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Lucas Ferguson, Kaijian Luo, Alicia K Olivier, Fred L Cunningham, Sherry Blackmon, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Hailiang Sun, John Baroch, Mark W Lutman, Bianca Quade, William Epperson, Richard Webby, Thomas J DeLiberto, Xiu-Feng Wan
Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Daniela E Barraza, Renato Zampini, Silvana A Apichela, Joel I Pacheco, Martin E Argañaraz
South American Camelids (SAC) have unique reproductive features, one of which is that 98% of the pregnancies develop in the left uterine horn. Furthermore, early pregnancy is an uncharacterized process in these species, especially in regard to the ultrastructural, biochemical and genetic changes that the uterine epithelial surface undergoes to allow embryo implantation. The present study describes the uterine horn luminal surface and the characteristics of the mucinous glycocalyx in non-pregnant and early pregnant (15 days) female alpacas...
May 14, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Ralph Kobera, Henrik Wagner
Bone sequestration is relatively unknown in New-world camelids in Germany and is frequently wrongly addressed as neoplasia by veterinary practitioners. This clinical case report describes diagnosis and treatment for bone sequestration in alpacas based on 12 cases. The main symptom of the presented alpacas was moderate to severe lameness in one limb. Some of the patients had been treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by the referring veterinarian. In eight alpacas, palpation of the swelling in the affected leg was painful and in five animals, exudation was observed...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Christina Torres-Rouff, Mark Hubbe, William J Pestle
OBJECTIVES: In this article, we present analyses of traumatic injury data from the Middle Period Coyo Oriental cemetery in northern Chile. We test a series of hypotheses about the role of sex, foreign contact, ritual access, and temporal shifts, in the patterning of cranial trauma in this cemetery. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-seven crania from Coyo Oriental were analyzed using standard bioarcheological methods to determine sex and age as well as the presence of cranial fractures...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Neja Samec, Ivana Jovcevska, Jure Stojan, Alja Zottel, Mirjana Liovic, Michael P Myers, Serge Muyldermans, Jernej Šribar, Igor Križaj, Radovan Komel
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of brain tumor. The prognosis for patients remains poor, despite the combination of new preoperative and intraoperative neuroimaging, radical surgery, and recent advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To improve GBM therapy and patient outcome, sustained drug delivery to glioma cells is needed, while minimizing toxicity to adjacent neurons and glia cells. This might be achieved through an anti-proteomic approach based on nanobodies, the single-domain antigen-binding fragments of heavy-chain antibodies of the camelid adaptive immune system...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056222.].
2018: PloS One
Michael R Pranzatelli
The concept and recognized components of "neuroinflammation" are expanding at the intersection of neurobiology and immunobiology. Chemokines (CKs), no longer merely necessary for immune cell trafficking and positioning, have multiple physiologic, developmental, and modulatory functionalities in the central nervous system (CNS) through neuron-glia interactions and other mechanisms affecting neurotransmission. They issue the "help me" cry of neurons and astrocytes in response to CNS injury, engaging invading lymphoid cells (T cells and B cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils) (adaptive immunity), as well as microglia and macrophages (innate immunity), in a cascade of events, some beneficial (reparative), others destructive (excitotoxic)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
J P Dubey
Camelids (llama, alpaca, vicunãs, guanacos) are important for the economy of South America and Eimeria infections are an important cause of mortality in camelids. Of the six species of Eimeria in camelids, Eimeria macusaniensis, considered the most pathogenic, is distinctive; its oocysts are the largest among all Eimeria species in animals, its prepatent period is more than 1 month, and its oocysts have been found in mummies from prehistoric times. Although, E. macusaniensis gametogonic stages are found associated with enteritis in naturally infected camelids, the schizogonic stages are unknown and clinical disease has been reported in some camelids with no oocysts in feces...
