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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917312/first-finding-of-nymphal-stages-of-linguatula-serrata-in-a-south-american-camelid-a-vicu%C3%A3-a-from-peru
#1
Luis A Gomez-Puerta, Joel I Pacheco, José M Angulo-Tisoc, Maria T Lopez-Urbina, Armando E Gonzalez
Linguatula serrata, a pentastomid, was found parasitizing the lungs of a vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) from Cuzco, Peru. A total of 13 larvae were found encysted in the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. All larvae were identified as nymphal stages of L. serrata by morphological methods Diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis amplifying the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene of three nymphs. Nucleotide sequences from the isolates were compared to previous sequences from GenBank, and it showed high similarity between them (>99%)...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884482/histological-characterization-of-umbilical-cord-in-alpaca-vicugna-pacos
#2
L M Barrios-Arpi, J-L Rodríguez Gutiérrez, B Lopez-Torres
The histomorphometric features of umbilical cord constituents in seven foetuses of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) from Cerro de Pasco, Department, Peru, were determined. Sections of 2-5 cm of umbilical cord were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed for light microscopy. Standard histological slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome and Van Gieson's trichrome were obtained. Histologically, common features of umbilical artery and vein were observed as well as mucous connective tissue, some cell features that compound this tissue constituted by cells presented features of myofibroblasts...
September 7, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871254/single-domain-antibodies-as-versatile-affinity-reagents-for-analytical-and-diagnostic-applications
#3
REVIEW
Gualberto Gonzalez-Sapienza, Martín A Rossotti, Sofía Tabares-da Rosa
With just three CDRs in their variable domains, the antigen-binding site of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) has a more limited structural diversity than that of conventional antibodies. Even so, this does not seem to limit their specificity and high affinity as HcAbs against a broad range of structurally diverse antigens have been reported. The recombinant form of their variable domain [nanobody (Nb)] has outstanding properties that make Nbs, not just an alternative option to conventional antibodies, but in many cases, these properties allow them to reach analytical or diagnostic performances that cannot be accomplished with conventional antibodies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871252/development-and-characterization-of-a-camelid-single-domain-antibody-urease-conjugate-that-targets-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-2
#4
Baomin Tian, Wah Yau Wong, Marni D Uger, Pawel Wisniewski, Heman Chao
Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation and is essential for a tumor to grow beyond a certain size. Tumors secrete the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, which acts upon local endothelial cells by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). In this study, we describe the development and characterization of V21-DOS47, an immunoconjugate that targets VEGFR2. V21-DOS47 is composed of a camelid single domain anti-VEGFR2 antibody (V21) and the enzyme urease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871080/genetically-engineered-red-cells-expressing-single-domain-camelid-antibodies-confer-long-term-protection-against-botulinum-neurotoxin
#5
Nai-Jia Huang, Novalia Pishesha, Jean Mukherjee, Sicai Zhang, Rhogerry Deshycka, Valentino Sudaryo, Min Dong, Charles B Shoemaker, Harvey F Lodish
A short half-life in the circulation limits the application of therapeutics such as single-domain antibodies (VHHs). We utilize red blood cells to prolong the circulatory half-life of VHHs. Here we present VHHs against botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) on the surface of red blood cells by expressing chimeric proteins of VHHs with Glycophorin A or Kell. Mice whose red blood cells carry the chimeric proteins exhibit resistance to 10,000 times the lethal dose (LD50) of BoNT/A, and transfusion of these red blood cells into naive mice affords protection for up to 28 days...
September 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855086/hematocrit-of-mammals-artiodactyla-carnivora-primates-at-1500m-and-2100m-altitudes
#6
Jacopo P Mortola, DeeAnn Wilfong
The rise in hematocrit (Hct) is one of the hallmarks of human acclimatization to high altitude and, in chronic conditions, reflects the hypoxia-induced polycythemia. However, it is not a uniform response among domestic species and it is not found in Andean camelids, species long adapted to high altitudes. Hence, we asked to what extent the polycythemia of humans is common among mammals. Hct data were collected from captive mammals of three orders (Primates, Artiodactyla, Carnivora), 70 specimens of 33 species at ∼1500m altitude (barometric pressure Pb=635mmHg) and 296 specimens of 64 species at ∼2100m (Pb=596mmHg), long-term residents at those altitudes...
July 8, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853185/a-camelid-nanobody-against-egfr-was-easily-obtained-through-refolding-of-inclusion-body-expressed-in-escherichia-coli
#7
Li Xu, Xiaoyu Song, Lingyun Jia
Using anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) nanobody is a good choice for diagnoses and therapeutics for high EGFR expression diseases. In the present study, the percentage composition of anti-EGFR nanobody attained 25% of the total cell protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). However, almost all nanobodies were expressed as inclusion bodies. To acquire active nanobodies, a series of dilution refolding procedures were optimized after inclusion bodies were dissolved into 6 M urea and purified with immobilized metal affinity chromatography...
