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Rectal mucosa

Lila E Mullany, Jennifer S Herrick, Roger K Wolff, John R Stevens, Martha L Slattery
Smoking is known to influence messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are known repressors of mRNAs, we hypothesize that smoking may influence miRNA expression, thus altering mRNA expression. Our sample consisted of 1447 CRC cases that had normal colorectal mucosa and carcinoma miRNA data and lifestyle data. We examined current smoking, current versus never and former versus never (C/F/N) smoking(1), and pack-years smoked with miRNA expression in normal mucosa as well as differential miRNA expression between paired normal and carcinoma tissue for colon and rectal tissue to determine associations between smoking and miRNA expression...
October 22, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Jinke Xu, Mifong Tam, Sepideh Samadei, Sophie Lerouge, Jake Barralet, Mary M Stevenson, Marta Cerruti
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems stick to mucosal tissues and prolong the local retention time of drugs. Since the colon is covered by a mucosal layer, mucoadhesive rectal formulations may improve treatment of such diseases as hypertension or colon cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. It is commonly treated with sulfasalazine (SSZ), which is metabolized by the intestinal flora into the therapeutic 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and a toxic by-product sulfapyridine (SP)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Peter Jo, Manuel Nietert, Linda Gusky, Julia Kitz, Lena C Conradi, Annegret Müller-Dornieden, Philipp Schüler, Hendrik A Wolff, Josef Rüschoff, Philipp Ströbel, Marian Grade, Torsten Liersch, Tim Beißbarth, Michael B Ghadimi, Ulrich Sax, Jochen Gaedcke
Translational research relies on high-quality biospecimens. In patients with rectal cancer treated preoperatively with radiochemotherapy tissue based analyses are challenging. To assess quality challenges we analyzed tissue samples taken over the last years in a multicenter setting. We retrospectively evaluated overall 197 patients of the CAO/ARO/AIO-94- and 04-trial with locally advanced rectal cancer that were biopsied preoperatively at the University Medical Center Goettingen as well as in 10 cooperating hospitals in Germany...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lin Xiao, Xin Yu, Wenjing Deng, Huixia Feng, Hui Chang, Weiwei Xiao, Huizhong Zhang, Shaoyan Xi, Mengzhong Liu, Yujia Zhu, Yuanhong Gao
We investigated the distribution of residual cancer cells (RCCs) within different layers of the bowel wall in surgical specimens and the value of biopsies of primary rectal lesion after preoperative volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with concurrent chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. Between April 2011 and April 2013, 178 patients with rectal cancer who received preoperative VMAT, concurrent chemotherapy, and surgery were evaluated; 79 of the patients received a biopsy of the primary lesion after chemoradiotherapy and prior to surgery...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rajni Yadav, Saurav Chopra, Aayushi Garg, Brijnandan Gupta, Prateek Kinra, Siddhartha Datta Gupta, Prasenjit Das
BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte Paraffin 1 (Hep Par 1) was being extensively used to recognize the hepatocellular carcinomas, until recognition of its expression in tumors without hepatocellular differentiation. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze if Hep Par 1 stain can serve as a specific marker of the small intestinal (SI) adenocarcinomas, versus other gastrointestinal tract (GIT) primary tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, normal GIT mucosa (n - 60), corresponding adenocarcinomas (n - 60) and nodal metastatic foci (n - 60) from the same patients, including 10 cases each from the esophagus, stomach, SI periampullary region, colon, rectum, and gall bladder were included...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
L Bustamante-Lopez, M Sulbaran, C Sakai, E G de Moura, L Bustamante-Perez, C S Nahas, S C Nahas, I Cecconello, P Sakai
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Rectal prolapse is common in the elderly, having an incidence of 1% in patients over 65years of age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a new endoluminal procedure for attaching the previously mobilized rectum to the anterior abdominal wall using an endoscopic fixation device. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study is a single-arm phasei experimental trial. Under general anesthesia, total rectal prolapse was surgically reproduced in five pigs...
