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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784570/research-gaps-in-wilderness-medicine
#1
Daniel Tritz, Kody Dormire, Travis Brachtenbach, Joshua Gordon, Donald Sanders, David Gearheart, Julia Crawford, Matt Vassar
INTRODUCTION: Wilderness medicine involves the treatment of individuals in remote, austere environments. Given the high potential for injuries as well as the unique treatment modalities required in wilderness medicine, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are necessary to provide optimal care. In this study, we identify evidence gaps from low-quality recommendations in wilderness medicine clinical practice guidelines and identify new/ongoing research addressing them. METHODS: We included relevant clinical practice guidelines from the Wilderness Medical Society and obtained all 1C or 2C level recommendations...
May 18, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782186/excessive-erythrocytosis-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-andean-highlanders
#2
Noemí Corante, Cecilia Anza-Ramírez, Rómulo Figueroa-Mujíca, José Luis Macarlupú, Gustavo Vizcardo-Galindo, Grzegorz Bilo, Gianfranco Parati, Jorge L Gamboa, Fabiola León-Velarde, Francisco C Villafuerte
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide. Life under high-altitude (HA) hypoxic conditions is believed to provide highlanders with a natural protection against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases compared with sea-level inhabitants. However, some HA dwellers become intolerant to chronic hypoxia and develop a progressive incapacitating syndrome known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS), characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE; Hb ≥21 g/dL in men, Hb ≥19 g/dL in women). Evidence from HA studies suggests that, in addition to CMS typical signs and symptoms, these highlanders may also suffer from metabolic and cardiovascular disorders...
May 21, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763853/text-mining-and-network-analysis-to-find-functional-associations-of-genes-in-high-altitude-diseases
#3
Balu Bhasuran, Devika Subramanian, Jeyakumar Natarajan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Travel to elevations above 2500 m is associated with the risk of developing one or more forms of acute altitude illness such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) or high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Our work aims to identify the functional association of genes involved in high altitude diseases. METHOD: In this work we identified the gene networks responsible for high altitude diseases by using the principle of gene co-occurrence statistics from literature and network analysis...
May 2, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763259/single-question-is-useful-for-identifying-acute-mountain-sickness-in-travelers-at-high-altitude
#4
David Slawson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747689/association-between-acute-mountain-sickness-ams-and-age-a-meta-analysis
#5
Yu Wu, Chi Zhang, Yu Chen, Yong-Jun Luo
BACKGROUND: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a potentially lethal condition caused by acute hypoxia after ascending to altitudes higher than 2500 m in a short time. The main symptom of AMS is headache. Numerous risk factors of AMS have been examined, including gender, obesity, ascent rate, age and individual susceptibility. In previous studies, age was considered a predisposing factor for AMS. However, different opinions have been raised in recent years. To clarify the association between AMS and age, we conducted this meta-analysis...
May 11, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741971/impact-of-sleeping-altitude-on-symptoms-of-acute-mountain-sickness-on-mt-fuji
#6
Masahiro Horiuchi, Tadashi Uno, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, Tatsuya Hasegawa
Horiuchi, Masahiro, Tadashi Uno, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, and Tatsuya Hasegawa. Impact of sleeping altitude on symptoms of acute mountain sickness on Mt. Fuji. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. AIMS: We sought to investigate the factors influencing acute mountain sickness (AMS) on Mt. Fuji in Japan, in particular, to assess the effects of sleeping altitude, by means of a questionnaire survey. This study involved 1932 participants who climbed Mt. Fuji, and obtained information regarding sex, age, and whether participants stayed at the mountain lodges...
May 9, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713290/high-altitude-affects-nocturnal-non-linear-heart-rate-variability-patch-ha-study
#7
Christopher J Boos, Kyo Bye, Luke Sevier, Josh Bakker-Dyos, David R Woods, Mark Sullivan, Tom Quinlan, Adrian Mellor
Background: High altitude (HA) exposure can lead to changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV), which may be linked to acute mountain sickness (AMS) development. Compared with traditional HRV measures, non-linear HRV appears to offer incremental and prognostic data, yet its utility and relationship to AMS have been barely examined at HA. This study sought to examine this relationship at terrestrial HA. Methods: Sixteen healthy British military servicemen were studied at baseline (800 m, first night) and over eight consecutive nights, at a sleeping altitude of up to 3600 m...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690721/-the-expressions-of-vegf-and-vegfr-signaling-pathway-in-the-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cells-with-chronic-mountain-sickness
#8
J Su, Z Q Li, S Cui, L H Ji, K X Chai, H Geng, X J Ma, Y Z Yang, Z Z Bai, R L Ge
Objective: This study was aimed at investigating the levels and relationships of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor(VEGFR) in the bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNC) of chronic mountain sickness (CMS). Methods: A total of 34 patients with CMS and 30 controls residing at altitudes of 3 000-4 500 m were recruited for this study. The levels of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in bone marrow MNC were detected by flow cytometry technique and RT-qPCR. Results: The percentage of VEGFR2 positive cells in the bone marrow MNC of CMS were higher than that of the controls[20...
