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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223583/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#1
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality is crucial to tracking of the success of tuberculosis control programmes and identification of remaining challenges. We assessed trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis over the past 25 years for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We analysed 10 691 site-years of vital registration data, 768 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data using the Cause of Death Ensemble model to estimate tuberculosis mortality rates...
December 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223421/a-prospective-multi-institutional-cohort-study-of-mediastinal-infections-after-cardiac-operations
#2
Louis P Perrault, Katherine A Kirkwood, Helena L Chang, John C Mullen, Brian C Gulack, Michael Argenziano, Annetine C Gelijns, Ravi K Ghanta, Bryan A Whitson, Deborah L Williams, Nancy M Sledz-Joyce, Brian Lima, Giampaolo Greco, Nishit Fumakia, Eric A Rose, John D Puskas, Eugene H Blackstone, Richard D Weisel, Michael E Bowdish
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal infections are a potentially devastating complication of cardiac operations. This study analyzed the frequency, risk factors, and perioperative outcomes of mediastinal infections after cardiac operations. METHODS: In 2010, 5,158 patients enrolled in a prospective study evaluating infections after cardiac operations and their effect on readmissions and mortality for up to 65 days after the procedure. Clinical and demographic characteristics, operative variables, management practices, and outcomes were compared for patients with and without mediastinal infections, defined as deep sternal wound infection, myocarditis, pericarditis, or mediastinitis...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223417/left-ventricular-assist-device-impact-on-aortic-valve-mechanics-proteomics-and-ultrastructure
#3
Elizabeth H Stephens, Jiho Han, Emma A Trawick, Elena S Di Martino, Hemanth Akkiraju, Lewis M Brown, Jennifer P Connell, K Jane Grande-Allen, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Hiroo Takayama
BACKGROUND: Aortic regurgitation is a prevalent, detrimental complication of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). The altered hemodynamics of LVADs results in aortic valves (AVs) having distinct mechanical stimulation. Our hypothesis was that the altered AV hemodynamics modulates the valve cells and matrix, resulting in changes in valvular mechanical properties that then can lead to regurgitation. METHODS: AVs were collected from 16 LVAD and 6 non-LVAD patients at time of heart transplant...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223104/improvement-of-relative-survival-in-elderly-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-emerging-from-population-based-cancer-registries-in-switzerland-between-2001-and-2013
#4
Annatina Schnegg-Kaufmann, Anita Feller, Helen Baldomero, Alicia Rovo, Markus G Manz, Michael Gregor, Anna Efthymiou, Mario Bargetzi, Urs Hess, Olivier Spertini, Yves Chalandon, Jakob R Passweg, Georg Stussi, Volker Arndt, Nicolas Bonadies
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) is a rare and heterogeneous haematological malignancy with increasing incidence in the elderly. We performed a population-based, observational analysis of AML cases reported to the Cantonal Cancer Registries in Switzerland. Data was aggregated by the National Institute for Epidemiology and Cancer Registration and stratified for the two time periods 2001-2007 and 2008-2013. Overall, 2351 new AML cases were registered with a stable age-standardised incidence rate (3.0 [95 CI: 2.8-3...
December 6, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222956/demographic-drivers-of-a-refugee-species-large-scale-experiments-guide-strategies-for-reintroductions-of-hirola
#5
Abdullahi H Ali, Matthew J Kauffman, Rajan Amin, Amos Kibara, Juliet King, David Mallon, Charles Musyoki, Jacob R Goheen
Effective reintroduction strategies require accurate estimates of vital rates and the factors that influence them. The hirola (Beatragus hunteri) is the rarest antelope on Earth, with a global population size of <500 individuals restricted to the Kenya-Somali border. We estimated vital rates of hirola populations exposed to varying levels of predation and rangeland quality from 2012 to 2015, and then built population matrices to estimate the finite rate of population change (λ) and demographic sensitivities...
December 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222135/ambulatory-versus-inpatient-management-of-severe-nausea-and-vomiting-of-pregnancy-a-randomised-control-trial-with-patient-preference-arm
#6
Nicola Mitchell-Jones, Jessica Alice Farren, Aurelio Tobias, Tom Bourne, Cecilia Bottomley
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambulatory (outpatient (OP)) treatment of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is as effective as inpatient (IP) care. DESIGN: Non-blinded randomised control trial (RCT) with patient preference arm. SETTING: Two multicentre teaching hospitals in London. PARTICIPANTS: Women less than 20 weeks' pregnant with severe NVP and associated ketonuria (>1+). METHODS: Women who agreed to the RCT were randomised via web-based application to either ambulatory or IP treatment...
