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Historical trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338594/the-association-of-non-accidental-trauma-with-historical-factors-exam-findings-and-diagnostic-testing-during-the-initial-trauma-evaluation
#1
Mauricio A Escobar, Marc Auerbach, Katherine Flynn-O'Brien, Gunjan Tiyyagura, Matthew A Borgman, Susan J Duffy, Kelly Falcone, Rita Burke, John M Cox, Sabine Maguire
Early identification of non-accidental trauma (NAT) is a critical component of pediatric trauma care. Literature searches were conducted related to the association of NAT with seven key areas: history, exam findings (burns, oral trauma, bruising) and imaging (fractures, abdominal and brain injuries). When available, odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations with NAT are presented. Systematic reviews have been published in six of the seven key areas and are described. The operational definition of NAT was widely variable across studies, prohibiting meta-analysis...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318990/junctional-hemorrhage-control-for-tactical-combat-casualty-care
#2
REVIEW
Russ S Kotwal, Frank K Butler
During historic, as well as more recent, conflicts, most combat casualties who die from their injuries do so in the prehospital setting. Although many of the injuries incurred by these casualties are nonsurvivable, a number of injuries are still potentially survivable. Of those injuries that are potentially survivable, the majority are truncal, junctional, and extremity hemorrhage. Novel and effective approaches directed toward prehospital hemorrhage control have emerged in recent years, some of which can prove useful in the management of junctional hemorrhage whether in a military or civilian setting...
March 16, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286831/predictive-factors-of-survival-and-6-month-favorable-outcome-of-very-severe-head-trauma-patients-a-historical-cohort-study
#3
Karin Vathanalaoha, Thakul Oearsakul, Thara Tunthanathip
INTRODUCTION: Very severe head trauma cases, defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of less than 6, have a higher mortality rate and poorer outcome. The purpose of this study was to recognize factors associated with survival and 6-month favorable outcome of very severe head trauma patients presenting to emergency department. METHODS: In this historical cohort study, the authors retrospectively reviewed medical records of head trauma patients who were admitted to the emergency department with post-resuscitation GCS scores of less than 6...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274391/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-population-affected-by-a-severe-flood
#4
A Fontalba-Navas, M E Lucas-Borja, V Gil-Aguilar, J P Arrebola, J M Pena-Andreu, J Perez
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people who resided in an affected area by an extremely severe flood, and sociodemographic risk factors associated with this condition. STUDY DESIGN: A geographic information system (GIS) was used to distribute the rainfall data. A case-control study was developed to study the relationship between PTSD and sociodemographic risk factors. METHODS: To delineate the areas affected by the flood and the intensity of this rainfall in comparison with historical hydrological data, we employed geographical information systems (GIS)...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272849/enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras-in-penetrating-abdominal-trauma-a-prospective-single-center-pilot-study
#5
M R Moydien, R Oodit, S Chowdhury, S Edu, A J Nicol, P H Navsaria
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes employed in elective surgery have provided strong evidence for decreased lengths of hospital stay without increase in postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to explore the role and benefits of ERAS implemented in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy for penetrating abdominal trauma. METHOD: Institutional University of Cape Town Human Research Ethics Committee (UCT-HREC) approved study...
November 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262281/prehospital-deaths-from-trauma-are-injuries-survivable-and-do-bystanders-help
#6
G J Oliver, D P Walter, A D Redmond
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Deaths from trauma occurring in the prehospital phase of care are typically excluded from analysis in trauma registries. A direct historical comparison with Hussain and Redmond's study on preventable prehospital trauma deaths has shown that, two decades on, the number of potentially preventable deaths remains high. Using updated methodology, we aimed to determine the current nature, injury severity and survivability of traumatic prehospital deaths and to ascertain the presence of bystanders and their role following the point of injury including the frequency of first-aid delivery...
