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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774508/the-bacterial-and-archaeal-community-structures-and-methanogenic-potential-of-the-cecal-microbiota-of-goats-fed-with-hay-and-high-grain-diets
#1
Wei Jin, Yin Li, Yanfen Cheng, Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu
The cecum plays an important role in the feed fermentation of ruminants. However, information is very limited regarding the cecal microbiota and their methane production. In the present study, the cecal content from twelve local Chinese goats, fed with either a hay diet (0% grain) or a high-grain diet (71.5% grain), were used to investigate the bacterial and archaeal community and their methanogenic potential. Microbial community analysis was determined using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and real-time PCR, and the methanogenesis potential was assessed by in vitro fermentation with ground corn or hay as substrates...
May 17, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773137/microsatellite-pattern-analysis-of-neospora-caninum-from-a-naturally-infected-goat-fetus
#2
Lucía María Campero, María Laura Gos, Dadin Prando Moore, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Juan Manuel Unzaga, Gastón Moré, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, María Cecilia Venturini
Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan responsible for abortion in ruminants. The present study aimed to diagnose an abortion from an Anglo Nubian goat from a dairy herd located in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The goat delivered a fetus of approximately 3 months gestation that was studied by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), Immunoblot (IB), histopathology (HP), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular assays (PCR, sequencing and microsatellite genotyping). Interferon gamma knock-out mice were inoculated with a pool of tissues for isolation attempts...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773127/taeniid-metacestodes-in-rangeland-goats-in-australia
#3
D J Jenkins, B Cowled, V Brookes
Data on several infections of sheep and goats, including parasite infections, are routinely collected during inspection of harvested rangeland goats after slaughter. This is an important role of the Australian National Sheep Health Monitoring Program (NSHMP). Our study investigated the presence of metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena, T. ovis and Echinococcus granulosus in slaughtered goats from Queensland, New South Wales and Western Australia. During the period of the study (2007-2013) 374,580 goats were slaughtered and inspected by trained abattoir meat inspectors as part of the NSHMP...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772827/physicochemical-nutritional-and-organoleptic-characterization-of-a-skimmed-goat-milk-fermented-with-the-probiotic-strain-lactobacillus-plantarum-c4
#4
Miriam Moreno-Montoro, Miguel Navarro-Alarcón, Triana Bergillos-Meca, Rafael Giménez-Martínez, Silvia Sánchez-Hernández, Manuel Olalla-Herrera
The benefits of goat milk, fermented milks, and probiotics for the humans are well documented. In this study, a novel fermented goat milk was manufactured with the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4 together with L. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus . Ultrafiltration was chosen as the skimmed milk concentration method because it produced the best viscosity and syneresis and a high casein content. The viability rate of all bacterial strains was >10⁷ cfu/mL, even after 5 weeks of storage or after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, which is especially important for exertion of the probiotic strain functionalities...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771291/long-noncoding-rnas-exchange-during-zygotic-genome-activation-in-goat
#5
Mingtian Deng, Yongjie Wan, Zifei Liu, Caifang Ren, Guomin Zhang, Jing Pang, Yanli Zhang, Feng Wang
In mammals, their proper development during the early cleavage stages strongly relies on the gene products newly transcribed by zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been characterized as key regulators of the ZGA process in mice and human. However, the ZGA stage has not yet been identified and epigenetic regulations of the ZGA process remain largely unknown in goats. Here, we show that ZGA occurred at the 8-cell stage in goats. During ZGA, tri-methylation of H3K9 was dynamically changed but maintained strong staining in development arrested embryos...
May 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770944/analysis-of-pastoralists-perception-on-challenges-and-opportunities-for-sheep-and-goat-production-in-northern-kenya
#6
Mohamed Haji Abdilatif, Joshua Orungo Onono, Florence Kanini Mutua
Small ruminants' production contributes to livelihood of pastoral communities, but this faces myriad constraints. This study aimed at identifying challenges facing producers of small ruminants, prioritizing diseases and their control measures and documenting opportunities for improvement. Sixteen focus group discussions with livestock owners and 13 key informant interviews were done in selected areas in Mandera County, Northern Kenya, and both quantitative and qualitative data collected using a questionnaire guide...
May 16, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769162/increased-pregnancy-losses-following-serial-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-in-goats
#7
Min Yang, Iuri Perisse, Zhiqiang Fan, Misha Regouski, Mirella Meyer-Ficca, Irina A Polejaeva
Serial cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a critical tool for the expansion of precious transgenic lines or resetting the lifespan of primary transgenic cells for multiple genetic modifications. We successfully produced second-generation cloned goats using donor neonatal fibroblasts from first-generation clones. However, our attempts to produce any third-generation clones failed. SCNT efficiency decreased progressively with the clonal generations. The rate of pregnancy loss was significantly greater in recloning groups (P<0...