April 12, 2018: Parasitology
Giovanna Liguori, Alessandra Pelagalli, Loredana Assisi, Caterina Squillacioti, Anna Costagliola, Nicola Mirabella
The steroidogenic enzyme P450 aromatase (ARO) has a key role in the conversion of testosterone (T) into estrogens (E), expressed as 17β-estradiol. The presence and localization of this key enzyme have not been described before in the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos). In our previous studies of the expression and biological effects of orexin A (OxA) and OxB on the alpaca testis demonstrated that OxA, via its specific receptor 1 (OX1R), stimulated T synthesis. In order to extend these findings, we presently explored the presence and localization of ARO in the alpaca male gonad, and the possible correlation between ARO and the orexinergic complex...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Alfredo Pauciullo, Danlami Moses Ogah, Marco Iannaccone, Georg Erhardt, Liliana Di Stasio, Gianfranco Cosenza
Oxytocin is a neurohypophysial peptide linked to a wide range of biological functions, including milk ejection, temperament and reproduction. Aims of the present study were a) the characterization of the OXT (Oxytocin-neurophysin I) gene and its regulatory regions in Old and New world camelids; b) the investigation of the genetic diversity and the discovery of markers potentially affecting the gene regulation. On average, the gene extends over 814 bp, ranging between 825 bp in dromedary, 811 bp in Bactrian and 810 bp in llama and alpaca...
2018: PloS One
Marcos B Luiz, Soraya S Pereira, Nidiane D R Prado, Naan R Gonçalves, Anderson M Kayano, Leandro S Moreira-Dill, Juliana C Sobrinho, Fernando B Zanchi, André L Fuly, Cleberson F Fernandes, Juliana P Zuliani, Andreimar M Soares, Rodrigo G Stabeli, Carla F C Fernandes
Toxic effects triggered by crotalic envenoming are mainly related to crotoxin (CTX), composed of a phospholipase A₂ (CB) and a subunit with no toxic activity (CA). Camelids produce immunoglobulins G devoid of light chains, in which the antigen recognition domain is called VHH. Given their unique characteristics, VHHs were selected using Phage Display against CTX from Crotalus durissus terrificus . After three rounds of biopanning, four sequence profiles for CB (KF498602, KF498603, KF498604, and KF498605) and one for CA (KF498606) were revealed...
March 29, 2018: Toxins
Catelijne Stortelers, Carolina Pinto-Espinoza, Diane Van Hoorick, Friedrich Koch-Nolte
Immune cells express various voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the influx and efflux of charged ions across the plasma membrane, thereby controlling the membrane potential and mediating intracellular signal transduction pathways. These channels thus present potential targets for experimental modulation of immune responses and for therapeutic interventions in immune disease. Small molecule drugs and natural toxins acting on ion channels have illustrated the potential therapeutic benefit of targeting ion channels on immune cells...
March 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Ahmet Krasniqi, Magdalena Bialkowska, Catarina Xavier, Kevin Van der Jeught, Serge Muyldermans, Nick Devoogdt, Matthias D'Huyvetter
Single-domain antibody fragments (sdAbs) are the smallest functional antigen-binding fragments, derived from heavy chain-only camelid antibodies. When designed as radiolabeled monomeric probes for imaging and therapy of cancer, their fast and specific targeting results in high tumor-to-background ratios early after injection. However, their moderate absolute uptake into tumors might not always be sufficient to treat cancerous lesions. We have evaluated the pharmacokinetics of seven constructs derived from a CD20-targeting monomeric sdAb (αCD20)...
March 21, 2018: New Biotechnology
Julian A Skidmore, Clara M Malo, Elizabeth G Crichton, Jane M Morrell, Budhan S Pukazhenthi
Artificial insemination (AI) in domestic animals is an important tool to maximise the use of genetically superior males and thereby insure rapid genetic progress. However, the application of AI in camelids has been hindered by the difficulties involved in collecting, as well as handling the semen due to the viscous nature of the seminal plasma. This review describes the challenges of semen collection and discusses the role of seminal plasma as well as the reasons for the viscosity and how to liquefy it so that ejaculates can be more accurately evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Laura S Mitchell, Lucy J Colwell
Nanobodies are a class of antigen-binding protein derived from camelids that achieve comparable binding affinities and specificities to classical antibodies, despite comprising only a single 15 kDa variable domain. Their reduced size makes them an exciting target molecule with which we can explore the molecular code that underpins binding specificity - how is such high specificity achieved? Here we use a novel dataset of 90 non-redundant, protein-binding nanobodies with antigen-bound crystal structures to address this question...
