X Y Lin, M D Hanigan, Z G Yan, Z Y Hu, Q L Hou, F G Jiang, Z H Wang
To investigate responses of milk protein synthesis and mammary AA metabolism to a graded decrease of postruminal Lys supply, 4 lactating goats fitted with jugular vein, mammary vein, and carotid artery catheters and transonic blood flow detectors on the external pudic artery were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Goats were fasted for 24 h and then received a 9-h intravenous infusion of an AA mixture plus glucose. Milk yield was recorded and samples were taken in h 2 to 8 of the infusion period; a mammary biopsy was performed in the last hour...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434420/environmental-sampling-coupled-with-real-time-pcr-and-genotyping-to-investigate-the-source-of-a-q-fever-outbreak-in-a-work-setting
#11
A Hurtado, E Alonso, I Aspiritxaga, I López Etxaniz, B Ocabo, J F Barandika, J I Fernández-Ortiz DE Murúa, F Urbaneja, R Álvarez-Alonso, I Jado, A L García-Pérez
A Q fever outbreak was declared in February 2016 in a company that manufactures hoists and chains and therefore with no apparent occupational-associated risk. Coxiella burnetii infection was diagnosed by serology in eight of the 29 workers of the company; seven of them had fever or flu-like signs and five had pneumonia, one requiring hospitalisation. A further case of C. burnetii pneumonia was diagnosed in a local resident. Real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) showed a widespread distribution of C. burnetii DNA in dust samples collected from the plant facilities, thus confirming the exposure of workers to the infection inside the factory...
April 24, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433738/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-ticks-in-turkey-a-broad-range-tick-surveillance-study
#12
Ömer Orkun, Zafer Karaer, Ayşe Çakmak, Serpil Nalbantoğlu
In Turkey, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) outbreaks started in northern regions in 2002. Human cases still continue to increase and the disease spreads in many other provinces of Turkey. The ecological role of the vector tick species occurring in Turkey is not certain exactly. Therefore, we planned a broad range tick study in three different ecological and geographical areas extending from the West Black Sea regions down to the Central Anatolia. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize CCHFV molecularly in feeding-ticks collected from various wild and domestic animals and from humans as well as in questing and unfed ticks...
April 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433396/lambs-are-susceptible-to-experimental-challenge-with-spanish-goat-encephalitis-virus
#13
L M Salinas, R Casais, J F García Marín, K P Dalton, L J Royo, A Del Cerro, E Gayo, M P Dagleish, R A Juste, A Balseiro
Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, and causes encephalomyelitis in goats. The aim of this study was to determine whether sheep are susceptible to experimental challenge with SGEV by two different routes. The results show that SGEV can infect sheep by both the subcutaneous and intravenous routes, resulting in neurological clinical disease with extensive and severe histological lesions in the central nervous system. Lambs challenged subcutaneously developed more severe lesions on the ipsilateral side of the brain, but the lesion morphology was similar irrespective of the route of challenge...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430087/modification-of-two-capripoxvirus-quantitative-real-time-pcr-assays-to-improve-diagnostic-sensitivity-and-include-beta-actin-as-an-internal-positive-control
#14
Amaresh Das, Ming Y Deng, Shawn Babiuk, Michael T McIntosh
Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429912/growth-patterns-during-the-first-12-months-of-life-post-hoc-analysis-for-south-australian-aboriginal-and-caucasian-infants-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-formula-feeding
#15
Karen Hawke, Jennie Louise, Carmel Collins, Shao J Zhou, Alex Brown, Robert Gibson, Maria Makrides
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To compare growth characteristics of Aboriginal and Caucasian formula-fed in-fants in the first 12 months of life. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We conducted post-hoc data analysis of infants who were part of a previous randomised controlled trial comparing infants randomly assigned to cow or goat milk-based infant formulae. Weight, height, and body composition were assessed at serial time points between study entry (~1-2 weeks of age) and 12 months...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429120/the-influence-of-pump-rotation-speed-on-hemodynamics-and-myocardial-oxygen-metabolism-in-left-ventricular-assist-device-support-with-aortic-valve-regurgitation
#16
Kei Iizuka, Tomohiro Nishinaka, Yoshiaki Takewa, Kenji Yamazaki, Eisuke Tatsumi
Aortic valve regurgitation (AR) is a serious complication under left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. AR causes LVAD-left ventricular (LV) recirculation, which makes it difficult to continue LVAD support. However, the hemodynamics and myocardial oxygen metabolism of LVAD support with AR have not been clarified, especially, how pump rotation speed influences them. An animal model of LVAD with AR was newly developed, and how pump rotation speed influences hemodynamics and myocardial oxygen metabolism was examined in acute animal experiments...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428559/habitat-variability-and-ethnic-diversity-in-northern-tibetan-plateau
#17
Xin Jia, Harry F Lee, Mengchun Cui, Chao Liu, Lin Zeng, Ricci P H Yue, Yang Zhao, Huayu Lu
There are 56 officially-recognized ethnic groups in China. However, the distinct geographic patterns of various ethnic groups in relation to the physical environment in China have rarely been investigated. Based on the geo-referenced physical environmental parameters of 455 Han, Tu, Hui, Salar, Mongolian, and Tibetan communities in Qinghai, we found that the communities could be statistically demarcated by temperature and aridity threshold according to their ethnicity, implying that the geographic distribution of each ethnic group is mediated by the physical environment...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426942/polychlorinated-biphenyl-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-profiles-in-serum-from-cattle-sheep-and-goats-across-california
#18
S Sethi, X Chen, P H Kass, B Puschner
It has been previously been shown by our lab and others that persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are contaminants in milk produced for human consumption. To further this research we determined the concentration of 21 PCB and 14 PBDE congeners in livestock serum, mainly bovine, across California. Congeners were extracted from serum using solid phase extraction (SPE), cleaned up by silica cartridge and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426782/peste-des-petits-ruminants-ppr-a-neglected-tropical-disease-in-maghreb-region-of-north-africa-and-its-threat-to-europe
#19
Ratiba Baazizi, Mana Mahapatra, Brian Donald Clarke, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Djamel Khelef, Satya Parida
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal health (OIE) as being a specific hazard. It affects sheep, goats, and wild ungulates, and is prevalent throughout the developing world particularly Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. PPR has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the OIE, after the successful eradication of the related disease, rinderpest in cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426417/neuropathological-lesions-of-clinical-and-sub-clinical-coenurosis-coenurus-cerebralis-in-organized-goat-farms-in-india
#20
Nayakwadi Shivasharanappa, Nitika Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Rajveer Singh Pawaiya, Beena Vamadevan, Anil Kumar Mishra, Souvik Paul
Clinical and sub clinical cases of Coenurosis due to Coenurus cerebralis in goats were documented based on clinical, post mortem examination, identification of parasitic stages, gross and histopathological lesions in brain of animals died due to abnormal neurological symptoms. The most prominent site of predilection of coenuri cysts in brain was cerebral hemispheres and multiple cysts were found in majority of the cases. Generalized congestion, thinning of brain parenchyma due to pressure atrophy, gliosis, neuronal degeneration, protoscolices in brain parenchyma and inflammatory cell reactions predominantly comprised of lymphocytes and macrophages were prominent neuropathological lesions observed in brain...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
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