December 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221638/d-dimer-level-correlation-with-treatment-response-in-children-with-venous-malformations
#7
Yvonne Chi-Lun Leung, Michael Wai-Yip Leung, Shi-Da Yam, Judy Wing-Suet Hung, Clarence Sze-Wai Liu, Lap-Yan Chung, Man-Yee Tang, Hon-Shing Fung, Wai-Lun Poon, Nicholas Sih-Yin Chao, Kelvin Kam-Wing Liu
AIM: Localized intravascular coagulopathy is present in children with venous malformations (VMs) as evidenced by elevated D-dimer levels. Few studies have looked into the changes in D-dimer after sclerotherapy and its correlation with treatment outcome and complications. Our study aims to investigate changes in D-dimer in children with VMs undergoing alcohol sclerotherapy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study from 2014 to 2016, which included children (<18years) with VM undergoing alcohol sclerotherapy, was completed...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221484/the-impacts-of-baseline-ventilator-parameters-on-hospital-mortality-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-treated-with-venovenous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Meng-Yu Wu, Yu-Sheng Chang, Chung-Chi Huang, Tzu-I Wu, Pyng-Jing Lin
BACKGROUND: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a valuable life support in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adult patients. However, the success of VV-ECMO is known to be influenced by the baseline settings of mechanical ventilation (MV) before its institution. This study was aimed at identifying the baseline ventilator parameters which were independently associated with hospital mortality in non-trauma patients receiving VV-ECMO for severe ARDS. METHODS: This retrospective study included 106 non-trauma patients (mean age: 53 years) who received VV-ECMO for ARDS in a single medical center from 2007 to 2016...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221328/uncontrolled-and-under-diagnosed-asthma-in-a-damascus-shelter-during-the-syrian-crisis
#9
Yousser Mohammad, Shaaban Rafea, Youssef Latifeh, Ali Khaddam, Bisher Sawaf, Mhd Ismael Zakaria, Mohammad Sadek Al Masalmeh, Yaser Fawaz, Abdoulraouf Allaham, Imad Almani, Hiba El-Tarcheh, Ayham Ghazal, Ali Zaher, Hala Rifai, Hamed Joumah, S Dresden Glockler-Lauf, Teresa To
Background: Studies have shown that poor shelter or dwelling conditions may lead to deteriorations in health. Those with asthma may be more susceptible to compromised living conditions and stress leading to a higher risk of asthma exacerbations. To describe the asthma control and quality of life of individuals with diagnosed asthma living in a shelter in Damascus, Syria and estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in shelter dwellers without diagnosed asthma. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all individuals 5 years and older living in Al-Herjalleh shelter with diagnosed asthma were recruited to complete a questionnaire, which included items related to their respiratory symptoms, asthma exacerbations, exposure to asthma triggers, medication use, and health-related quality of life before and since entering the shelter...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221319/lung-transplantation-in-elderly-patients
#10
REVIEW
Andrew Courtwright, Edward Cantu
Consensus statements on the selection of lung transplant candidates have consistently identified older age as a relative contraindication to transplantation. A combination of population-level demographic changes, revision of the lung allocation score (LAS), and clearer data on outcomes in elderly transplant recipients has, however, driven a steady increase in the threshold at which age is taken into consideration. This article reviews the current state of lung transplantation in elderly patients with an emphasis on the factors that have increased lung transplantation in older age groups, their expected outcomes including survival and health-related quality of life, and the factors that go in to appropriate candidate and procedure selection in this population...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220739/lonelier-than-ever-loneliness-of-older-people-over-two-decades
#11
Lena Dahlberg, Neda Agahi, Carin Lennartsson
To live with feelings of loneliness has negative implications for quality of life, health and survival. This study aimed to examine changes in loneliness among older people, both with regard to prevalence rates, and socio-demographic, social and health-related correlates of loneliness. This study had a repeated cross-sectional design and was based on the nationally representative Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD). Analyses of trends in loneliness covered the years 1992, 2002, 2004, 2011 and 2014, and included people aged 77 years or older (n=2 572)...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220684/predictors-of-remission-from-ptsd-symptoms-after-sexual-and-non-sexual-trauma-in-the-community-a-mediated-survival-analytic-approach
#12
Mario Müller, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Stephanie Rodgers, Birgit Kleim, Erich Seifritz, Stefan Vetter, Stephan T Egger, Wulf Rössler, Enrique Castelao, Martin Preisig, Caroline Vandeleur
Epidemiological data on the chronicity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to trauma type and underlying pathways are rare. The current study explored how PTSD symptoms change over time across different trauma types and examined mediators of their persistence. A trauma-exposed community sample, whereof approximately one quarter met diagnostic criteria for PTSD, provided retrospective data on the duration of PTSD symptoms. Those who remitted and those who had not at the time of assessment were compared regarding worst trauma, symptom severity, comorbidity, demographic and treatment-seeking variables...
December 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220621/quality-of-life-in-australian-adults-aged-50-years-and-over-data-using-the-schedule-for-the-evaluation-of-individual-quality-of-life-seiqol-dw
#13
Sofia Robleda, Nancy A Pachana
OBJECTIVES: This study explored unique and personal domains associated with quality of life (QOL) in 153 mid-aged and older Australian adults over age 50, using an innovative measure of individualized QOL, the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQOL-DW). METHODS: Demographic measures as well as the SEIQOL-DW were administered. The qualitative responses on this scale were analyzed by Leximancer, a text analysis program that extracts semantic meaning and relational information automatically from text...