May 17, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767729/a-comparative-study-on-the-excretion-of-urinary-metabolites-in-goats-and-sheep-to-evaluate-spot-sampling-applied-to-protein-nutrition-trials
#8
A C S Dos Santos, S A Santos, G G P Carvalho, L D S Mariz, M S L Tosto, S C Valadares Filho, J A G Azevedo
The main objective of this study was to establish a protocol to validate urine spot samples to estimate N excretion and microbial synthesis in goat and sheep; and to study factors that affect daily creatinine and purine derivatives urinary excretion. Also a performance trial was carried out to compare goat and sheep slaughtered after different feedlot periods. Twelve Boer goats (20.6 kg±3.4 initial BW) and twelve Dorper sheep (18.4 kg±2.3 initial BW), all 4-month-old, males, were used. Eight animals (four goats and four sheep) were randomly allocated to be slaughtered at 28, 56 and 84 days in feedlot...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766609/effects-of-colostrum-whey-on-immune-function-in-the-digestive-tract-of-goats
#9
Shoko Matsukawa, Kazutoshi Ueno, Toshihisa Sugino, Yukinori Yoshimura, Naoki Isobe
The objective of the present study is to examine whether colostrum whey can have an effect on immune function in goats digestive tract. Two milliliters of colostrum whey (colostrum group) or water (control group) were administrated orally to goats every day for 3 weeks. Blood was collected twice a week for 3 weeks to measure immunoglobulin A (IgA), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and IL-10. At the end of the experimental period, the parotid glands, oral mucosa, lingua, esophagus, jejunum, and ileum were collected for immunohistochemical detection of IgA, cathelicidin-7, and S100A8...
May 16, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766553/erythema-multiforme-after-orf-virus-infection
#10
Angella López-Cedeño, Gustavo Cañedo, Nicole Knöpfel, Isabel Colmenero, Esperanza Pérez-Pastrana, Antonio Torrelo
The case of a 6-year-old boy with multiple, target-shaped lesions and a crusted nodule on his right index finger is presented. Based on clinical findings and the patient's recent contact with sheep and goats, a diagnosis of orf disease associated with erythema multiforme was suspected. Microscopy studies confirmed the presence of parapoxvirus in the primary lesion. Orf-induced erythema multiforme is a rare complication of orf in children, possibly related to the presence of orf virus DNA in erythema multiforme lesions...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764368/airborne-geographical-dispersal-of-q-fever-from-livestock-holdings-to-human-communities-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-evidence
#11
Nicholas J Clark, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. This bacterium survives harsh conditions and attaches to dust, suggesting environmental dispersal is a risk factor for outbreaks. Spatial epidemiology studies collating evidence on Q fever geographical contamination gradients are needed, as human cases without occupational exposure are increasing worldwide. METHODS: We used a systematic literature search to assess the role of distance from ruminant holdings as a risk factor for human Q fever outbreaks...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763702/immunostimulant-effects-and-potential-application-of-%C3%AE-glucans-derived-from-marine-yeast-debaryomyces-hansenii-in-goat-peripheral-blood-leucocytes
#12
Noé Medina-Córdova, Martha Reyes-Becerril, Felipe Ascencio, Thelma Castellanos, Angel I Campa-Córdova, Carlos Angulo
Debaryomyces hansenii has been described to be effective probiotic and immunostimulatory marine yeast in fish. Nonetheless, to the best of our knowledge, it has been not assayed in ruminants. This study attempts to describe the immunostimulatory effects of its β-glucan content through in vitro assays using goat peripheral blood leukocytes at 24 h of stimulation. The structural characterization of yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759106/stage-specific-feed-intake-restriction-differentially-regulates-placental-traits-and-proteome-of-goats
#13
Qiongxian Yan, Juanzhi Xu, Xiaosong Wu, Dingding Su, Zhiliang Tan
A total of twenty-four healthy twin-bearing Liuyang black goats were allocated to two trials. In Trial 1, twelve goats received either the control diet (CG, n 6, 100 % feed) or restricted diet (RG, n 6, 60 % feed of CG) from gestation days 26 to 65 after synchronisation. In Trial 2, the remaining goats were randomly and equally divided into two treatments: CG and RG from days 95 to 125 of gestation. Placental traits, fetal weight, serum parameters, nitric oxide (NO), angiogenesis gene expression and cotyledon proteome were measured at the end of each trial...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758277/first-genetic-evidence-for-the-presence-of-the-rumen-fluke-paramphistomum-epiclitum-in-pakistan
#14
Qasim Ali, Imran Rashid, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Haroon Akbar, Kashif Shahzad, Kamran Ashraf, Neil Sargison, Umer Chaudhry
More than 70 species of the Superfamily Paramphistomoidea, have been identified in ruminants in different parts of the world. Most are pathogenic, causing amphistomosis. Adult flukes within this family have a predilection for the forestomach (rumen) or bile duct of the liver, where they may cause epithelial damage. Identification of adult Paramphistomum, Calicophoron, Gastrothylax and Fischoederius at the species level based on morphology requires specialised expertise, whereas molecular genetic marker analysis is more precise and transferable...