February 27, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249950/culture-and-ptsd-trauma-in-global-and-historical-perspective
#7
Derek Summerfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239012/neighborhood-trauma-due-to-violence-a-multilevel-analysis
#8
Sandra D Lane, Robert A Rubinstein, Dessa Bergen-Cico, Timothy Jennings-Bey, Linda Stone Fish, David A Larsen, Mindy Thompson Fullilove, Tracey Reichert Schimpff, Kishi Animashaun Ducre, Jonnell Allen Robinson
In Syracuse, New York the social determinants of trauma from neighborhood violence are rooted in historical processes, including urban renewal, the Rockefeller drug laws, and de-industrialization. These contributed to destabilizing Syracuse communities of color, resulting in disproportionate incarceration, family disruption, and economic devastation. Community violence, clustering in densely populated neighborhoods, creates unmanageable stress for the families who live in them. A map of gunshots and gun fatalities (2009 to 2014) illustrates the continuing onslaught of bullets being fired, often in close proximity to elementary schools...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230627/surgical-outcomes-after-trauma-pneumonectomy-revisited
#9
Kazuhide Matsushima, Alberto Aiolfi, Caroline Park, David Rosen, Aaron Strumwasser, Elizabeth Benjamin, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
INTRODUCTION: Trauma pneumonectomy has been historically associated with an exceedingly high morbidity and mortality. The recent advent of standardized reporting and data-collecting measures has facilitated large volume data-analysis on predictors and outcomes of trauma pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study is to describe patient characteristics and outcomes of the patients who underwent trauma pneumonectomy in the modern era and identify clinical factors associated with postoperative mortality...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219085/fibrinolysis-in-trauma-myth-reality-or-something-in-between
#10
Mark Walsh, Jacob Shreve, Scott Thomas, Ernest Moore, Hunter Moore, Daniel Hake, Tim Pohlman, Patrick Davis, Victoria Ploplis, Andres Piscoya, Julie Wegner, John Bryant, Anton Crepinsek, James Lantry, Forest Sheppard, Francis Castellino
The emphasis on fibrinolysis as an important contributor to trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) has led to a debate regarding the relative clinical significance of fibrinolysis in the setting of trauma. The debate has centered on two camps. The one camp defines fibrinolysis in trauma by standard coagulation tests as well as fibrin split products, D-dimers, and plasmin/antiplasmin levels. This camp favors a more liberal use of tranexamic acid and attributes more significance to hyperfibrinolysis in TIC. The other camp favors a definition of fibrinolysis based on the viscoelastic tests (VET), rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and thromboelastography (TEG)...
March 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214463/bridging-the-gap-in-peripheral-nerve-repair
#11
REVIEW
Donato Perretta, Steven Green
Peripheral nerve injuries following trauma present an ongoing challenge to the hand surgeon. This review presents an overview of the topic with a historical perspective. Nerve anatomy and nerve injury classifications are discussed followed by a description of the biology of nerve regeneration. Methods used to bridge gaps in peripheral nerve repair are discussed in detail with a critical appraisal of the most recent literature. Recommendations for surgical treatment are formulated based on evidence-based medicine...
January 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203100/from-amino-acids-polymers-antimicrobial-peptides-and-histones-to-their-possible-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-septic-shock-a-historical-perspective
#12
Isaac Ginsburg, Peter Vernon van Heerden, Erez Koren
This paper describes the evolution of our understanding of the biological role played by synthetic and natural antimicrobial cationic peptides and by the highly basic nuclear histones as modulators of infection, postinfectious sequelae, trauma, and coagulation phenomena. The authors discuss the effects of the synthetic polymers of basic poly α amino acids, poly l-lysine, and poly l-arginine on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, bacterial killing, and blood vessels; the properties of natural and synthetic antimicrobial cationic peptides as potential replacements or adjuncts to antibiotics; polycations as opsonizing agents promoting endocytosis/phagocytosis; polycations and muramidases as activators of autolytic wall enzymes in bacteria, causing bacteriolysis and tissue damage; and polycations and nuclear histones as potential virulence factors and as markers of sepsis, septic shock, disseminated intravasclar coagulopathy, acute lung injury, pancreatitis, trauma, and other additional clinical disorders...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199426/-translating-hysteria-ptsd-dissociative-subtype
#13
Elena Levy Yeyati
To address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization a specific dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder has been included in DSM-5. Depersonalization and derealization have been defined as acute and chronic symptoms of dissociative disorders since DSM-III. Dissociative disorders with chronic features are often diagnosed in North America, Canada and other European countries, but this is not the case in Argentina. Dissociative disorders have clinical and historical features that are strongly connected with hysteria...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135694/the-mental-health-of-indigenous-peoples-in-canada-a-critical-review-of-research
#14
REVIEW
Sarah E Nelson, Kathi Wilson
Many scholars assert that Indigenous peoples across the globe suffer a disproportionate burden of mental illness. Research indicates that colonialism and its associated processes are important determinants of Indigenous peoples' health internationally. In Canada, despite an abundance of health research documenting inequalities in morbidity and mortality rates for Indigenous peoples, relatively little research has focused on mental health. This paper provides a critical scoping review of the literature related to Indigenous mental health in Canada...