October 4, 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Hugh J Freeman
Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis (SCAD) has become increasingly appreciated as a form of inflammatory disease of the colon. Several features suggest that SCAD is a distinct disorder. SCAD tends to develop almost exclusively in older adults, predominately, but not exclusively, males. The inflammatory process occurs mainly in the sigmoid colon, and usually remains localized to this region of the colon alone. SCAD most often presents with rectal bleeding and subsequent endoscopic visualization reveals a well localized process with non-specific histopathologic inflammatory changes...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Andrzej Gryglewski, Brandon M Henry, Marian Mrozek, Marcin Żelawski, Krzysztof Piech, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
PURPOSE: Conventional endoscopy is limited by human capability to recognize and to differentiate pathology. Fractal analysis of blood vessels has been used in other organs, such as the retina, but never before to supplement colonoscopy. The aim of this study was to assess whether it is possible to differentiate between healthy and pathologic rectal mucosa using fractal analysis of the mucosal microvascular architecture seen during colonoscopic examination (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links...
October 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
Carmen Martos Plasencia, Pilar Olivencia Palomar, Roberto Patón Arenas, Cristina Verdejo Gil, Rosario Salmoral Luque, Melvyn Peña Gómez, Eva De la Santa Belda, Bartolomé López Viedma, José Olmedo Camacho
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic radiotherapy is associated with early and late local complication. Actinomyces bacterium is part of the saprophyte flora, although some infection underlying factors are known , the pathophysiology of the disease is still unexplained. Frequently it is involved in oral, gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. CASE REPORT: We present the description of a clinical case supported with images. So that we have developed a bibliographical research in Pubmed data base including the following key words: Ulcer, rectum, brachitherapy and Actinomyces...
September 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Jemma Bhoday, Fraser Smith, Muhammed R Siddiqui, Svetlana Balyasnikova, Robert I Swift, Rodrigo Perez, Angelita Habr-Gama, Gina Brown
BACKGROUND: Pathological complete response after chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer occurs in 10% to 30% of patients. The best method to identify such patients remains unclear. Clinical assessment of residual mucosal abnormality is considered the most accurate method. In our institution, magnetic resonance tumor regression grade is performed as routine to assess response. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of magnetic tumor regression grade against residual mucosal abnormality in detecting patients with a pathological complete response...
October 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
A Zakharchenko, Y Kaitoukov, Y Vinnik, F Tradi, M Sapoval, I Sielezneff, E Galkin, V Vidal
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the short-term outcomes after percutaneous embolization of the superior rectal artery (SRA) with metallic coils and particles for the management of hemorrhoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients (15 men, 25 women) with a mean age of 35±5 years (SD) (range: 25-65 years) were prospectively enrolled. All patients had symptomatic hemorrhoids. The distribution of internal hemorrhoids was as follows: grade I (n=6, 16%); grade II (n=28, 69%) and grade III (n=6; 15%)...
August 30, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Bruno Christian Koehler, Tatjana Arslic-Schmitt, Theresa Peccerella, Anna-Lena Scherr, Henning Schulze-Bergkamen, Thomas Bruckner, Georg Gdynia, Dirk Jäger, Sebastian Mueller, Helmut Bartsch, Helmut K Seitz
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. The mechanisms by which ethanol (EtOH) exerts its carcinogenic effect on the colorectal mucosa are not clear and may include oxidative stress with the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated through EtOH metabolism via cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) leading to carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts. ROS may also induce apoptosis. However, the effect of chronic EtOH consumption on CYP2E1, etheno-DNA adducts as well as anti-apoptotic proteins in the colorectal mucosa of heavy drinkers without colorectal inflammation is still not known...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Mi Yeon Nam, Mi Young Kim, Yeo Ju Kim, Chang Hae Suh, Young Chae Chu, Dae Hyung Lee, Jae Sung Cho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) findings compared with pathologic features and to determine whether CT findings are useful for diagnosis of appendiceal metastasis in patients with underlying malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative CT examinations of 59 patients who had underlying malignancy and underwent appendectomy were evaluated. Appendiceal metastasis (n = 21) and nonmetastasis (n = 38) were pathologically confirmed. Computed tomography features (appendiceal morphology and diameter, presence of ascites, rectal shelf, omental cake, lymphadenopathy or organ metastasis) were retrospectively reviewed, and compared with histopathological findings...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Jasbir Makker, Niraj Karki, Binita Sapkota, Masooma Niazi, Prospere Remy
BACKGROUND Gastroesophageal cancers, previously considered rare, are rapidly increasing worldwide. We present here a unique case of gastroesophageal carcinoma with metastasis to the rectum. CASE REPORT A 60-year-old female patient presented with constipation, bloating, and weight loss of 4-month duration. She had undergone sleeve gastrectomy 6 years before. Endoscopies performed revealed a friable-looking mucosa in the lower esophagus and a polypoid rectal mass. Histopathological examination from both the esophageal and rectal lesions revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
H-G Liu, L Lv, H Shen
PURPOSE: CD44v6 plays a controversial role in tumor progression and patient outcome in colorectal cancer by plenty of conflicting reports. The purpose of this study was to profile the intratumoral heterogeneity of CD44v6 in rectal cancer and investigate its role in lymph node metastasis. METHODS: Sixty patients were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry for CD44v6 was performed in normal mucosa, primary tumor, and lymph node metastasis with whole tissue sections...