November 7, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830429/molecular-study-on-pasteurella-multocida-and-mannheimia-granulomatis-from-kenyan-camels-camelus-dromedarius
#8
Ilona V Gluecks, Astrid Bethe, Mario Younan, Christa Ewers
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of a Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) like disease causing large mortalities in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Asia and in Africa have been reported since 1890. Yet the aetiology of this condition remains elusive. This study is the first to apply state of the art molecular methods to shed light on the nasopharyngeal carrier state of Pasteurellaceae in camels. The study focused on HS causing Pasteurella multocida capsular types B and E. Other Pasteurellaceae, implicated in common respiratory infections of animals, were also investigated...
August 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820969/a-disulfide-stabilized-human-vl-single-domain-antibody-library-is-a-source-of-soluble-and-highly-thermostable-binders
#9
Kevin A Henry, Hiba Kandalaft, Michael J Lowden, Martin A Rossotti, Henk van Faassen, Greg Hussack, Yves Durocher, Dae Young Kim, Jamshid Tanha
We have previously shown that incorporation of a second intradomain disulfide linkage into camelid VHH and human VH/VL single-domain antibodies confers increased thermostability. Here, we explored the effects of introducing an additional disulfide linkage, formed between Cys48 and Cys64 (Kabat numbering), into a phage-displayed synthetic human VL library. In comparison to an identical library bearing only the highly conserved Cys23-Cys88 disulfide linkage, the disulfide-stabilized VL library tolerated a similar degree of randomization but retained a higher level of functional diversity after selection with protein L...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820371/serologic-evidence-for-influenza-c-and-d-virus-among-ruminants-and-camelids-africa-1991-2015
#10
Elias Salem, Elizabeth A J Cook, Hicham Ait Lbacha, Justine Oliva, Félix Awoume, Gilbert L Aplogan, Emmanuel Couacy Hymann, Dishon Muloi, Sharon L Deem, Said Alali, Zaid Zouagui, Eric M Fèvre, Gilles Meyer, Mariette F Ducatez
Influenza D virus has been identified in America, Europe, and Asia. We detected influenza D virus antibodies in cattle and small ruminants from North (Morocco) and West (Togo and Benin) Africa. Dromedary camels in Kenya harbored influenza C or D virus antibodies, indicating a potential new host for these viruses.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807317/validation-of-the-famacha%C3%A2-system-in-south-american-camelids
#11
Bobby E Storey, Lisa H Williamson, Sue B Howell, Thomas H Terrill, Roy Berghaus, Anand N Vidyashankar, Ray M Kaplan
Haemonchus contortus resistant to multiple anthelmintics threaten the viability of the small ruminant industry in areas where this parasite is prevalent. In response to this situation, the FAMACHA© system was developed and validated for use with small ruminants as a way to detect clinical anemia associated with haemonchosis. Given that H. contortus and multiple anthelmintic resistance is a similar problem in camelids, the FAMACHA© system might also provide the same benefits. To address this need, a validation study of the FAMACHA© system was conducted on 21 alpaca and llama farms over a 2-year period...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796912/nanobody-mediated-resistance-to-grapevine-fanleaf-virus-in-plants
#12
Caroline Hemmer, Samia Djennane, Léa Ackerer, Kamal Hleibieh, Aurélie Marmonier, Sophie Gersch, Shahinez Garcia, Emmanuelle Vigne, Véronique Komar, Mireille Perrin, Claude Gertz, Lorène Belval, François Berthold, Baptiste Monsion, Corinne Schmitt-Keichinger, Olivier Lemaire, Bernard Lorber, Carlos Gutiérrez, Serge Muyldermans, Gérard Demangeat, Christophe Ritzenthaler
Since their discovery, single-domain antigen-binding fragments of camelid-derived heavy chain-only antibodies, also known as Nanobodies (Nbs), have proven to be of outstanding interest as therapeutics against human diseases and pathogens including viruses, but their use against phytopathogens remains limited. Many plant viruses including Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a nematode-transmitted icosahedral virus and causal agent of fanleaf degenerative disease, have worldwide distribution and huge burden on crop yields representing billions of US dollars of losses annually, yet solutions to combat these viruses are often limited or inefficient...
