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Historical trauma

Marlene Macinnes, Gary Macpherson, Jessica Austin, Matthias Schwannauer
Previous research has found an association between childhood trauma and insecure attachment and psychological distress, risk of violence and engagement in therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between these factors in a forensic population. Sixty-four participants from three secure psychiatric hospitals completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Overall scores from participants' Historical Clinical Risk Management Violence Risk Assessment Scheme, (HCR-20) were calculated...
September 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Wayne Stark, Annie Rominger, Fred Warkentine, Kerry Caperell
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of empiric head computed tomography (CT) in apparent life threatening event (ALTE). METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of children younger than 12 months presenting to an urban pediatric hospital and its suburban satellite for an ALTE from October 2009 to December 2012. The ALTE cases were identified as having had a diagnosis of ALTE (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision 799...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
David C Rubin, Dorthe Berntsen, Christin M Ogle, Samantha A Deffler, Jean C Beckham
We find Brewin's (2016) critiques of the narratives, power, and coherence measures in Rubin et al. (2016) without merit; his suggestions for a "revised formulation" (p. 1015) of coherence are contradicted by data readily available in the target article but ignored. We place Brewin's commentary in a historical context and show that it reiterates views of trauma memory fragmentation that are unsupported by data. We evaluate an earlier review of fragmentation of trauma memories (Brewin, 2014), which Brewin uses to support his position in the commentary...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Sarah MacLean, Ross Hengsen, Raelene Stephens
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This article identifies factors that participants in a study based in an Australian regional centre believed to be critical to understanding and responding to crystal methamphetamine (ice) use among Aboriginal people. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study entailed a participatory methodology involving a university and an Aboriginal community controlled organisation. Semi-structured interviews conducted with ice users (n = 14), family members (n = 6) and workers (n = 6) were analysed thematically...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Nicholas L Deep, Ameet C Patel, Joseph M Hoxworth, David M Barrs
Pantopaque (iophendylate) is an oily contrast medium historically used during spine imaging. Due to its persistence in the subarachnoid space and the potential to lead to severe arachnoiditis, it is no longer used today. We present a 40-year-old male with new-onset headaches, imbalance, and vertigo. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 2-mm T1 -hyperintense intracanalicular lesion. Numerous hyperdense foci were scattered throughout the subarachnoid space on computed tomography. Further history revealed the patient received Pantopaque 30 years prior, after sustaining spinal trauma...
October 11, 2016: Laryngoscope
Candice Lys, Carmen H Logie, Nancy MacNeill, Charlotte Loppie, Lisa V Dias, Renée Masching, Dionne Gesink
INTRODUCTION: Indigenous youth are disproportionately represented in new HIV infection rates in Canada. Current and historical contexts of colonisation and racism, disconnection from culture and land, as well as intergenerational trauma resulting from the legacy of residential schools are social drivers that elevate exposure to HIV among Indigenous peoples. Peer-education and arts-based interventions are increasingly used for HIV prevention with youth. Yet limited studies have evaluated longitudinal effects of arts-based approaches to HIV prevention with youth...
October 3, 2016: BMJ Open
C Caleb Butts, Kelly Bose, M Amin Frotan, Juvonda Hodge, Salil Gulati
INTRODUCTION: One of the primary intraoperative challenges during burn surgery is to adequately excise the burn while avoiding massive hemorrhage. This has become increasingly important, as we see more burn patients that are older and with more medical comorbidities. While adequate excision down to healthy tissues for deep burns is essential for skin graft to take, it also leads to active bleeding that can be a challenge to control. Good hemostasis is imperative as a hematoma is the most common cause of graft loss...
September 19, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Matthew J Reed, Alison Glover, Lauren Byrne, Michael Donald, Niall McMahon, Neil Hughes, Nicola K Littlewood, Justin Garrett, Catherine Innes, Margaret McGarvey, Eleanor Hazra, P Sam M Rawlinson
INTRODUCTION: The Scottish Transfusion and Laboratory Support in Trauma Group (TLSTG) have introduced a unified National pre-hospital Code Red protocol. This paper reports the results of a study aiming to establish whether current pre-hospital Code Red activation criteria for trauma patients successfully predict need for in hospital transfusion or haemorrhagic death, the current admission coagulation profile and Concentrated Red Cell (CRC): Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) ratio being used, and whether use of the protocol leads to increased blood component discards? METHODS: Prospective cohort study...
September 11, 2016: Injury
Gregory W J Hawryluk, M Ross Bullock
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the greatest cause of death and severe disability in young adults; its incidence is increasing in the elderly and in the developing world. Outcome from severe TBI has improved dramatically as a result of advancements in trauma systems and supportive critical care, however we remain without a therapeutic which acts directly to attenuate brain injury. Recognition of secondary injury and its molecular mediators has raised hopes for such targeted treatments. Unfortunately, over 30 late-phase clinical trials investigating promising agents have failed to translate a therapeutic for clinical use...