April 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673435/decompression-sickness-in-the-f-a-18c-after-atypical-cabin-pressure-fluctuations
#9
Katherine J Lee, Aliye Z Sanou
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) is evolving as more cases of atypical pressure fluctuations occur. This ongoing change makes it a difficult condition to diagnose and even more difficult to identify. Both Flight Surgeons and Undersea Medical Officers (UMOs) must keep DCS on the differential. These two cases describe altitude DCS after unique pressure patterns, with one at a markedly lower than expected altitude for DCS. CASE REPORT: Both cases occurred in the F/A-18C and resulted in DCS requiring hyperbaric chamber treatment...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670534/divergent-mitochondrial-antioxidant-activities-and-lung-alveolar-architecture-in-the-lungs-of-rats-and-mice-at-high-altitude
#10
Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Susana Revollo, Gabriella Villalpando, Ibana Valverde, Marcelino Gonzales, Sofien Laouafa, Jorge Soliz, Vincent Joseph
Compared with mice, adult rats living at 3,600 m above sea level (SL-La Paz, Bolivia) have high hematocrit, signs of pulmonary hypertension, and low lung volume with reduced alveolar surface area. This phenotype is associated with chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude (HA). We tested the hypothesis that this phenotype is associated with impaired gas exchange and oxidative stress in the lungs. We used rats and mice (3 months old) living at HA (La Paz) and SL (Quebec City, Canada) to measure arterial oxygen saturation under graded levels of hypoxia (by pulse oximetry), the alveolar surface area in lung slices and the activity of pro- (NADPH and xanthine oxidases-NOX and XO) and anti- (superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase-SOD and GPx) oxidant enzymes in cytosolic and mitochondrial lung protein extracts...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626002/evaluating-off-label-uses-of-acetazolamide
#11
REVIEW
Megan A Van Berkel, Jessica L Elefritz
PURPOSE: Current off-label uses of acetazolamide in hospitalized patients are reviewed. SUMMARY: Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor typically used for indications including epilepsy, glaucoma, edema, and altitude sickness but it may be prescribed in hospitalized patients for off-label indications. It inhibits carbonic anhydrase, which leads to reduced hydrogen ion secretion in the proximal renal tubule, resulting in increased bicarbonate and cation excretion and causing urinary alkalization and diuresis...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625625/association-of-egln1-genetic-polymorphisms-with-spo-2-responses-to-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia-in-a-japanese-cohort
#12
Yoshiki Yasukochi, Takayuki Nishimura, Midori Motoi, Shigeki Watanuki
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have explored various genetic and physiological factors related to high-altitude adaptation in highlander populations. However, the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), influencing such adaptation, on physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia have not been examined in lowlanders with lowlander ancestry. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between SNPs around the EGLN1 genomic region, possibly involved in high-altitude adaptation, and physiological changes to hypobaric hypoxia exposure in a cohort of Japanese lowlanders...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623044/long-term-intermittent-work-at-high-altitude-right-heart-functional-and-morphological-status-and-associated-cardiometabolic-factors
#13
Julio Brito, Patricia Siques, Rosario López, Raul Romero, Fabiola León-Velarde, Karen Flores, Nicole Lüneburg, Juliane Hannemann, Rainer H Böger
Background: Living at high altitude or with chronic hypoxia implies functional and morphological changes in the right ventricle and pulmonary vasculature with a 10% prevalence of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). The implications of working intermittently (day shifts) at high altitude (hypobaric hypoxia) over the long term are still not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the right cardiac circuit status along with potentially contributory metabolic variables and distinctive responses after long exposure to the latter condition...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615930/arachidonic-acid-metabolism-pathway-is-not-only-dominant-in-metabolic-modulation-but-associated-with-phenotypic-variation-after-acute-hypoxia-exposure
#14
Chang Liu, Bao Liu, Lu Liu, Er-Long Zhang, Bind-da Sun, Gang Xu, Jian Chen, Yu-Qi Gao
Background: The modulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism pathway is identified in metabolic alterations after hypoxia exposure, but its biological function is controversial. We aimed at integrating plasma metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches to systematically explore the roles of the AA metabolism pathway in response to acute hypoxia using an acute mountain sickness (AMS) model. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 53 enrolled subjects before and after exposure to high altitude. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and RNA sequencing were separately performed for metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614518/hypobaric-hypoxia-causes-elevated-thrombin-generation-mediated-by-fviii-that-is-balanced-by-decreased-platelet-activation
#15
Cécile H Kicken, Marisa Ninivaggi, Joke Konings, Martijn Moorlag, Dana Huskens, Jasper A Remijn, Saartje Bloemen, Marcus D Lancé, Bas De Laat
INTRODUCTION:  Epidemiological studies suggest that hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude poses a risk for developing venous thromboembolism. The cause of this observed hypercoagulability remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of hypobaric hypoxia at 3,883 m above sea level on thrombin generation and platelet activation. METHODS:  After complying with medical ethical procedures, 18 participants were recruited, of whom 1 had to leave the study prematurely due to mild acute mountain sickness...
