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Mei Jin, Ming Cao, Mingxing Chu, Jing'ai Piao, Xu Guo, Fengqin Zhao, Jun Piao
Liaoning cashmere goats are the most precious genetic resources in China. The function of LAMTOR3 [late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and mammalian target of rapamycin activator 3/MAPK scaffold protein 1] gene is expressed in the skin of Liaoning cashmere goats. In situ hybridization (ISH) found that LAMTOR3 is expressed in the inner root sheath (IRS) of hair follicles. During the anagen or catagen phase, the expression of LAMTOR3 is higher in secondary hair follicles than in primary hair follicles...
March 22, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Rohollah Taghadosi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Hesam Alizade, Hossein Hosseini-Nave, Asma Askari, Reza Ghanbarpour
Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the occurrence, serogroups, virulence genes and phylogenetic relationship of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in human, clave and goat in Kerman (southeast of Iran). Background: STEC have emerged as the important foodborne zoonotic pathogens causing human gastrointestinal disease and confirming the risk to public health. Methods: A total of 671 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic patients (n=395) and healthy calves (n=156) and goats (n=120) and screened for the presence of stx gene...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
I K Ragan, A S Davis, D S McVey, J A Richt, R R Rowland, W C Wilson
Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus that infects ruminants including cattle, sheep, goats, camels and buffalo. Multiplexing diagnostic assays that can simultaneously detect antibodies against multiple RVFV antigens offer a high throughput test for disease surveillance and vaccine evaluations. We describe the improvement and evaluation of a previously developed fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against the RVFV glycoproteins (Gn) and the immunogenic nucleocapsid protein (Np)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Qu Chen, Canfeng Hua, Liqiong Niu, Yali Geng, Liuping Cai, Shiyu Tao, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Chronic stress severely threatens the welfare and health of animals and humans. In order to study the effects of chronic stress on metabolism, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to generate the expressed sequence tag dataset for the goat, using nextgeneration sequencing technology. For this study, consecutive dexamethasone (Dex) injection was used in 10 healthy male goats (body weight 25 ± 1.0 kg) to mimic chronic stress. Ten male goats were randomly assigned into two groups, one group was injected intramuscularly with the same volume of saline as control (Con) group, and another (Dex) group was injected intramuscularly with 0...
March 18, 2018: Gene
Anna Lange-Consiglio, Barbara Lazzari, Claudia Perrini, Flavia Pizzi, Alessandra Stella, Fausto Cremonesi, Emanuele Capra
Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) are a recently discovered mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Our previous data show that MVs secreted by equine amniotic mesenchymal-derived cells (AMCs) are involved in downregulation of proinflammatory genes in lipopolysaccharide-stressed equine tendon and endometrial cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether AMC-MVs contain selected microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in inflammation. Two pools of cells, derived from 3 amniotic membranes each, and their respective MVs were collected...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
Oda Benthien, Matthias Braun, Jana C Riemann, Caroline Stolter
Semi-natural dry grassland sites are of great importance for nature conservation because they support high species diversity and the abundance of "Red-List" species. Grazing has proved to be a successful management tool in terms of maintenance and restoration of biodiversity. For a deeper understanding of the effects of different grazers on species biodiversity in dry grasslands, it is necessary to study the long-term effects of major changes in grazing management. In a semi-natural dry grassland habitat, which was formerly grazed by cattle, we investigated the changes in plant species composition due to long term grazing by sheep and goats...
March 2018: Heliyon
D R B Brito, L M Costa-Júnior, J L Garcia, J F J Torres-Acosta, H Louvandini, J A A Cutrim-Júnior, J F M Araújo, E D S Soares
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) cause considerable economic losses in grazing goat herds. At present, GIN control cannot rely on conventional anthelmintic (AH) drugs because parasites have developed resistance against such drugs. Thus, alternative control methods are being sought to reduce the dependence on AH. Many tannin-rich plants exhibit AH activity and may be used as alternatives for GIN control. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a tannin-rich shrub consumed by small ruminants in Brazil. This study evaluated the in vivo AH effect of M...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Grace VanHoy, Michelle Carman, Greg Habing, Jeffrey Lakritz, C Austin Hinds, Andrew Niehaus, Ray M Kaplan, Antoinette E Marsh
Haemonchosis in camelids remains a challenging disease to treat, and prevention has become increasingly problematic due to widespread anthelmintic resistance. Barbervax® is an adjuvanted vaccine containing natural H-11, H-gal-GP antigens obtained from Haemonchus contortus adults via a proprietary process and solubilized in Quil A. This vaccine is approved for use in Australia, after demonstrating its safety and efficacy in sheep and goats. There are no published studies evaluating Barbervax in other ruminants/pseudoruminants such as camelids which can be parasitized with H...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ping Sun, Torsten Wronski, Jean D Bariyanga, Ann Apio
The distribution of gastro-intestinal (GI) parasites across landscapes is closely related to the spatial distribution of hosts. In GI parasites with environmental life stages, the vitality of parasites is also affected by ecological and landscape-related components of the environment. This is particularly relevant for domestic livestock species that are often kept across habitats with varying degrees of degradation, exposing them to a wide range of environmentally robust parasite species. In our study, we examined the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the prevalence and intensity of GI parasites across a free-ranging stock of Ankole cattle in the Mutara rangelands of northeastern Rwanda...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Joshua M Peterson, Carolyn Chlebek, Ashley M Clough, Alexandra K Wells, Kathleen E Batzinger, John M Houston, Katerina Kradinova, Joseph C Glennon, Darryl J DiRisio, Eric H Ledet
STUDY DESIGN: Real time in vivo measurement of forces in the cervical spine of goats following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). OBJECTIVE: To measure interbody forces in the cervical spine during the time course of fusion following ACDF with plates of different stiffnesses. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Following ACDF, the biomechanics of the arthrodesis is largely dictated by the plate. The properties of the plate prescribe the extent of load-sharing through the disc space versus the extent of stress-shielding...
