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Altitude sickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069461/is-acute-mountain-sickness-related-to-trait-anxiety-a-normobaric-chamber-study
#1
Martin Niedermeier, Robb Waanders, Verena Menz, Maria Wille, Martin Kopp, Martin Burtscher
INTRODUCTION: Some mountaineers are more prone to the occurrence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) than others. State anxiety during altitude exposure might be associated with AMS development. We hypothesized that trait anxiety might be higher in AMS cases compared to non-AMS cases. The aim of the present study was to study the relationship between AMS development and trait anxiety. METHODS: In an observational study design, AMS incidence during a 12-hour exposure to normobaric hypoxia (FiO2=12...
January 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063399/sleep-quality-among-elderly-high-altitude-dwellers-in-ladakh
#2
Ryota Sakamoto, Kiyohito Okumiya, Tsering Norboo, Norboo Tsering, Takayoshi Yamaguchi, Mitsuhiro Nose, Shinya Takeda, Toshihiro Tsukihara, Motonao Ishikawa, Shun Nakajima, Taizo Wada, Michiko Fujisawa, Hissei Imai, Yasuko Ishimoto, Yumi Kimura, Eriko Fukutomi, Wenling Chen, Kuniaki Otsuka, Kozo Matsubayashi
It has been already known that people who temporarily stay at high altitude may develop insomnia as a symptom of acute mountain sickness. However, much less is known about people living at high altitude. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude environment on sleep quality for the elderly who have been living at high altitude for their whole lives. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Domkhar valley at altitudes of 2800-4200m, Ladakh. Sleep quality was assessed using Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)...
December 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994555/physiological-adjustments-and-circulating-microrna-reprogramming-are-involved-in-early-acclimatization-to-high-altitude-in-chinese-han-males
#3
Bao Liu, He Huang, Shou-Xian Wang, Gang Wu, Gang Xu, Bing-Da Sun, Er-Long Zhang, Yu-Qi Gao
Background: Altitude acclimatization is a physiological process that restores oxygen delivery to the tissues and promotes oxygen use under high altitude hypoxia. High altitude sickness occurs in individuals without acclimatization. Unraveling the molecular underpinnings of altitude acclimatization could help understand the beneficial body responses to high altitude hypoxia as well as the altered biological events in un-acclimatized individuals. This study assessed physiological adjustments and circulating microRNA (cmiRNA) profiles in individuals exposed to high altitude, aiming to explore altitude acclimatization in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982053/analysis-of-high-altitude-syndrome-and-the-underlying-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-acute-mountain-sickness-after-a-rapid-ascent-to-high-altitude
#4
Jie Yu, Ying Zeng, Guozhu Chen, Shizhu Bian, Youzhu Qiu, Xi Liu, Baida Xu, Pan Song, Jihang Zhang, Jun Qin, Lan Huang
To investigated the objective indicators and potential genotypes for acute mountain sickness (AMS). 176 male subjects were evaluated for symptoms scores and physiological parameters at 3700 m. EPAS1 gene polymorphisms were explored and verified effects of potential genotypes on pulmonary function by inhaled budesonide. The incidence of AMS was 53.98% (95/176). The individuals who suffered from headache with anxiety and greater changes in heart rate (HR), the forced vital capacity (FVC), and mean flow velocity of basilar artery (Vm-BA), all of which were likely to develop AMS...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929232/the-pretravel-consultation
#5
Christopher Sanford, Adam McConnell, Justin Osborn
Key components of the pretravel consultation include intake questions regarding the traveler's anticipated itinerary and medical history; immunizations; malaria prophylaxis; and personal protection measures against arthropod bites, traveler's diarrhea, and injury. Most vaccinations that are appropriate for international travelers are included in the routine domestic immunization schedule; only a few travel-specific vaccines must also be discussed. The most common vaccine-preventable illnesses in international travelers are influenza and hepatitis A...
