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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101341/influence-of-high-altitude-hypoxic-environments-on-the-survival-of-cochlear-hair-cells-and-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-rats
#1
Dongyan Fan, Hailong Ren, Dunzhu Danzeng, Haonan Li, Ping Wang
The aim of the present study was to observe the histological changes in the peripheral auditory system in rats at different time-points after relocating from low altitude to high altitude (3,600 m). The general physical condition of the rats was observed and cochlear tissue samples were obtained every month. The morphology and survival of the cochlear hair cells (HCs) were observed using cochlear surface preparation at 1, 30, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after moving to the plateau area. Changes in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) were detected at different time-points using immunofluorescence technology on frozen sections...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100448/commentaries-on-viewpoint-tighter-fit-theory-physiologists-explain-why-higher-altitude-and-jugular-occlusion-are-unlikely-to-reduce-risks-for-sports-concussion-and-brain-injuries
#2
Damian M Bailey, Joseph F Clark, Gregory D Myer, Joseph A Fisher, Erik R Swenson, Benjamin S Stacey, James A Smith, Thomas S Owens, Damian M Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100041/contrasting-growth-forecasts-across-the-geographical-range-of-scots-pine-due-to-altitudinal-and-latitudinal-differences-in-climatic-sensitivity
#3
Luis Matías, Juan C Linares, Ángela Sánchez-Miranda, Alistair S Jump
Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity...
January 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099775/the-population-genomic-signature-of-environmental-association-and-gene-flow-in-an-ecologically-divergent-tree-species-metrosideros-polymorpha-myrtaceae
#4
Ayako Izuno, Kanehiro Kitayama, Yusuke Onoda, Yuki Tsujii, Masaomi Hatakeyama, Atsushi J Nagano, Mie N Honjo, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Kentaro K Shimizu, Yuji Isagi
Genome-wide markers enable us to study genetic differentiation within a species and the factors underlying it at a much higher resolution than before, which advances our understanding of adaptation in organisms. We investigated genomic divergence in Metrosideros polymorpha, a woody species that occupies a wide range of ecological habitats across the Hawaiian Islands and shows remarkable phenotypic variation. Using 1,659 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers annotated with the genome assembly, we examined the population genetic structure and demographic history of nine populations across five elevations and two ages of substrates on Mauna Loa, the island of Hawaii...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097612/wip1-phosphatase-plays-a-critical-neuroprotective-role-in-brain-injury-induced-by-high-altitude-hypoxic-inflammation
#5
Dahu Li, Lijun Zhang, Xin Huang, Lili Liu, Yunling He, Lun Xu, Yiyao Zhang, Tong Zhao, Liying Wu, Yongqi Zhao, Kuiwu Wu, Yan Wu, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
The hypobaric hypoxic environment in high-altitude areas often aggravates the severity of inflammation and induces brain injury as a consequence. However, the critical genes regulating this process remain largely unknown. The phosphatase wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including the regulation of inflammation in normoxia, but its functions in hypoxic inflammation-induced brain injury remain unclear. Here, we established a mouse model of this type of injury and found that WIP1 deficiency augmented the release of inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral circulation and brain tissue, increased the numbers of activated microglia/macrophages in the brain, aggravated cerebral histological lesions, and exacerbated the impairment of motor and cognitive abilities...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097510/when-headache-warns-of-homeostatic-threat-the-metabolic-headaches
#6
REVIEW
Parneet Grewal, Jonathan H Smith
Headache attributable to disorders of homeostasis represents a diverse diagnostic category in which external (i.e., high-altitude) or internal (i.e., fasting) demands exceed homeostatic capacity, resulting in symptomatic headaches. Metabolic headaches, especially fasting headache, have been observed to be common in the general population. In many cases, a history of migraine is a risk factor, consistent with the hypothesis of an adaptive, evolutionary role of headache to warn against environmental and physiological threats...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096303/down-regulation-of-epas1-transcription-and-genetic-adaptation-of-tibetans-to-high-altitude-hypoxia
#7
Yi Peng, Chaoying Cui, Yaoxi He, Ouzhuluobu, Hui Zhang, Deying Yang, Qu Zhang, Bianbazhuoma, Lixin Yang, Yibo He, Kun Xiang, Xiaoming Zhang, Sushil Bhandari, Peng Shi, Yangla, Dejiquzong, Baimakangzhuo, Duojizhuoma, Yongyue Pan, Cirenyangji, Baimayangji, Gonggalanzi, Caijuan Bai, Bianba, Basang, Ciwangsangbu, Shuhua Xu, Hua Chen, Shimin Liu, Tianyi Wu, Xuebin Qi, Bing Su
