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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912972/fate-of-males-with-urethral-y-duplication-40-year-long-follow-up-in-8-patients
#1
Mario Lima, Francesca Destro, Neil Di Salvo, Tommaso Gargano, Giovanni Ruggeri
PURPOSE: The spectrum of male urethral duplication is heterogeneous and it includes the Y-duplication. The malformation is rare and there is only a few case series reported in the literature. The management of Y-forms remains challenging for the surgeon and the long-term follow-up is still scarcely investigated. We report our 40-year experience in the management of patients with Y-duplication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a restrospective analysis collecting information of patients with urethral Y-duplication treated at our department from April 1975 to April 2015...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898453/resolution-of-rectal-prolapse-by-vaginal-reconstruction
#2
Hemikaa Devakumar, Neeraja Chandrasekaran, Alexandriah Alas, Laura Martin, G Willy Davila, Eric Hurtado
BACKGROUND: Rectal prolapse is a disorder of the pelvic floor in which the layers of the rectal mucosa protrude outward through the anus. Surgical repair is the mainstay of treatment. Options include intra-abdominal procedures such as rectopexy and perineal procedures such as the Delorme and Altemeier perineal rectosigmoidectomy. Rectal and vaginal prolapse can often coexist. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of rectal prolapse resolved by the repair of a compressive enterocele abutting the anterior rectal wall through a vaginal approach alone...
November 28, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894384/-reconstruction-of-anal-stenosis-induced-by-scar-contracture-after-repair-of-defect-in-perineal-region-with-paraumbilical-flap-using-random-pattern-flap
#3
Q Liu, X B You, Z Cai, K Y Tang, H Zhang
Objective: To investigate the method and timing of reconstruction of anal stenosis induced by scar contracture after repair of defect in perineal region with paraumbilical flap using random pattern flap. Methods: Ten patients who suffered anal stenosis induced by scar contracture after the first phase repair of defect of perineal region with paraumbilical flap were hospitalized from July 2009 to September 2015. Eight patients were with central type scar contracture of perineal region after healing of burn wound, and two patients were with lesion of perineal region which had been excised...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848950/the-rectal-mucosa-and-condomless-receptive-anal-intercourse-in-hiv-negative-msm-implications-for-hiv-transmission-and-prevention
#4
C F Kelley, C S Kraft, T Jb de Man, C Duphare, H-W Lee, J Yang, K A Easley, G K Tharp, M J Mulligan, P S Sullivan, S E Bosinger, R R Amara
Most HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM), the group that accounted for 67% of new US infections in 2014, occur via exposure to the rectal mucosa. However, it is unclear how the act of condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) may alter the mucosal immune environment in HIV-negative MSM. Here, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the rectal mucosal immune environment for the phenotype and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by CD4 and CD8 T cells, global transcriptomic analyses, and the composition of microbiota in HIV-negative MSM...
November 16, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827375/predominance-of-weakly-cytotoxic-t-bet-low-eomes-neg-cd8-t-cells-in-human-gastrointestinal-mucosa-implications-for-hiv-infection
#5
B E Kiniry, A Ganesh, J W Critchfield, P W Hunt, F M Hecht, M Somsouk, S G Deeks, B L Shacklett
The gastrointestinal mucosa is an important site of HIV acquisition, viral replication, and pathogenesis. Immune cells in mucosal tissues frequently differ in phenotype and function from their non-mucosal counterparts. Although perforin-mediated cytotoxicity as measured in blood is a recognized correlate of HIV immune control, its role in gastrointestinal tissues is unknown. We sought to elucidate the cytotoxic features of rectal mucosal CD8(+) T-cells in HIV infected and uninfected subjects. Perforin expression and lytic capacity were significantly reduced in rectal CD8(+) T-cells compared with their blood counterparts, regardless of HIV clinical status; granzyme B (GrzB) was reduced to a lesser extent...
November 9, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805441/comparison-of-contrast-media-for-visualization-of-the-colon-of-healthy-dogs-during-computed-tomography-and-ultrasonography
#6
Byunggyu Cheon, Sohyeon Moon, Seungjo Park, Sang-Kwon Lee, Sunghwa Hong, Hyun Cho, Jihye Choi
OBJECTIVE To evaluate contrast agents for their ability to improve visualization of the colon wall and lumen during CT and ultrasonography. ANIMALS 10 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Food was withheld from dogs for 36 hours, after which dogs consumed 250 mL of polyethylene glycol solution. Dogs were then anesthetized, a contrast agent (tap water, diluted barium, or air; order randomly assigned) was administered rectally, iodine contrast medium (880 mg of I/kg) was administered IV, and CT and ultrasonography of the colon were performed...