October 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913463/single-dose-intravenous-iron-for-iron-deficiency-a-new-paradigm
#6
Michael Auerbach, Thomas Deloughery
Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic problem in the world. Although oral iron is often viewed as front-line therapy, extensive published evidence has accumulated that IV iron is superior, in both efficacy and safety, to oral iron in many clinical situations and should be introduced much sooner in the treatment paradigm of iron-deficient patients. In this chapter, we will review the formulations of IV iron that allow total complete replacement doses in 1 or 2 sessions including practical tips for administration...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888818/high-altitude-illness
#7
Anna Hartman-Ksycińska, Jolanta Kluz-Zawadzka, Bogumił Lewandowski
High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884172/spatial-distribution-and-trypanosome-infection-of-tsetse-flies-in-the-sleeping-sickness-focus-of-zimbabwe-in-hurungwe-district
#8
William Shereni, Neil E Anderson, Learnmore Nyakupinda, Giuliano Cecchi
BACKGROUND: In Zimbabwe, cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are caused by the unicellular protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, sub-species T. b. rhodesiense. They are reported from the tsetse-infested area in the northern part of the country, broadly corresponding to the valley of the Zambezi River. Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes, in particular T. congolense and T. vivax, also cause morbidity and mortality in livestock, thus generating poverty and food insecurity. Two species of tsetse fly, Glossina morsistans morsitans and G...
November 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847819/acute-mountain-sickness-symptoms-depend-on-normobaric-versus-hypobaric-hypoxia
#9
Dana M DiPasquale, Gary E Strangman, N Stuart Harris, Stephen R Muza
Acute mountain sickness (AMS), characterized by headache, nausea, fatigue, and dizziness when unacclimatized individuals rapidly ascend to high altitude, is exacerbated by exercise and can be disabling. Although AMS is observed in both normobaric (NH) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH), recent evidence suggests that NH and HH produce different physiological responses. We evaluated whether AMS symptoms were different in NH and HH during the initial stages of exposure and if the assessment tool mattered. Seventy-two 8 h exposures to normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH were experienced by 36 subjects...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821551/senp1-drives-hypoxia-induced-polycythemia-via-gata1-and-bcl-xl-in-subjects-with-monge-s-disease
#10
Priti Azad, Huiwen W Zhao, Pedro J Cabrales, Roy Ronen, Dan Zhou, Orit Poulsen, Otto Appenzeller, Yu Hsin Hsiao, Vineet Bafna, Gabriel G Haddad
In this study, because excessive polycythemia is a predominant trait in some high-altitude dwellers (chronic mountain sickness [CMS] or Monge's disease) but not others living at the same altitude in the Andes, we took advantage of this human experiment of nature and used a combination of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, genomics, and molecular biology in this unique population to understand the molecular basis for hypoxia-induced excessive polycythemia. As compared with sea-level controls and non-CMS subjects who responded to hypoxia by increasing their RBCs modestly or not at all, respectively, CMS cells increased theirs remarkably (up to 60-fold)...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821467/a-painful-neuropathy-associated-nav1-7-mutant-leads-to-time-dependent-degeneration-of-small-diameter-axons-associated-with-intracellular-ca2-dysregulation-and-decrease-in-atp-levels
#11
Harshvardhan Rolyan, Shujun Liu, Janneke Gj Hoeijmakers, Catharina G Faber, Ingemar Sj Merkies, Giuseppe Lauria, Joel A Black, Stephen G Waxman
Small fiber neuropathy is a painful sensory nervous system disorder characterized by damage to unmyelinated C- and thinly myelinated Aδ- nerve fibers, clinically manifested by burning pain in the distal extremities and dysautonomia. The clinical onset in adulthood suggests a time-dependent process. The mechanisms that underlie nerve fiber injury in small fiber neuropathy are incompletely understood, although roles for energetic stress have been suggested. In the present study, we report time-dependent degeneration of neurites from dorsal root ganglia neurons in culture expressing small fiber neuropathy-associated G856D mutant Nav1...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808057/-mountain-medicine-ii
#12
Bjørn Bay, Kasper Fjellhaugen Hjuler
Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women and children...
October 31, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795930/a-plant-from-the-altiplano-of-northern-chile-senecio-nutans-inhibits-the-vibrio-cholerae-pathogen
#13
Adrian Paredes, Yanett Leyton, Carlos Riquelme, Glauco Morales
BACKGROUND: In the altiplano of Northern Chile the plant Senecio nutans is habitually used as an infusion to relieve the effects of altitude sickness (locally known as "puna"). It is also used to alleviate the bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma, stomachache, tiredness and fever. The extreme conditions under which these plant grow and scientific data that shows the inhibiting potential of the essential oils of plants of the genus Senecio represents great potential in the study of their application to control pathogens like Vibrio Cholera...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788038/history-of-migraine-predicts-headache-at-high-altitude
#14
Christopher Davis, Elaine Reno, Edward Maa, Robert Roach
: Davis, Christopher, Elaine Reno, Edward Maa, and Robert Roach. History of Migraine Predicts Headache at High Altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:300-304, 2016.-Objective: To characterize the spectrum of headaches and their association with migraine history within a population of recreational hikers above 4300 m. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey design, a convenience sample of 667 hikers participated in a written survey after descent from Mount Gray/Torreys (4349 m)...
