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Scintillating scotoma

Devon E Hinton, Ria Reis, Joop de Jong
This article profiles visual auras among traumatized Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic. Thirty-six percent (54/150) had experienced an aura in the previous 4 weeks, almost always phosphenes (48% [26/54]) or a scintillating scotoma (74% [40/54]). Aura and PTSD were highly associated: patients with visual aura in the last month had greater PTSD severity, 3.6 (SD = 1.8) versus 1.9 (SD = 1.6), t = 10.2 (df = 85), p < 0.001, and patients with PTSD had a higher rate of visual aura in the last month, 69% (22/32) versus 13% (7/55), odds ratio 15...
October 10, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Devon E Hinton, David H Barlow, Ria Reis, Joop de Jong
We present a general model of why "thinking a lot" is a key presentation of distress in many cultures and examine how "thinking a lot" plays out in the Cambodian cultural context. We argue that the complaint of "thinking a lot" indicates the presence of a certain causal network of psychopathology that is found across cultures, but that this causal network is localized in profound ways. We show, using a Cambodian example, that examining "thinking a lot" in a cultural context is a key way of investigating the local bio-cultural ontology of psychopathology...
December 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Jithin Yohannan, Henry Jampel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Ophthalmology
Masayuki Kanamori, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Hidehiro Takei, Yukihiko Sonoda, Hiroshi Uenohara, Teiji Tominaga
A 29-year-old man presented with scintillation scotoma. MR imaging demonstrated a diffuse lesion in right parahippocampal gyrus. He underwent a biopsy, and the diagnosis was diffuse astrocytoma. Because of enlargement and new areas of gadolinium enhancement, the tumor was resected 18 months after biopsy. Histological examination revealed malignant transformation to glioblastoma with small areas of epithelioid component. He received radiation and temozolomide chemotherapy. Local recurrence was found 20 months after first resection...
January 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
Gary C Brown, Melissa M Brown, David H Fischer
PURPOSE: To assess the character and cause of photopsias in vitreoretinal patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 169 consecutive patients (217 eyes) with vitreoretinal disease presenting with a history of photopsias. METHODS: A total of 217 eyes with photopsias in 169 patients were evaluated. Photopsia assessment included (1) laterality (unilateral, bilateral but not simultaneous, bilateral, and simultaneous); (2) morphology (flash, zig-zag, strobe, scintillating scotoma, twinkling, other); (3) color (white, silver, yellow, combination, other); (4) location (temporal, central, other); (5) duration (quick, prolonged, constant, other); (6) frequency; (7) diurnal appearance (day, night, both); (8) stimuli (turning head or eyes, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, other); and (9) associated systemic or ocular signs and symptoms (headache, numbness, weakness, vertigo, syncope, diplopia, hypotension, floaters, other)...
October 2015: Ophthalmology
Xiao-Lei Zhang, C William Shuttleworth, Joseph R Moskal, Patric K Stanton
Cortical spreading depolarization (SD) is a slow self-propagating wave of mass cellular depolarization in brain tissue, thought to be the underlying cause of migraine scintillating scotoma and aura, and associated with stroke, traumatic brain injury, and termination of status epilepticus. The N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor (NMDAR), which gates influx of calcium and is an important trigger of long-term synaptic plasticity, is also a contributor to the initiation and propagation of SD. The current study tested the potential of pharmacological modulation of NMDAR activity through the obligatory co-agonist binding site, to suppress the initiation of SD, and modulate the effects of SD on dendritic spine morphology, in in vitro hippocampal slices...
November 2015: Experimental Neurology
Igor Petrusic, Vera Pavlovski, Dragana Vucinic, Jasna Jancic
BACKGROUND: Complex migraine aura in teenagers can be complicated to diagnose. The aim of this study was to present detailed features of migraine aura in teenage migraineurs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the period from 2008 till 2013. A total number of 40 teenage migraineurs (20 females and 20 males) met criteria for this study. The patients were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire for collecting data about migraine aura features...