May 11, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756895/tunable-flexible-and-efficient-optimization-of-control-pulses-for-practical-qubits
#15
Shai Machnes, Elie Assémat, David Tannor, Frank K Wilhelm
Quantum computation places very stringent demands on gate fidelities, and experimental implementations require both the controls and the resultant dynamics to conform to hardware-specific constraints. Superconducting qubits present the additional requirement that pulses must have simple parameterizations, so they can be further calibrated in the experiment, to compensate for uncertainties in system parameters. Other quantum technologies, such as sensing, require extremely high fidelities. We present a novel, conceptually simple and easy-to-implement gradient-based optimal control technique named gradient optimization of analytic controls (GOAT), which satisfies all the above requirements, unlike previous approaches...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754009/dietary-nitrogen-and-calcium-modulate-cyp27b1-expression-in-young-goats
#16
M R Wilkens, K Elfers, M Schmicke, G Breves, A S Muscher-Banse
In livestock, feeding a reduced nitrogen (N) diet is favored for economic and ecological reasons. Ruminants cope more easily with a reduced N diet than monogastric species. However, changes in mineral homeostasis such as a reduction in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2 D3 ) concentrations, calcium (Ca), and IGF1 levels were observed in goats kept on a reduced N diet. The decrease in 1,25-(OH)2 D3 occurred even during a simultaneous reduction in dietary N and Ca, whereas a solitary Ca reduction stimulated 1,25-(OH)2 D3 synthesis...
April 3, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753466/milk-yield-quality-and-coagulation-properties-of-6-breeds-of-goats-environmental-and-individual-variability
#17
Giuseppe M Vacca, Giorgia Stocco, Maria L Dettori, Emanuela Pira, Giovanni Bittante, Michele Pazzola
Goat milk and cheese production is continuously increasing and milk composition and coagulation properties (MCP) are useful tools to predict cheesemaking aptitude. The present study was planned to investigate the extension of lactodynamographic analysis up to 60 min in goat milk, to measure the farm and individual factors, and to investigate differences among 6 goat breeds. Daily milk yield (dMY) was recorded and milk samples collected from 1,272 goats reared in 35 farms. Goats were of 6 different breeds: Saanen and Camosciata delle Alpi for the Alpine type, and Murciano-Granadina, Maltese, Sarda, and Sarda Primitiva for the Mediterranean type...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753261/removal-enactment-of-organo-phosphorous-pesticide-using-bacteria-isolated-from-domestic-sewage
#18
Md Shabbir, Mukesh Singh, Swati Maiti, Sunil Kumar, Samar K Saha
Three bacteria (MS I, II and III) i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KY781886), Enterobactor ludwigii (KX881423) and Enterobacter cloacae (KX881513) isolated from domestic sewage were identified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing and are capable to growth in the presence of organo-phosphorous pesticide (chlorpyrifos). The mega plasmid size >23 kb was found in MS I and III. Biosurfactants of the significant amount were produced by three isolates. The ability of the isolates to degrade pesticide over 3 days in the presence of pesticides containing chlorpyrifos as the active component was estimated...
May 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752476/author-correction-genetic-homogeneity-of-goat-malaria-parasites-in-asia-and-africa-suggests-their-expansion-with-domestic-goat-host
#19
Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Mika Takeda, Tawee Saiwichai, Jesse N Gitaka, Sonthaya Tiawsirisup, Yuhei Imasato, Ehab Mossaad, Ali Sarani, Winai Kaewlamun, Manun Channumsin, Suchart Chaiworakul, Wichit Katepongpun, Surapong Teeveerapunya, Jarus Panthong, Dominic K Mureithi, Saw Bawm, Lat Lat Htun, Mar Mar Win, Ahmed Ali Ismail, Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim, Keisuke Suganuma, Hassan Hakimi, Ryo Nakao, Ken Katakura, Masahito Asada, Osamu Kaneko
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
May 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751096/mir-183-promotes-preadipocyte-differentiation-by-suppressing-smad4-in-goats
#20
Wei Zhao, Hailong Yang, Juntao Li, Yuan Chen, Jiaxue Cao, Tao Zhong, Linjie Wang, Jiazhong Guo, Li Li, Hongping Zhang
As a well-conserved microRNA, miR-183 is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cells including backfat and the 3T3-L1 adipocytes; however, the mechanisms regulating miR-183 in adipogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we explored the expression pattern and role of miR-183 in adipogenesis using hircine preadipocytes. The results showed that miR-183 was up-regulated during preadipocyte differentiation, and overexpression of miR-183 enhanced lipid accumulation and dramatically increased the mRNA expression of the adipogenic genes PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC...
May 8, 2018: Gene
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