April 3, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608374/exploration-of-acute-phase-proteins-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-early-stage-diagnosis-of-acute-mountain-sickness
#16
Chi Wang, Hui Jiang, Jinyan Duan, Jingwen Chen, Qi Wang, Xiaoting Liu, Chengbin Wang
Wang, Chi, Hui Jiang, Jinyan Duan, Jingwen Chen, Qi Wang, Xiaoting Liu, and Chengbin Wang. Exploration of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in early stage diagnosis of acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 00: 000-000, 2018. BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of acute mountain sickness (AMS) is currently based on personal appreciation of the severity of symptoms. A more objective method to diagnose AMS is required. Inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins have been reported to be different at high altitude...
April 2, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596018/the-star-data-reporting-guidelines-for-clinical-high-altitude-research
#17
Monika Brodmann Maeder, Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Giacomo Strapazzon, Tomas Dal Cappello, Marco Maggiorini, Peter Hackett, Peter Bärtsch, Erik R Swenson, Ken Zafren
Brodmann Maeder, Monika, Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Giacomo Strapazzon, Tomas Dal Cappello, Marco Maggiorini, Peter Hackett, Peter Baärtsch, Erik R. Swenson, Ken Zafren (STAR Core Group), and the STAR Delphi Expert Group. The STARdata reporting guidelines for clinical high altitude research. High AltMedBiol. 19:7-14, 2018. AIMS: The goal of the STAR (STrengthening Altitude Research) initiative was to produce a uniform set of key elements for research and reporting in clinical high-altitude (HA) medicine...
March 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587872/sequencing-the-exons-of-human-glucocorticoid-receptor-nr3c1-gene-in-han-chinese-with-high-altitude-pulmonary-edema
#18
Hui Du, Jing Zhao, Zhanhai Su, Yongnian Liu, Yingzhong Yang
BACKGROUND: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a serious acute mountain sickness that mainly occurs in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The precise etiology of HAPE remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether NR3C1 gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to HAPE. METHODS: The exons of NR3C1 gene were sequenced by a ABI 3730 DNA analyzer in 133 HAPE patients and matched 135 healthy Han Chinese controls from the Yushu area in Qinghai (the altitude greater than 3500 m)...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583031/the-2018-lake-louise-acute-mountain-sickness-score
#19
Robert C Roach, Peter H Hackett, Oswald Oelz, Peter Bärtsch, Andrew M Luks, Martin J MacInnis, J Kenneth Baillie
Roach, Robert C., Peter H. Hackett, Oswald Oelz, Peter Bärtsch, Andrew M. Luks, Martin J. MacInnis, J. Kenneth Baillie, and The Lake Louise AMS Score Consensus Committee. The 2018 Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Score. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2018.- The Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) scoring system has been a useful research tool since first published in 1991. Recent studies have shown that disturbed sleep at altitude, one of the five symptoms scored for AMS, is more likely due to altitude hypoxia per se, and is not closely related to AMS...
March 13, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581383/high-altitude-arterialised-capillary-earlobe-blood-gas-measurement-using-the-abbott-i-stat
#20
Christopher T Lewis, W L Malein, Ian Chesner, S Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Measurement of physiological parameters in extreme environments is essential to advancing knowledge, prophylaxis and treatment of altitude sickness. Point-of-care testing facilitates investigation in non-specialist and remote settings, as well as becoming increasingly popular at the bedside for real-time results in the clinical environment. Arterialised capillary earlobe blood gases are recommended as a valid alternative to arterial sampling in research. This study aimed to test the feasibility of obtaining and analysing daily earlobe samples at high altitude...
March 25, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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