2014: Journal of Headache and Pain
Bruno Salvati, Maria Chiara Tesori, Federica Lombardo, Claudia Donello, Karen Jeanette Lange, Raffaele Capoano
BACKGROUND: Cervical carotid dissection is more common in extracranical vessel: internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is typical, vertebral artery dissection is uncommon, common carotid artery dissection (CCAD) is rare and even a more rare cause of ischemic stroke. Cervical artery dissections account up to 20-25% of ischemic strokes in young patients. Isolated and spontaneous common carotid artery dissection without aortic damage is unique. Indeed in the Literature 8 cases were identified...
September 18, 2014: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Yilong Cui, Yosky Kataoka, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
A migraine is a recurring neurological disorder characterized by unilateral, intense, and pulsatile headaches. In one-third of migraine patients, the attacks are preceded by a visual aura, such as a slowly-propagating scintillating scotoma. Migraine aura is thought to be a result of the neurovascular phenomenon of cortical spreading depression (SD), a self-propagating wave of depolarization that spreads across the cerebral cortex. Several animal experiments have demonstrated that cortical SD causes intracranial neurogenic inflammation around the meningeal blood vessels, such as plasma protein extravasation and pro-inflammatory peptide release...
October 2014: Neuroscience Bulletin
José Barros, Joana Damásio, Assunção Tuna, José Pereira-Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Since the mid-19th century, epistaxis and migraine have been occasionally associated with each other. Nevertheless, we found only two cases in the contemporary medical literature. Sporadic hemiplegic migraine is a subtype of migraine with reversible motor deficits, without similar episodes in relatives. CASE: We describe a 47-year-old male with a history of migraine with a scintillating scotoma starting at the age of 20. In some of the episodes, he developed epistaxis in the resolution phase of migraine...
May 2012: Case Reports in Neurology
A Fieß, I Frisch, S Wicht, P Hofstetter, M Knuf, J Gosepath, S Scheil-Bertram, U H Steinhorst
This article reports the case of a 14-year-old boy who was presented in the case conference with symptoms of decreased visual acuity, scintillating scotomas and photophobia. Physical examination revealed right facial paralysis, parotid gland swelling, high fever and poor general condition. Ophthalmoscopy revealed anterior and posterior uveitis including macular edema and chorioretinal infiltrates. Angiography revealed a dense pattern of hyperfluorescent lesions and these observations resulted in the diagnosis of Heerfordt syndrome...
August 2012: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Junkoh Yamamoto, Mayu Takahashi, Yoshiteru Nakano, Yoshiteru Soejima, Takeshi Saito, Daisuke Akiba, Junko Hirato, Yoichi Nakazato, Shigeru Nishizawa
We report a very unusual case of a composite high-grade glioma and rhabdoid tumor in an adult. A 22-year-old woman presented with scintillating scotoma due to a solid tumor with surrounding brain edema in the right occipital lobe. The tumor was grossly resected. Histological examinations showed that the tumor was mainly composed of INI1-positive high-grade glioma tissue containing an INI1-negative rhabdoid component. She received radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Three months after the surgery, she again complained of visual disturbances, and tumor recurrence within the resection cavity was noted...
April 2012: Brain Tumor Pathology
Esther Lardreau
Until the second half of the eighteenth century, the very definition of migraine as hemicrania (pain felt in one side of the head) eclipsed symptoms that were then considered as "marginal", although tingling sensations, speech impairment and visual impairment had already been described by Piso and Wepfer. The possibility of a migraine without a headache nevertheless started to be envisaged, inviting one to re-evaluate the status of these phenomena. But, as paradoxical as it may seem, it is in the field of astronomy that some of these phenomena such as visual aberrations were analyzed systematically and acknowledged to be migrainous...