October 27, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220067/gene-expression-and-fatigue-in-puerto-rican-men-during-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer-an-exploratory-study
#14
Velda J Gonzalez, Leorey N Saligan, Brooke L Fridley, Humberto Ortiz-Zuazaga, Lauren S Aaronson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the trajectory of fatigue experienced by 26 Puerto Rican (PR) men over the course of External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) and to assess gene expression changes from baseline to midpoint of EBRT using microarray technology. Design/Research Approach- Prospective exploratory and comparative design study. Setting- RT facility located in San Juan, PR. Sample/Participants-26 PR men with non-metastatic prostate cancer. METHODS: Participants completed 2 paper forms: demographics and the Spanish version of the 13-item FACT-fatigue at baseline, midpoint, and end of EBRT...
December 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219101/health-effects-of-milder-winters-a-review-of-evidence-from-the-united-kingdom
#15
REVIEW
Shakoor Hajat
Cold-related mortality and morbidity remains an important public health problem in the UK and elsewhere. Health burdens have often reported to be higher in the UK compared to other countries with colder climates, however such assessments are usually based on comparison of excess winter mortality indices, which are subject to biases. Daily time-series regression or case-crossover studies provide the best evidence of the acute effects of cold exposure. Such studies report a 6% increase in all-cause deaths in England & Wales for every 1 °C fall in daily mean temperature within the top 5% of the coldest days...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219086/measurement-and-analysis-of-inequality-of-opportunity-in-access-of-maternal-and-child-health-care-in-togo
#16
Yacobou Sanoussi
BACKGROUND: Access to maternal and child health care in low- and middle-income countries such as Togo is characterized by significant inequalities. Most studies in the Togolese context have examined the total inequality of health and the determinants of individuals' health. Few empirical studies in Togo have focused on inequalities of opportunity in maternal and child health. To fill this gap, we estimated changes in inequality of opportunity in access to maternal and child health services between 1998 and 2013 using data from Togo Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217878/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-intravenous-versus-oral-cyclophosphamide-in-steroid-resistant-nephrotic-syndrome-in-children
#17
K M Shah, A J Ohri, U S Ali
This is a randomized, parallel group, active-controlled trial to compare the efficacy of intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCP) with oral cyclophosphamide (OCP) in patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) in children. Fifty consecutive children with idiopathic SRNS were biopsied and then randomized to receive either OCP at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks or IVCP at a dose of 500 mg/m2/month for 6 months. Both groups received tapering doses of oral steroids. The response was evaluated in terms of induction of complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR), time to remit, and side effects...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216894/early-winners-and-losers-in-dialysis-center-pay-for-performance
#18
Milda R Saunders, Haena Lee, Marshall H Chin
BACKGROUND: We examined the association of dialysis facility characteristics with payment reductions and change in clinical performance measures during the first year of the United States Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) End Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Plan (ESRD QIP) to determine its potential impact on quality and disparities in dialysis care. METHODS: We linked the 2012 ESRD QIP Facility Performance File to the 2007-2011 American Community Survey by zip code and dichotomized the QIP total performance scores-derived from percent of patients with urea reduction rate > 65, hemoglobin < 10 g/dL, and hemoglobin > 12 g/dL-as 'any' versus 'no' payment reduction...
December 8, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216868/socio-demographic-determinants-and-effect-of-structured-personal-diabetes-care-a-19-year-follow-up-of-the-randomized-controlled-study-diabetes-care-in-general-practice-dcgp
#19
Andreas Heltberg, Volkert Siersma, John Sahl Andersen, Christina Ellervik, Henrik Brønnum-Hansen, Jakob Kragstrup, Niels de Fine Olivarius
BACKGROUND: We investigated how four aspects of socio-demography influence the effectiveness of an intervention with structured personal diabetes care on long-term outcomes. METHODS: The Diabetes Care in General Practice (DCGP) study is a cluster-randomized trial involving a population-based sample of 1381 patients with newly diagnosed type 2-diabetes mellitus. We investigated how education, employment, cohabitation status and residence influenced the effectiveness of 6 years of intervention with structured personal diabetes care, resembling present day recommendations...
December 8, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216650/-have-multimodal-and-perioperative-therapeutic-strategies-changed-the-survival-after-oncological-oesophageal-surgery-in-the-last-two-decades-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis-over-23-years
#20
Philipp Lingohr, Julia Zender, Cornelius van Beekum, Jonas Dohmen, Hanno Matthaei, Nico Schaefer, Jörg C Kalff, Tim Oliver Vilz
Background Esophageal malignoma is among the most frequent causes for cancer-related deaths. The only definite curative therapy is esophagectomy embedded in various multimodal treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term development after esophageal surgery in the last two decades in order to observe possible trends and their influence on short, medium and long term survival. Patients and Methods Cases of 301 patients who underwent esophagectomy between 1989 and 2012 were analysed retrospectively...
December 7, 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
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