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Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Alejandro Garbino, Derek M Nusbaum, Daniel M Buckland, Anil S Menon, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
The Stratex Project is a high altitude balloon flight that culminated in a freefall from 41,422 m (135,890 ft), breaking the record for the highest freefall to date. Crew recovery operations required an innovative approach due to the unique nature of the event as well as the equipment involved. The parachutist donned a custom space suit similar to a NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with life support system mounted to the front and a parachute on the back. This space suit had a metal structure around the torso, which, in conjunction with the parachute and life support assembly, created a significant barrier to extraction from the suit in the event of a medical emergency...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
D R Bhardwaj, Muneesa Banday, Nazir A Pala, Bhalendra Singh Rajput
In the present study, forests at three altitudes, viz., A1 (600-900 m), A2 (900-1200 m) and A3 (1200-1500 m) above mean sea level having normalised differential vegetation index (NDVI) values of N1 (0.0-0.1), N2 (0.1-0.2), N3 (0.2-0.3), N4 (0.3-0.4) and N5 (0.4-0.5) were selected for studying their relationship with the biomass and carbon pool in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study reported maximum stem density of (928 trees ha(-1)) at the A2 altitude and minimum in the A3 and A1 with 600 trees ha(-1) each...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
M Clara Bruzone, Judith Fehrer, Sonia B Fontenla, Martin Vohník
Ericoid mycorrhiza is arguably the least investigated mycorrhizal type, particularly when related to the number of potential hosts and the ecosystems they inhabit. Little is known about the global distribution of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi, and this holds true even for the prominent ErM mycobiont Rhizoscyphus ericae. Earlier studies suggested R. ericae might be low in abundance or absent in the roots of Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae, and our previous investigations in two Argentine Patagonian forests supported this view...
October 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Yun Li, Ping Xie, Dandan Zhao, Tianshun Zhu, Longgen Guo, Jing Zhang
To assess whether and how zooplankton communities respond to variations in temperature and how these assemblages change with eutrophication, we performed a large-scale, monthly survey from August 2011 to July 2012 to determine the seasonal and spatial variations in these communities in a high-altitude lake. A detrended correspondence analysis and a path analysis demonstrated that temperature and chlorophyll a were important factors influencing zooplankton. The path diagram showed that Daphnia was negatively affected directly by chlorophyll a and indirectly by temperature, whereas Bosmina was directly and positively affected by temperature...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
John E Pool, Dylan T Braun, Justin B Lack
Drosophila melanogaster originated in tropical Africa before expanding into strikingly different temperate climates in Eurasia and beyond. Here, we find elevated cold tolerance in three distinct geographic regions: beyond the well-studied non-African case, we show that populations from the highlands of Ethiopia and South Africa have significantly increased cold tolerance as well. We observe greater cold tolerance in outbred versus inbred flies, but only in populations with higher inversion frequencies. Each cold-adapted population shows lower inversion frequencies than a closely-related warm-adapted population, suggesting that inversion frequencies may decrease with altitude in addition to latitude...
October 24, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Johannes Charlier, Aklilu H Ghebretinsae, Bruno Levecke, Els Ducheyne, Edwin Claerebout, Jozef Vercruysse
Helminth parasites of grazing ruminants are highly prevalent globally and impact negatively on animal productivity and food security. There is a growing concern that climate change increases helminth disease frequency and intensity. In Europe, these concerns stem from case reports and theoretical life cycle models assessing the effects of climate change scenarios on helminth epidemiology. We believe this study is the first to investigate climate-driven trends in helminth infections of cattle on a cohort of randomly selected farms...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Miguel de Arruda, Cynthia Lee Andruske, Cristian Luarte-Rocha, Rossana Gómez-Campos
OBJECTIVE: Identify changes in physical growth and abdominal adiposity at an interval of 14 years in children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data comes from two cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Arequipa, Peru, located at a moderate altitude of 2,320 meters. In 2001, 473 males and 482 females were assessed, and in 2015, 432 males and 403 females between 6.0 and 12.9 years old were evaluated. Data were collected in public state schools and measured using the anthropometric variables for weight, height, and waist circumference...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Clare A Johnson, Diana S Goodwine, Ingrid Passier
We present a case of a 57-year-old man who fell while climbing a mountain in California and sustained severe facial trauma. Three firefighters and 2 emergency physicians witnessed the fall and resuscitated the patient. The patient ultimately required a surgical cricothyrotomy performed with a pocket knife and Platypus hydration pack. The physicians made a makeshift positive pressure airway device using the Platypus hydration pack. We believe this is the first case report describing an improvised cricothyrotomy performed in the wilderness using only hiking gear...
October 18, 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Prativa Pandey, Benu Lohani, Holly Murphy
Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2016.-Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE...