August 23, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Giulia Calenda, Guillermo Villegas, Patrick Barnable, Claudia Litterst, Keith Levendosky, Agegnehu Gettie, Michael L Cooney, James Blanchard, José A Fernández-Romero, Thomas M Zydowsky, Natalia Teleshova
The Population Council's microbicide gel MZC (also known as PC-1005) containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) has shown promise as a broad spectrum microbicide against HIV, HSV and HPV. Previous data show antiviral activity against these viruses in cell-based assays, prevention of vaginal and rectal SHIV-RT infection and reduction of vaginal HSV shedding in rhesus macaques and also excellent antiviral activity against HSV and HPV in murine models. Recently we demonstrated that MZC is safe and effective against SHIV-RT in macaque vaginal explants...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ciara Cox, Alison P Watt, James P McKenna, Peter V Coyle
The numbers of rectal sexually transmitted infections are on the rise especially among men who have sex with men. Males from men who have sex with men population are encouraged to send a rectal swab to the laboratory for sexually transmitted infection screening at their visit to the Genitourinary Medicine Clinic. In healthy asymptomatic males, the range of pathogens tested is limited therefore other pathogens may be left untreated allowing infections to persist among sexual partners. Molecular techniques have revolutionarised sexually transmitted infection testing enabling the detection of previously difficult-to-culture pathogens in extra-genital sites and have increased the evidence base for their clinical significance...
August 19, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Veronika Vymetalkova, Pavel Vodicka, Barbara Pardini, Fabio Rosa, Miroslav Levy, Michaela Schneiderova, Vaclav Liska, Ludmila Vodickova, Torbjörn K Nilsson, Sanja A Farkas
AIM: The aim of the present study is to address a genome-wide search for novel methylation biomarkers in the rectal cancer (RC), as only scarce information on methylation profile is available. MATERIALS & METHODS: We analyzed methylation status in 25 pairs of RC and adjacent healthy mucosa using the Illumina Human Methylation 450 BeadChip. RESULTS: We found significantly aberrant methylation in 33 genes. After validation of our results by pyrosequencing, we found a good agreement with our findings...
September 2016: Epigenomics
Ashley J Vargas, John Quackenbush, Kimberly Glass
BACKGROUND: Weight loss may decrease risk of colorectal cancer in obese individuals, yet its effect in the colorectum is not well understood. We used integrative network modeling, Passing Attributes between Networks for Data Assimilation, to estimate transcriptional regulatory network models from mRNA expression levels from rectal mucosa biopsies measured pre- and post-weight loss in 10 obese, pre-menopausal women. RESULTS: We identified significantly greater regulatory targeting of glucose transport pathways in the post-weight loss regulatory network, including "regulation of glucose transport" (FDR=0...
August 11, 2016: Genomics
Martha L Slattery, Jennifer S Herrick, Daniel F Pellatt, Lila E Mullany, John R Stevens, Erica Wolff, Michael D Hoffman, Roger K Wolff, Wade Samowitz
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNA involved in cellular processes, including cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Thus, miRNA expression may alter survival after diagnosis with colorectal cancer (CRC). RESULTS: Individuals diagnosed with stage 1 or stage 2 rectal cancer had worse survival than colon cancer cases diagnosed at stage 1 or stage 2. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, no miRNAs were significantly associated with disease stage...
August 10, 2016: Oncotarget
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