November 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780077/association-of-cigarette-smoking-and-microrna-expression-in-rectal-cancer-insight-into-tumor-phenotype
#7
Lila E Mullany, Jennifer S Herrick, Roger K Wolff, John R Stevens, Martha L Slattery
Smoking is known to influence messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are known repressors of mRNAs, we hypothesize that smoking may influence miRNA expression, thus altering mRNA expression. Our sample consisted of 1447 CRC cases that had normal colorectal mucosa and carcinoma miRNA data and lifestyle data. We examined current smoking, current versus never and former versus never (C/F/N) smoking(1), and pack-years smoked with miRNA expression in normal mucosa as well as differential miRNA expression between paired normal and carcinoma tissue for colon and rectal tissue to determine associations between smoking and miRNA expression...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769943/mucoadhesive-chitosan-hydrogels-as-rectal-drug-delivery-vessels-to-treat-ulcerative-colitis
#8
Jinke Xu, Mifong Tam, Sepideh Samaei, Sophie Lerouge, Jake Barralet, Mary M Stevenson, Marta Cerruti
: Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems stick to mucosal tissues and prolong the local retention time of drugs. Since the colon is covered by a mucosal layer, mucoadhesive rectal formulations may improve treatment of such diseases as hypertension or colon cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. It is commonly treated with sulfasalazine (SSZ), which is metabolized by the intestinal flora into the therapeutic 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and a toxic by-product sulfapyridine (SP)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752113/neoadjuvant-therapy-in-rectal-cancer-biobanking-of-preoperative-tumor-biopsies
#9
Peter Jo, Manuel Nietert, Linda Gusky, Julia Kitz, Lena C Conradi, Annegret Müller-Dornieden, Philipp Schüler, Hendrik A Wolff, Josef Rüschoff, Philipp Ströbel, Marian Grade, Torsten Liersch, Tim Beißbarth, Michael B Ghadimi, Ulrich Sax, Jochen Gaedcke
Translational research relies on high-quality biospecimens. In patients with rectal cancer treated preoperatively with radiochemotherapy tissue based analyses are challenging. To assess quality challenges we analyzed tissue samples taken over the last years in a multicenter setting. We retrospectively evaluated overall 197 patients of the CAO/ARO/AIO-94- and 04-trial with locally advanced rectal cancer that were biopsied preoperatively at the University Medical Center Goettingen as well as in 10 cooperating hospitals in Germany...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721486/pathological-assessment-of-rectal-cancer-after-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-distribution-of-residual-cancer-cells-and-accuracy-of-biopsy
#10
Lin Xiao, Xin Yu, Wenjing Deng, Huixia Feng, Hui Chang, Weiwei Xiao, Huizhong Zhang, Shaoyan Xi, Mengzhong Liu, Yujia Zhu, Yuanhong Gao
We investigated the distribution of residual cancer cells (RCCs) within different layers of the bowel wall in surgical specimens and the value of biopsies of primary rectal lesion after preoperative volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with concurrent chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. Between April 2011 and April 2013, 178 patients with rectal cancer who received preoperative VMAT, concurrent chemotherapy, and surgery were evaluated; 79 of the patients received a biopsy of the primary lesion after chemoradiotherapy and prior to surgery...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721277/does-hepatocyte-paraffin-1-expression-stand-a-role-in-determining-the-site-origin-of-an-adenocarcinoma-from-unknown-gastrointestinal-primary
#11
Rajni Yadav, Saurav Chopra, Aayushi Garg, Brijnandan Gupta, Prateek Kinra, Siddhartha Datta Gupta, Prasenjit Das
BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte Paraffin 1 (Hep Par 1) was being extensively used to recognize the hepatocellular carcinomas, until recognition of its expression in tumors without hepatocellular differentiation. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze if Hep Par 1 stain can serve as a specific marker of the small intestinal (SI) adenocarcinomas, versus other gastrointestinal tract (GIT) primary tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, normal GIT mucosa (n - 60), corresponding adenocarcinomas (n - 60) and nodal metastatic foci (n - 60) from the same patients, including 10 cases each from the esophagus, stomach, SI periampullary region, colon, rectum, and gall bladder were included...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717630/a-novel-technique-for-correction-of-total-rectal-prolapse-endoscopic-assisted-percutaneous-rectopexy-with-the-aid-of-the-endolifter
#12
L Bustamante-Lopez, M Sulbaran, C Sakai, E G de Moura, L Bustamante-Perez, C S Nahas, S C Nahas, I Cecconello, P Sakai
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Rectal prolapse is common in the elderly, having an incidence of 1% in patients over 65years of age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a new endoluminal procedure for attaching the previously mobilized rectum to the anterior abdominal wall using an endoscopic fixation device. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study is a single-arm phasei experimental trial. Under general anesthesia, total rectal prolapse was surgically reproduced in five pigs...