March 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112988/platelet-bioreactor-accelerated-evolution-of-design-and-manufacture
#15
Jonathan N Thon, Brad J Dykstra, Lea M Beaulieu
Platelets, responsible for clot formation and blood vessel repair, are produced by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. Platelets are critical for hemostasis and wound healing, and are often provided following surgery, chemotherapy, and major trauma. Despite their importance, platelets today are derived exclusively from human volunteer donors. They have a shelf life of just five days, making platelet shortages common during long weekends, civic holidays, bad weather, and during major emergencies when platelets are needed most...
January 23, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111193/impact-of-continuous-evaluation-of-technology-and-therapy-30-years-of-research-reduces-stoke-and-mortality-from-blunt-cerebrovascular-injury
#16
Charles P Shahan, Martin A Croce, Timothy C Fabian, Louis J Magnotti
BACKGROUND: Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) was underdiagnosed until the 1990s when blunt carotid injuries were found to be more common than historically described. Technological advancements and regionalization of trauma care have resulted in increased screening and improved diagnosis of BCVI. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that systematic evaluation of the screening and diagnosis of BCVI, combined with early and aggressive treatment, have led to reductions in BCVI-related stroke and mortality...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110378/belfast-limb-arterial-and-skeletal-trauma-blast-the-evolution-of-punishment-shooting-in-northern-ireland
#17
REVIEW
M Lau, S McCain, R Baker, D W Harkin
INTRODUCTION: Northern Ireland has developed significant experience in specific punishment injuries due to its unique civil unrest. Simple gunshot wound (GSW) injuries have begun to evolve into more complex injuries. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe three cases of young male victims who suffered from GSW injuries-from a single GSW injury to multiple GSW injuries involving all four limbs; the phenomenon of Belfast Limb Arterial and Skeletal Trauma. We describe the management of these injuries, with a review of current literature...
January 21, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109668/childhood-trauma-depression-and-negative-symptoms-are-independently-associated-with-impaired-quality-of-life-in-schizophrenia-results-from-the-national-face-sz-cohort
#18
M Andrianarisoa, L Boyer, O Godin, L Brunel, E Bulzacka, B Aouizerate, F Berna, D Capdevielle, J M Dorey, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, F Gabayet, P M Llorca, J Mallet, D Misdrahi, R Rey, R Richieri, C Passerieux, A Schandrin, A M Tronche, M Urbach, P Vidailhet, F Schürhoff, G Fond
OBJECTIVES: Depression and negative symptoms have been associated with impaired Quality of life (QoL) in schizophrenia (SZ). However, childhood trauma may influence both QoL and depression in SZ patients, with consequences for the management of impaired QoL in SZ patients. The aim of the present study was to determine if childhood trauma was associated with impaired QoL in schizophrenia. METHOD: A sample of 544 community-dwelling stabilized SZ patients enrolled in FACE-SZ cohort were utilized in this study (74...
January 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108683/improving-decannulation-and-swallowing-function-a-comprehensive-multidisciplinary-approach-to-post-tracheostomy-care
#19
EDITORIAL
John W Mah, Ilene I Staff, Sylvia R Fisher, Karyn L Butler
BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary tracheostomy teams have been successful in improving operative outcomes; however, limited data exist on their effect on postoperative care. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary tracheostomy service alone and following implementation of a post-tracheostomy care bundle on rates of decannulation and tolerance of oral diet before discharge. METHODS: Prospective data on all subjects requiring tracheostomy by any trauma/critical care surgeon were collected from January 2011 to December 2013 following development of a tracheostomy service and continued following implementation of the post-tracheostomy care bundle...
February 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095550/the-diagnostic-role-of-optical-coherence-tomography-oct-in-measuring-the-depth-of-burn-and-traumatic-scars-for-more-accurate-laser-dosimetry-pilot-study
#20
Jill S Waibel, Ashley C Rudnick, Adam J Wulkan, Jon D Holmes
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, a number of optimal diagnostic technologies have emerged to assist in tissue visualization. Real-time monitoring of skin during laser therapies will help optimize laser parameters for more ef cient therapies. One of these technologies, optimal coherence tomography (OCT), may be used to help visualize burn and traumatic scars. When lasing severe scars, lasers have tunable pulse energies, which are made proportional to the scar thickness as estimated by palpation and the physician eye...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
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