Tibetans are well adapted to the hypoxic environments at high altitude, yet the molecular mechanism of this adaptation remains elusive. We reported comprehensive genetic and functional analyses of EPAS1, a gene encoding hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) with the strongest signal of selection in previous genome-wide scans of Tibetans. We showed that the Tibetan-enriched EPAS1 variants down-regulate expression in human umbilical endothelial cells and placentas. Heterozygous EPAS1 knockout mice display blunted physiological responses to chronic hypoxia, mirroring the situation in Tibetans...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096205/effect-of-prepublication-results-on-trends-in-prescribing-of-antihypertensive-medication-impact-of-the-altitude-aliskiren-trial-in-type-2-diabetes-using-cardio-renal-disease-endpoints-trial-on-aliskiren-prescribing
#8
Sahar S Othman, Peter C Austin, Jack V Tu, Douglas S Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095957/point-of-care-ultrasound-utility-and-potential-for-high-altitude-crew-recovery-missions
#9
Laura A Galdamez, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
INTRODUCTION: Flights to high altitude can lead to exposure and unique pathology not seen in normal commercial aviation. METHODS: This paper assesses the potential for point-of-care ultrasound to aid in management and disposition of injured crewmembers from a high altitude incident. This was accomplished through a systematic literature review regarding current diagnostic and therapeutic uses of ultrasound for injuries expected in high altitude free fall and parachuting...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095883/moderated-online-social-therapy-for-carers-of-young-people-recovering-from-first-episode-psychosis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
John Gleeson, Reeva Lederman, Helen Herrman, Peter Koval, Dina Eleftheriadis, Sarah Bendall, Sue M Cotton, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
BACKGROUND: First-episode psychosis most often has its onset during late adolescence. In caring for the young person, families endure high levels of stress and depression. Meanwhile, the social networks of families often erode. Our group has previously shown that family cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) leads to significantly improved perceived stress compared with specialist first-episode treatment as usual; however, there are well-known barriers to the dissemination of effective family interventions...
January 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095708/locational-comparison-of-essential-oils-from-selected-conifers-of-himachal-pradesh
#11
Shruti Sharma, Vinod Bhatt, Neeraj Kumar, Bikram Singh, Upendra Sharma
Nine samples of essential oil from needles of three conifers of Pinacea family namely Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana and Cedrus deodara collected from three different locations of Himachal Pradesh (India) were evaluated using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 31, 17 and 13 compounds were identified from essential oil of A. pindrow, P. smithiana and C. deodara, respectively. Among the characterised components, monoterpenoid hydrocarbons were predominated. α-Pinene, β-pinene, β-merycene, limonene and camphene were characterised as major components...
January 18, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092009/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-determined-by-pine-needles-and-semipermeable-membrane-devices-along-an-altitude-profile-in-taurus-mountains-turkey
#12
Cafer Turgut, Mehmet Ali Mazmanci, Birgül Mazmanci, Melis Yalçın, PerihanBinnur Kurt Karakuş, Levent Atatanir, Menekşe Keski, Bernhard Henkelmann, Gerd Pfister, Karl-Werner Schramm
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at different altitudes of Taurus Mountains in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and in half-, one-and-a-half-, and two-and-a-half-year-old pine needles. SPMDs were deployed for three different exposure periods: March to September (Summer), September to March (Winter), and March to March (whole year) at eight sites where needle samples were collected. The values of PAHs in needles were between 4.4 to 6066 pg g/fw in half-year-old, 7.2 to 111,115 pg g/fw in 1...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088547/traffic-related-trace-elements-in-soils-along-six-highway-segments-on-the-tibetan-plateau-influence-factors-and-spatial-variation
#13
Guanxing Wang, Chen Zeng, Fan Zhang, Yili Zhang, Christopher A Scott, Xuedong Yan
The accumulation of traffic-related trace elements in soil as the result of anthropogenic activities raises serious concerns about environmental pollution and public health. Traffic is the main source of trace elements in roadside soil on the Tibetan Plateau, an area otherwise devoid of industrial emissions. Indeed, the rapid development of tourism and transportation in this region means it is becoming increasingly important to identify the accumulation levels, influence distance, spatial distribution, and other relevant factors influencing trace elements...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087514/the-influence-of-meteorological-factors-and-atmospheric-pollutants-on-the-risk-of-preterm-birth
#14
Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Marie Pedersen, Claire Bernard, Inmaculada Aguilera, Rob M J Beelen, Leda Chatzi, Marta Cirach, Asta Danileviciute, Audrius Dedele, Manon van Eijsden, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Mariana F Fernández, Francesco Forastiere, Ulrike Gehring, Regina Grazuleviciene, Olena Gruzieva, Barbara Heude, Gerard Hoek, Kees de Hoogh, Edith H van den Hooven, Siri E Håberg, Carmen Iñiguez, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Aitana Lertxundi, Johanna Lepeule, Per Nafstad, Wenche Nystad, Evridiki Patelarou, Daniela Porta, Dirkje Postma, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Peter Rudnai, Valérie Siroux, Jordi Sunyer, Euripides Stephanou, Mette Sørensen, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Derek Tuffnell, Mihály J Varró, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Alet Wijga, John Wright, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef, Manolis Kogevinas, Rémy Slama
Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086991/does-waterfall-aerosol-influence-mucosal-immunity-and-chronic-stress-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#15
Carina Grafetstätter, Martin Gaisberger, Johanna Prossegger, Markus Ritter, Predrag Kolarž, Christina Pichler, Josef Thalhamer, Arnulf Hartl
BACKGROUND: The specific microclimate of alpine waterfalls with high levels of ionized water aerosols has been suggested to trigger beneficial immunological and psychological effects. In the present three-armed randomized controlled clinical study, we focused on effects on (i) immunological reagibility, on (ii) physiological stress responses, and on (iii) stress-related psychological parameters. METHODS: People with moderate to high stress levels (n = 65) spent an active sojourn with daily hiking tours in the National Park Hohe Tauern (Großkirchheim, Austria)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081144/digital-health-tracking-physiomes-and-activity-using-wearable-biosensors-reveals-useful-health-related-information
#16
Xiao Li, Jessilyn Dunn, Denis Salins, Gao Zhou, Wenyu Zhou, Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Dalia Perelman, Elizabeth Colbert, Ryan Runge, Shannon Rego, Ria Sonecha, Somalee Datta, Tracey McLaughlin, Michael P Snyder
A new wave of portable biosensors allows frequent measurement of health-related physiology. We investigated the use of these devices to monitor human physiological changes during various activities and their role in managing health and diagnosing and analyzing disease. By recording over 250,000 daily measurements for up to 43 individuals, we found personalized circadian differences in physiological parameters, replicating previous physiological findings. Interestingly, we found striking changes in particular environments, such as airline flights (decreased peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2] and increased radiation exposure)...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080218/temperature-dependence-of-multiple-sclerosis-mortality-rates-in-the-united-states
#17
Hongbing Sun
BACKGROUND: It is well known that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are very sensitive to heat events. However, how MS patients respond to the significant temperature difference between the high- and low-latitude regions is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The goal is to identify the primary factor responsible for the fact that MS mortality rates of the United States is more than three times higher in the northern states than in the southern states. METHODS: Correlation coefficients between the age-adjusted mortality rate of MS as the underlying cause of death and the state average temperature, altitude, latitude, duration of sunshine hours, and solar radiation in the 48 contiguous states were compared...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077391/acclimation-to-hypoxia-increases-carbohydrate-use-during-exercise-in-high-altitude-deer-mice
#18
Daphne S Lau, Alex D Connaty, Sajeni Mahalingam, Nastashya Wall, Zachary A Cheviron, Jay F Storz, Graham R Scott, Grant B McClelland
The low oxygen experienced at high altitude is a significant challenge to effective aerobic locomotion, as it requires sustained tissue oxygen delivery in addition to the appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. Here we test whether high- and low-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved different acclimation responses to hypoxia with respect to muscle metabolism and fuel use during submaximal exercise. Using F1-generation high- and low-altitude deer mice that were born and raised in common conditions, we assessed 1) fuel use during exercise, 2) metabolic enzyme activities, and 3) gene expression for key transporters and enzymes in the gastrocnemius...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075653/serum-creatine-kinase-elevations-in-ultramarathon-runners-at-high-altitude
#19
Danielle Magrini, Morteza Khodaee, Inigo San Millan, Tamara Hew-Butler, Aaron J Provance
OBJECTIVES: Creatine kinase (CK) is a sensitive enzyme marker for muscle damage in athletes. Elevated CK levels have been reported in many endurance physical activities. The consequence and possible long-term sequela of the CK elevation in athletes is unknown. There is a paucity of literature stating actual numerical values of CK associated with competing in an ultramarathon with extreme environmental conditions. Our hypothesis was that the serum CK levels increase significantly as a result of running a 161km ultramarathon at high altitude...
January 11, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074016/cari-7a-development-and-validation
#20
Kyle Copeland
Aircrew members can be exposed to higher annual doses of natural ionizing radiation than members of the general population in most parts of the world. The principal ionizing radiation to which they are exposed is galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Among the particles present in the primary spectrum are heavy ions: relativistic nuclei of lithium and heavier elements. These ions have very high radiation weighting factors and can contribute significantly to the effective dose at altitudes above the Pfotzer maximum...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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