August 10, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791022/enhancing-stability-of-camelid-and-shark-single-domain-antibodies-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Ellen R Goldman, Jinny L Liu, Dan Zabetakis, George P Anderson
Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) are gaining a reputation as superior recognition elements as they combine the advantages of the specificity and affinity found in conventional antibodies with high stability and solubility. Melting temperatures (Tms) of sdAbs cover a wide range from below 50 to over 80°C. Many sdAbs have been engineered to increase their Tm, making them stable until exposed to extreme temperatures. SdAbs derived from the variable heavy chains of camelid and shark heavy chain-only antibodies are termed VHH and VNAR, respectively, and generally exhibit some ability to refold and bind antigen after heat denaturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772027/escherichia-coli-surface-display-for-the-selection-of-nanobodies
#14
REVIEW
Valencio Salema, Luis Ángel Fernández
Nanobodies (Nbs) are the smallest functional antibody fragments known in nature and have multiple applications in biomedicine or environmental monitoring. Nbs are derived from the variable segment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies, known as VHH. For selection, libraries of VHH gene segments from naïve, immunized animals or of synthetic origin have been traditionally cloned in E. coli phage display or yeast display systems, and clones binding the target antigen recovered, usually from plastic surfaces with the immobilized antigen (phage display) or using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS; yeast display)...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754949/cell-permeable-nanobodies-for-targeted-immunolabelling-and-antigen-manipulation-in-living-cells
#15
Henry D Herce, Dominik Schumacher, Anselm F L Schneider, Anne K Ludwig, Florian A Mann, Marion Fillies, Marc-André Kasper, Stefan Reinke, Eberhard Krause, Heinrich Leonhardt, M Cristina Cardoso, Christian P R Hackenberger
Functional antibody delivery in living cells would enable the labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens, which constitutes a long-thought goal in cell biology and medicine. Here we present a modular strategy to create functional cell-permeable nanobodies capable of targeted labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens in living cells. The cell-permeable nanobodies are formed by the site-specific attachment of intracellularly stable (or cleavable) cyclic arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides to camelid-derived single-chain VHH antibody fragments...
August 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754739/rumen-fluke-in-south-american-camelids-in-great-britain
#16
Michael Millar, Aiden Foster, Gillian Mitchell, Philip Skuce, Julie Wessels, Velo-Rego Elena, Collins Rachael, Stevenson Heather
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 29, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751451/131i-labeled-anti-her2-camelid-sdab-as-a-theranostic-tool-in-cancer-treatment
#17
Matthias D'Huyvetter, Jens De Vos, Catarina Xavier, Marek Pruszynski, Yann G J Sterckx, Sam Massa, Geert Raes, Vicky Caveliers, Michael Zalutsky, Tony Lahoutte, Nick Devoogdt
<p>Camelid single-domain antibody-fragments (sdAbs) have beneficial pharmacokinetic properties, and those targeted to HER2 can be used for imaging of HER2-overexpressing cancer. Labeled with a therapeutic radionuclide, they may be used for HER2-targeted therapy. Here we describe the generation of a (131)I-labeled sdAb as a theranostic drug to treat HER2-overexpressing cancer.</p> <br />Experimental Design: <p>Anti-HER2 sdAb 2Rs15d was labeled with (131)I using [(131)I]SGMIB and evaluated in vitro Biodistribution was evaluated in two HER2(+) murine xenograft models by micro-SPECT/CT imaging and at necropsy, and under challenge with trastuzumab and pertuzumab...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731219/daylight-effect-on-melatonin-secretion-in-adult-female-guanacos-lama-guanicoe
#18
J L Riveros, L M Correa, G Schuler
The wild South American camelids developed a strategy of seasonal reproduction during spring and summer with singleton birth. The photoperiod is one of the factors that may modulate this seasonality where light would be translated into a hormonal signal. This study evaluated the influence of changes in daily light intensity on melatonin concentration in captive guanacos under a long-day photoperiod (16 hr light/8 hr dark; 33 '28'S). Mean melatonin concentration was 28.3 ± 20.3 pg/ml, with a maximum of 52...
July 21, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725224/nanobody-technology-a-versatile-toolkit-for-microscopic-imaging-protein-protein-interaction-analysis-and-protein-function-exploration
#19
REVIEW
Els Beghein, Jan Gettemans
Over the last two decades, nanobodies or single-domain antibodies have found their way in research, diagnostics, and therapy. These antigen-binding fragments, derived from Camelid heavy chain only antibodies, possess remarkable characteristics that favor their use over conventional antibodies or fragments thereof, in selected areas of research. In this review, we assess the current status of nanobodies as research tools in diverse aspects of fundamental research. We discuss the use of nanobodies as detection reagents in fluorescence microscopy and focus on recent advances in super-resolution microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725057/efficient-generation-of-single-domain-antibodies-with-high-affinities-and-enhanced-thermal-stabilities
#20
Naoya Shinozaki, Ryuji Hashimoto, Kiichi Fukui, Susumu Uchiyama
Single domain antibodies (sdAbs), made of natural single variable regions of camelid or cartilaginous fish antibodies, or unpaired variable regions of mouse or human IgGs, are some of the more promising biologic modalities. However, such conventional sdAbs have difficulties of either using unwieldy animals for immunization or having high affinity deficiencies. Herein, we offer a versatile method to generate rabbit variable domain of heavy chain (rVH) derived sdAbs with high affinities (K D values of single digit nM or less) and enhanced thermal stabilities (equal to or even higher than those of camelid derived sdAbs)...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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