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Joel Norton, Christine Hymers, Penelope Stein, Joanne May Jenkins, Duncan Bew
BACKGROUND: Acute porphyria is historically known as "the little imitator" in reference to its reputation as a notoriously difficult diagnosis. Variegate porphyria is one of the four acute porphyrias, and can present with both blistering cutaneous lesions and acute neurovisceral attacks involving abdominal pain, neuropsychiatric features, neuropathy, hyponatremia, and a vast array of other nonspecific clinical features. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) as a major trauma call, having been found in an "acutely confused state" surrounded by broken glass...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Eelco F M Wijdicks
Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump...
September 13, 2016: Neurology
Joseph D Forrester, Thomas G Weiser, Paul Maggio, Timothy Browder, Lakshika Tennakoon, David Spain, Kristan Staudenmayer
BACKGROUND: Trauma patients with vascular injuries have historically been within a general surgeon's operative ability. Changes in training and decline in operative trauma have decreased trainees' exposure to these injuries. We sought to determine how frequently vascular procedures are performed at US trauma centers to quantify the need for general surgeons trained to manage vascular injuries. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the National Trauma Data Base (NTDB) from 2012 compared with 2002...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Albert J Boquet, Tara N Cohen, Jennifer S Cabrera, Tracy L Litzinger, Kevin A Captain, Michael A Fabian, Steven G Miles, Scott A Shappell
OBJECTIVES: Historically, health care has relied on error management techniques to measure and reduce the occurrence of adverse events. This study proposes an alternative approach for identifying and analyzing hazardous events. Whereas previous research has concentrated on investigating individual flow disruptions, we maintain the industry should focus on threat windows, or the accumulation of these disruptions. This methodology, driven by the broken windows theory, allows us to identify process inefficiencies before they manifest and open the door for the occurrence of errors and adverse events...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Nicole Osier, C Edward Dixon
Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a commonly used and highly regarded model of brain trauma that uses a pneumatically or electromagnetically controlled piston to induce reproducible and well-controlled injury. The CCI model was originally used in ferrets and it has since been scaled for use in many other species. This chapter will describe the historical development of the CCI model, compare and contrast the pneumatic and electromagnetic models, and summarize key short- and long-term consequences of TBI that have been gleaned using this model...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mary-Anne Enoch, Bernard J Albaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genetic and environmental predictors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) are both important in the general population. As a group, American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals (AI/AN) are at increased risk for alcohol-related morbidity /mortality, early onset problem drinking and AUD. METHODS: Alcohol consumption behaviors amongst AI/AN tribes, environmental stressors and genetic studies in AI/AN and European-ancestry individuals are reviewed followed by an analysis of unique difficulties for undertaking research with AI/AN...
September 6, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
P Stathopoulos
The works of Hippocrates known in the Western World as the Corpus Hippocraticum have dominated medical thought and surgical practice for centuries. A substantial part of the Hippocratic Collection is dedicated to the description of injuries pertinent to Cranio-maxillofacial surgery and their management. Hippocrates has reached this level of surgical skill despite the limited pre-recorded knowledge and the restriction to perform post-mortem dissections.
September 2, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Matthew Goodwin, Kaori Ito, Arielle H Gupta, Emanuel P Rivers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Protocolized care for early shock resuscitation (PCESR) has been intensely examined over the last decade. The purpose is to review the pathophysiologic basis, historical origin, clinical applications, components and outcome implications of PCESR. RECENT FINDINGS: PCESR is a multifaceted systems-based approach that includes early detection of high-risk patients and interventions to rapidly reverse hemodynamic perturbations that result in global or regional tissue hypoxia...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Yuko Ono, Takuya Sugiyama, Yasuyuki Chida, Tetsuya Sato, Hiroaki Kikuchi, Daiji Suzuki, Masakazu Ikeda, Koichi Tanigawa, Kazuaki Shinohara
BACKGROUND: A reduction in medical staff such as occurs in hospitals during nights and weekends (off hours) is associated with a worse outcome in patients with several unanticipated critical conditions. Although difficult airway management (DAM) requires the simultaneous assistance of several appropriately trained medical caregivers, data are scarce regarding the association between off-hour presentation and endotracheal intubation (ETI)-related adverse events, especially in the trauma population...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Stephen C Haskins, Natasha A Desai, Kara G Fields, Jemiel A Nejim, Stephanie Cheng, Struan H Coleman, Danyal H Nawabi, Bryan T Kelly
BACKGROUND: Intraabdominal fluid extravasation (IAFE) after hip arthroscopy has historically been diagnosed in catastrophic circumstances with abdominal compartment syndrome requiring diuresis or surgical decompression. A previous retrospective study found the prevalence of symptomatic IAFE requiring diuresis or decompression to be 0.16%, with risk factors including surgical procedure and high pump pressures. IAFE can be diagnosed rapidly by using point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) via the Focused Assessment With Sonography for Trauma (FAST) examination, which is a well-established means to detect free fluid with high specificity and sensitivity...
August 22, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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