March 19, 2018: Spine
Kun Li, Houqiang Luo, Muhammad Shahzad
Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) is an intracellular bacterium, which causes zoonotic disease called Q-fever. However, scarce information is known about the epidemiology of Q-fever in goats in Hubei province of China. A total of 1157 blood samples were collected from the study area and these were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii by employing a commercial competitive ELISA. The results showed that the overall positive rate of C. burnetii was 4.75% (95% CI: 3.6, 6.1) and in different counties it ranged from 1...
March 20, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Francesca Macchi, José Manuel Rojas, Andrea Elizabeth Verna, Noemí Sevilla, Valentina Franceschi, Giulia Tebaldi, Sandro Cavirani, Verónica Martín, Gaetano Donofrio
Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) is an extremely infective morbillivirus that primarily affects goats and sheep. In underdeveloped countries where livestock are the main economical resource, PPRV causes considerable economic losses. Protective live attenuated vaccines are currently available but they induce antibody responses similar to those produced in PPRV naturally infected animals. Effective vaccines able to distinguish between vaccinated and naturally infected animals are required to PPRV control and eradication programs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Douglas Baird, Andrew Fairbairn, Emma Jenkins, Louise Martin, Caroline Middleton, Jessica Pearson, Eleni Asouti, Yvonne Edwards, Ceren Kabukcu, Gökhan Mustafaoğlu, Nerissa Russell, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Geraldine Jacobsen, Xiaohong Wu, Ambroise Baker, Sarah Elliott
This paper explores the explanations for, and consequences of, the early appearance of food production outside the Fertile Crescent of Southwest Asia, where it originated in the 10th/9th millennia cal BC. We present evidence that cultivation appeared in Central Anatolia through adoption by indigenous foragers in the mid ninth millennium cal BC, but also demonstrate that uptake was not uniform, and that some communities chose to actively disregard cultivation. Adoption of cultivation was accompanied by experimentation with sheep/goat herding in a system of low-level food production that was integrated into foraging practices rather than used to replace them...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lisa Gamsjaeger, Munashe Chigerwe
OBJECTIVE To characterize indications for and clinical outcomes of limb amputation in goats and sheep. DESIGN Retrospective case series and observational study. ANIMALS Goats (n = 15) and sheep (7) that underwent partial or complete limb amputation at the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records of qualifying goats and sheep were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment, use of animal, characteristics of the amputated limb, duration of hospitalization, outcome, and surgery-associated complications...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
R Y Zhang, W Jin, P F Feng, J H Liu, S Y Mao
In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Adam R Chin, Jin Gao, Yadong Wang, Juan M Taboas, Alejandro J Almarza
PURPOSE: Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds have been used for tissue engineering approaches and can be used to regenerate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) tissues. Synthetic acellular polymeric poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) scaffolds and natural scaffolds made from gelatin are polymeric scaffold sponges that could provide a substrate for cell infiltration and remodeling. The authors studied the regenerative potential of these 2 scaffolds in addition to a bioactive signal, magnesium (Mg), in a novel fibrocartilage defect model in the goat mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
G Niero, S Currò, A Costa, M Penasa, M Cassandro, C Boselli, G Giangolini, M De Marchi
Free radicals are reactive and unstable waste scrap molecules produced by cells, responsible of damages and alteration on DNA, proteins, and fat. The daily intake of antioxidant compounds, acting against free radicals and their detrimental effects, is essential for human health. Milk contains several compounds with antioxidant activity, and the sum of their reducing potential blocking free radicals development is defined as total antioxidant activity (TAA). This novel trait has been described in literature both in individual and bulk cow milk, but there are no reports from other dairy species...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Qi Wang, Wei Li, Ruina Liu, Kai Zhang, Haohui Zhang, Shuanliang Fan, Zhenyuan Wang
Human and non-human identification of unknown skeletal remains is of great importance in forensic and anthropologic contexts. However, the traditional morphological methods for bone species identification are subjective or time-consuming. Here, we utilized Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods to determinate the spectral variances between human and non-human (i.e., pig, goat, and cow) bones. To simulate real forensic situations as much as possible, fresh, boiled, and decomposed bones were included in this study...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
S Yurchenko, A Sats, V Tatar, T Kaart, H Mootse, I Jõudu
Recent years have had an increased demand for goat milk and its products. The quality of goat milk is determined, in part, by the fatty acid (FA) profile, but there is little information about breed influence on the FA profile of goat milk. The aim of this study was to describe and compare FA profiles of goat milk produced by Saanen and Swedish Landrace breeds. FA profiles were analysed by gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector using 100 m capillary column coated with ionic liquids of extreme polarity (SLB-IL111)...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Maziar Jajarmi, Mahdi Askari Badouei, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Reza Ghanbarpour, Ali Ahmadi
BACKGROUND: All over the world, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are considered as important zoonotic pathogens. Eight serogroups have the greatest role in the outbreaks and diseases caused by STEC which include O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145 and O157. Ruminants, especially cattle are the main reservoirs but the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of human infections has not been thoroughly assessed in many countries. The objective of this research was to investigate the pathogenic potential of the STEC strains isolated from slaughtered goats...
March 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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