June 2011: Vesalius: Acta Internationales Historiae Medicinae
Mithu Storoni, David H Hubel
We compared the appearance of a line passing through the optic-disc blind spot with that of lines passing just medial or just lateral to the blind spot. Though there is no well-defined gap in the line, we see a consistent difference, which is hard to describe. On the other hand, during a migraine aura experienced by one of us, lines passing through scintillating scotomas showed clear sharply defined gaps.
2011: Perception
Lesli E Skolarus, Joseph J Gemmete, Tiffany Braley, Lewis B Morgenstern, Aditya Pandey
BACKGROUND: Polyglycolic-polylactic acid (PGLA) coils induce inflammation within a cerebral aneurysm, which in turn is hypothesized to decrease aneurysm recurrence. We present 2 patients, who after aneurysm coiling with PGLA coils, developed mild symptoms and extensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) white matter changes. METHODS: The first patient was a 46-year-old woman who underwent coiling of a 6.8 × 6.8 × 7.0-mm incidentally discovered basilar apex aneurysm...
December 2010: World Neurosurgery
Niti Khunger, S Sacchidanand
DEFINITION: Sclerotherapy is defined as the targeted elimination of small vessels, varicose veins and vascular anomalies by the injection of a sclerosant. The aim of sclerotherapy is to damage the vessel wall and transform it into a fibrous cord that cannot be recanalized. It is a simple, cost-effective, efficacious and esthetically acceptable modality for both therapeutic and esthetic purposes. INDICATIONS: Therapeutic indications include varicose veins and vascular malformations...
March 2011: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Pari N Shams, Gordon T Plant
Visual aura is a common presenting symptom of migraine to both neurologists and ophthalmologists. Features such as photopsia, fortification spectra, and the slow propagation of a scintillating scotoma across the visual field are usually considered diagnostic features of the visual aura of migraine. In the vast majority of cases, the diagnosis can be made without the need for further investigations. We present 9 patients and a further 31 cases from the literature who experienced visual aura fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for migraines but caused by focal occipital pathology...
March 2011: Survey of Ophthalmology
Takashi Yamaguchi, Masaaki Shojima, Johnny B Delashaw, Eiju Watanabe
The intracarotid sodium amobarbital (Amytal) test, the Wada test, remains an efficient test for evaluation of language and memory function. However, due to a world shortage of amobarbital, it has become necessary to investigate the use of alternatives. We report the efficacy of the Wada test using secobarbital sodium (Ional) in determining language dominance. An accurate determination of language dominance was required in 43 patients preoperatively at our institution. Patients underwent the Wada test using secobarbital sodium, effectiveness and safety were assessed...
April 2011: British Journal of Neurosurgery
P Tikka-Kleemola, V Artto, S Vepsäläinen, E M Sobel, S Räty, M A Kaunisto, V Anttila, E Hämäläinen, M-L Sumelahti, M Ilmavirta, M Färkkilä, M Kallela, A Palotie, M Wessman
OBJECTIVE: To identify susceptibility loci for visual migraine aura in migraine families primarily affected with scintillating scotoma type of aura. METHODS: We included Finnish migraine families with at least 2 affected family members with scintillating scotoma as defined by the International Criteria for Headache Disorders-II. A total of 36 multigenerational families containing 351 individuals were included, 185 of whom have visual aura and 159 have scintillating scotoma...
April 13, 2010: Neurology
Agnieszka Biedroń, Małgorzata Steczkowska, Anna Zajac, Urszula Stolarska, Sławomir Kroczka
INTRODUCTION: Migraine with aura is characterized by reversible focal neurological symptoms preceding or accompanying headache. Visual aura is the most common type of aura and its patognomic symptoms are scintillating fortification migrating across the visual field or scintillating scotoma. However, the symptoms are not always so typical and clinical doubts are greater when negative symptoms (loss of vision, numbness or paresis) are present. Differential diagnosis of migraine with aura includes in the first place transient ischemic attack (TIA) as well as epilepsy...
2009: Przegla̧d Lekarski
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