October 21, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Abdul Akbar, Ananya Kuanar, Raj K Joshi, I S Sandeep, Sujata Mohanty, Pradeep K Naik, Antaryami Mishra, Sanghamitra Nayak
The drug yielding potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is largely due to the presence of phyto-constituent 'curcumin.' Curcumin has been found to possess a myriad of therapeutic activities ranging from anti-inflammatory to neuroprotective. Lack of requisite high curcumin containing genotypes and variation in the curcumin content of turmeric at different agro climatic regions are the major stumbling blocks in commercial production of turmeric. Curcumin content of turmeric is greatly influenced by environmental factors...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cheng-Yong Feng, Wei-Wei Wang, Jian-Fei Ye, Shan-Shan Li, Qian Wu, Dan-Dan Yin, Bing Li, Yan-Jun Xu, Liang-Sheng Wang
Vaccinium glaucoalbum, a perennial evergreen shrub, is naturally distributed in high-altitude areas. In this study, the composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the fruit and leaf of V. glaucoalbum were characterized. In total, 24 chemical compounds were detected and identified by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(2). Among all the compounds determined, 15 were anthocyanins and detected in fruit, 5 were flavonols and monitored in leaf, and 4 were chlorogenic acids and found in both fruit and leaf. The total anthocyanin content (TAC) of fruit (682mg/100gFW) was the highest among wild Vaccinium berries in China which have been investigated for now, and the total flavonol content of leaf was 2764mg/100gFW...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Andrew M Luks, Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, Peter Hackett
Luks, Andrew M., Colin Grissom, Luanne Freer, and Peter Hackett. Medication use among mount Everest climbers: practice and attitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2016.-The lay public, media, and medical experts have expressed concern about the ethics of climbers using medications to improve performance and increase the odds of summit success while climbing at high altitude, but the true incidence of this practice remains unclear. We conducted an anonymous survey of climbers who have attempted to climb Mt...
October 20, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
John L Semple, G W Kent Moore, Petros Koutrakis, Jack M Wolfson, Paolo Cristofanelli, Paolo Bonasoni
: Semple, John L., G.W. Kent Moore, Petros Koutrakis, Jack M. Wolfson, Paolo Cristofanelli, and Paolo Bonasoni. High concentrations of ozone air pollution on Mount Everest: health implications for Sherpa communities and mountaineers. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2016.-Introduction: Populations in remote mountain regions are increasingly vulnerable to multiple climate mechanisms that influence levels of air pollution. Few studies have reported on climate-sensitive health outcomes unique to high altitude ecosystems...
October 20, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Alberto Muñoz, Xavier Santos, Ángel M Felicísimo
Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) are widely used to describe how environmental factors influence species distribution. Modelling at a local scale, compared to a large scale within a high environmental gradient, can improve our understanding of ecological species niches. The main goal of this study is to assess and compare the contribution of environmental variables to amphibian and reptile ENMs in two Spanish national parks located in contrasting biogeographic regions, i.e., the Mediterranean and the Atlantic area...
2016: PeerJ
Jianshuang Wu, Susanne Wurst, Xianzhou Zhang
The biodiversity-productivity relationship is still under debate for alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau. We know little about direct and indirect effects of biotic and abiotic drivers on this relationship, especially in regard to plant functional trait diversity. Here, we examine how aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and precipitation use efficiency (PUE) respond to climate, soil and community structure across alpine grasslands on the Northern Tibetan Plateau. We found that both ANPP and PUE showed nonlinear patterns along water availability and site altitude variation, which together accounted for 80...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthias Peter Hilty, Andrea Müller, Daniela Flück, Christoph Siebenmann, Peter Rasmussen, Stefanie Keiser, Katja Auinger, Carsten Lundby, Marco Maggiorini
: Matthias Peter Hilty, Andrea Mueller, Daniela Flück, Christoph Siebenmann, Peter Rasmussen, Stefanie Keiser, Katja Auinger, Carsten Lundby, and Marco Maggiorini. Effect of increased blood flow on the pulmonary circulation before and during high altitude acclimatization. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2016.-Introduction and Methods: Acute exposure to high altitude increases pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The evolution of Ppa and PVR with continuous hypoxic exposure remains, however, elusive...
October 18, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
J A DE Fuentes-Vicente, M Cabrera-Bravo, J N Enríquez-Vara, M I Bucio-Torres, A E Gutiérrez-Cabrera, D G Vidal-López, J A Martínez-Ibarra, P M Salazar-Schettino, A Córdoba-Aguilar
Little is known about how the virulence of a human pathogen varies in the environment it shares with its vector. This study focused on whether the virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), the causal agent of Chagas' disease, is related to altitude. Accordingly, Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens were collected at three different altitudes (300, 700 and 1400 m a.s.l.) in Chiapas, Mexico. The parasite was then isolated to infect uninfected T. dimidiata from the same altitudes, as well as female CD-1 mice...
October 18, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Jiao Ren, Xiaoping Wang, Chuanfei Wang, Ping Gong, Xiruo Wang, Tandong Yao
Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Grégoire P Millet, Franck Brocherie, Raphael Faiss, Olivier Girard
The authors report that many LHTL studies in normobaric hypoxia (NH) "failed to show a positive outcome", which in our view is only partially true. In a cross-over design, we (Saugy et al. 2016) recently tested if LHTL in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) would lead to larger performance enhancement than in NH. Our hypothesis was that HH (i.e. natural altitude) would lead to larger enhancement than NH but the results were contrary to this hypothesis. So we cannot support the affirmation by Lundby & Robach that "natural altitude remains the best approach"...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
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