March 22, 2018: Proteins
Renato Zampini, Luciana M Sari, Martin E Argañaraz, Fernanda G Fumuso, Daniela E Barraza, María I Carretero, Silvana A Apichela
Ovulation of South American Camelids is induced by mating. After copulation, sperm are stored into the oviduct to be released near ovulation time. To study whether copulation induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) secretion in the oviduct, the occurrence of MMP2 in oviductal tissue and oviductal fluid (OF) from 24 h post-mated was compared with non-mated llama females. There was an incremental increase of MMP2 in the oviductal epithelial cells, and MMP2 activity in OF after copulation. Additionally, MMP2 activator (MMP14), inducer (EMMPRIN) and inhibitor (TIMP2) were present in the oviductal epithelial cells of both non-mated and post-mated females...
March 15, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Anc Castro, M C Díaz, G J Mendoza-Torres, C A Llerena-Zavala, M D Ghezzi, C G Barbeito
The breeding of South American camelids is the main economic activity of the high Andean region of South America and it, is potentially, the most profitable resource in of the Puna environmental conditions of the Puna. The duration of the gestation in alpaca is 339.7 ± 12 days. The objective of the present work was to macroscopically and microscopically describe the ontogenic development of the splanchnic cavities of the alpaca and to determine the gestational time in which the post-cranial ossification centers are observed in the embryos/fetuses of this species, from day 21 to 107 of gestation...
March 22, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Grace VanHoy, Michelle Carman, Greg Habing, Jeffrey Lakritz, C Austin Hinds, Andrew Niehaus, Ray M Kaplan, Antoinette E Marsh
Haemonchosis in camelids remains a challenging disease to treat, and prevention has become increasingly problematic due to widespread anthelmintic resistance. Barbervax® is an adjuvanted vaccine containing natural H-11, H-gal-GP antigens obtained from Haemonchus contortus adults via a proprietary process and solubilized in Quil A. This vaccine is approved for use in Australia, after demonstrating its safety and efficacy in sheep and goats. There are no published studies evaluating Barbervax in other ruminants/pseudoruminants such as camelids which can be parasitized with H...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Fatemeh Faraji, Nader Tajik, Mahdi Behdani, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Fatemeh Shahhosseini, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi
CD22 is a B-cell-specific trans-membrane glycoprotein which is found on the surface of the most B-cells and modulates their function, survival, and apoptosis. Recently, targeting this cell surface biomarker in B-cell malignancies and disorders has attracted a lot of attention. The variable domain of camelid single chain antibodies (VHH, Nanobody) is a form of antibodies with novel properties including small size (15-17 kDa), thermal and chemical stability, high affinity and homology to human antibody sequences...
March 15, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Almut Prkno, Matthias Kaiser, Daniela Goerigk, Martin Pfeffer, Thomas W Vahlenkamp, Donata Hoffmann, Martin Beer, Alexander Starke
Cowpox virus (CPXV) infection is a reportable and potentially zoonotic disease that occurs sporadically in a variety of animals. During the past six decades, CPXV infection has been extensively researched and described in both domestic (cat, dog, horse, cattle) and zoo animals (e. g. elephant, rhinoceros, okapi). Of note, a review of the literature produced only three reports of CPXV in individual or small groups of South American camelids. The goal of this review was to describe the current knowledge as it relates to clinical features of CPXV infection in South American camelids and to compare the clinical manifestations with those described in other animal species...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
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