December 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723029/eco-climatic-indicators-for-three-culicoides-species-of-the-obsoletus-complex-in-italy
#15
Carla Ippoliti, Maria Goffredo, Romolo Salini, Michele Bocci, Michela Quaglia, Valentina Federici, Sandro Pelini, Adriana Santilli, Susanna Tora, Annamaria Conte
Bluetongue, Schmallenberg and African horse sickness viruses are transmitted by vectors belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Among this genus, species of the Obsoletus complex play a crucial role in Europe. In Italy the complex includes three species: Culicoides obsoletus sensu strictu, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus. These three sibling species were identified in 80 collection sites across Italy through a multiplex PCR test. Sixty‑four sites were classified with a predominant species through a Bayesian approach...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692623/-estimation-of-arterial-oxygen-saturation-in-relation-to-altitude
#16
Teófilo Lorente-Aznar, Guillermo Perez-Aguilar, Alma García-Espot, Sergio Benabarre-Ciria, Juan Luis Mendia-Gorostidi, Daniel Dols-Alonso, Julia Blasco-Romero
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Arterial Oxygen Saturation (AOS) predicts altitude sickness. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the AOS values with relation to altitude. Furthermore, make a graph to use during activity which assesses the AOS for each altitude and the normal range. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Values of AOS were assessed during eight high mountain activities in the Alps, Himalaya, Caucasus and Andes; 53 mountaineers participated, 17 of them in more than one activity; 761 measurements of AOS were registered...
September 27, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667557/blood-brain-barrier-changes-in-high-altitude
#17
José V Lafuente, Garazi Bermudez, Lorena Camargo-Arce, Susana Bulnes
Cerebral syndromes related to high-altitude exposure are becoming more frequent as the number of trips to high altitudes has increased in the last decade. The commonest symptom is headache, followed by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), which can be fatal. The pathophysiology of these syndromes is not fully understood. The classical "tight-fit hypothesis" posits that there are some anatomical variations that would obstruct the sinovenous outflow and worsen vasogenic edema and intracranial hypertension reactive to hypoxia...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662354/lipid-subhyaloid-maculopathy-and-exposure-to-high-altitude
#18
Roberta Rosas Petrocinio, Elga Dias Gomes
BACKGROUND: High altitude retinopathy (HAR) includes a number of diseases related to high altitude such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). High altitude retinopathy is mainly characterized by retinal hemorrhages, usually sparing the macular region, a condition specifically known as high altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARH). The pathogenesis of HARH is unclear. Many studies show that lack of oxygen causes an inadequate autoregulation of retinal circulation, causing vascular incompetence...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660613/multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-investigation-of-brain-adaptations-to-6-days-at-4350-m
#19
Samuel Verges, Thomas Rupp, Marjorie Villien, Laurent Lamalle, Irène Troprés, Camille Poquet, Jan M Warnking, François Estève, Pierre Bouzat, Alexandre Krainik
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxic exposure in healthy subjects can induce acute mountain sickness including headache, lethargy, cerebral dysfunction, and substantial cerebral structural alterations which, in worst case, can lead to potentially fatal high altitude cerebral edema. Within this context, the relationships between high altitude-induced cerebral edema, changes in cerebral perfusion, increased brain parenchyma volume, increased intracranial pressure, and symptoms remain unclear. METHODS: In 11 subjects before and after 6 days at 4350 m, we performed multiparametric magnetic resonance investigations including anatomical, apparent diffusion coefficient and arterial spin labeling sequences...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633944/reversible-brain-abnormalities-in-people-without-signs-of-mountain-sickness-during-high-altitude-exposure
#20
Cunxiu Fan, Yuhua Zhao, Qian Yu, Wu Yin, Haipeng Liu, Jianzhong Lin, Tianhe Yang, Ming Fan, Luobu Gesang, Jiaxing Zhang
A large proportion of lowlanders ascending to high-altitude (HA) show no signs of mountain sickness. Whether their brains have indeed suffered from HA environment and the persistent sequelae after return to lowland remain unknown. Thirty-one sea-level college students, who had a 30-day teaching on Qinghai-Tibet plateau underwent MRI scans before, during, and two months after HA exposure. Brain volume, cortical structures, and white matter microstructure were measured. Besides, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and neuropsychiatric behaviors were tested...
2016: Scientific Reports
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