October 4, 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688648/segmental-colitis-associated-diverticulosis-syndrome
#13
EDITORIAL
Hugh J Freeman
Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis (SCAD) has become increasingly appreciated as a form of inflammatory disease of the colon. Several features suggest that SCAD is a distinct disorder. SCAD tends to develop almost exclusively in older adults, predominately, but not exclusively, males. The inflammatory process occurs mainly in the sigmoid colon, and usually remains localized to this region of the colon alone. SCAD most often presents with rectal bleeding and subsequent endoscopic visualization reveals a well localized process with non-specific histopathologic inflammatory changes...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636146/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-fractal-analysis-to-distinguish-between-healthy-and-pathologic-rectal-mucosa-microvasculature-seen-during-colonoscopy
#14
Andrzej Gryglewski, Brandon M Henry, Marian Mrozek, Marcin Żelawski, Krzysztof Piech, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
PURPOSE: Conventional endoscopy is limited by human capability to recognize and to differentiate pathology. Fractal analysis of blood vessels has been used in other organs, such as the retina, but never before to supplement colonoscopy. The aim of this study was to assess whether it is possible to differentiate between healthy and pathologic rectal mucosa using fractal analysis of the mucosal microvascular architecture seen during colonoscopic examination (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links...
October 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615019/actinomyces-infection-as-a-complication-of-a-post-radiotherapy-rectal-ulcer
#15
Carmen Martos Plasencia, Pilar Olivencia Palomar, Roberto Patón Arenas, Cristina Verdejo Gil, Rosario Salmoral Luque, Melvyn Peña Gómez, Eva De la Santa Belda, Bartolomé López Viedma, José Olmedo Camacho
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic radiotherapy is associated with early and late local complication. Actinomyces bacterium is part of the saprophyte flora, although some infection underlying factors are known , the pathophysiology of the disease is still unexplained. Frequently it is involved in oral, gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. CASE REPORT: We present the description of a clinical case supported with images. So that we have developed a bibliographical research in Pubmed data base including the following key words: Ulcer, rectum, brachitherapy and Actinomyces...
September 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602923/magnetic-resonance-tumor-regression-grade-and-residual-mucosal-abnormality-as-predictors-for-pathological-complete-response-in-rectal-cancer-postneoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy
#16
Jemma Bhoday, Fraser Smith, Muhammed R Siddiqui, Svetlana Balyasnikova, Robert I Swift, Rodrigo Perez, Angelita Habr-Gama, Gina Brown
BACKGROUND: Pathological complete response after chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer occurs in 10% to 30% of patients. The best method to identify such patients remains unclear. Clinical assessment of residual mucosal abnormality is considered the most accurate method. In our institution, magnetic resonance tumor regression grade is performed as routine to assess response. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of magnetic tumor regression grade against residual mucosal abnormality in detecting patients with a pathological complete response...
October 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597728/safety-and-efficacy-of-superior-rectal-artery-embolization-with-particles-and-metallic-coils-for-the-treatment-of-hemorrhoids-emborrhoid-technique
#17
A Zakharchenko, Y Kaitoukov, Y Vinnik, F Tradi, M Sapoval, I Sielezneff, E Galkin, V Vidal
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the short-term outcomes after percutaneous embolization of the superior rectal artery (SRA) with metallic coils and particles for the management of hemorrhoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients (15 men, 25 women) with a mean age of 35±5 years (SD) (range: 25-65 years) were prospectively enrolled. All patients had symptomatic hemorrhoids. The distribution of internal hemorrhoids was as follows: grade I (n=6, 16%); grade II (n=28, 69%) and grade III (n=6; 15%)...
August 30, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581253/possible-mechanisms-of-ethanol-mediated-colorectal-carcinogenesis-the-role-of-cytochrome-p4502e1-etheno-dna-adducts-and-the-anti-apoptotic-protein-mcl-1
#18
Bruno Christian Koehler, Tatjana Arslic-Schmitt, Theresa Peccerella, Anna-Lena Scherr, Henning Schulze-Bergkamen, Thomas Bruckner, Georg Gdynia, Dirk Jäger, Sebastian Mueller, Helmut Bartsch, Helmut K Seitz
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. The mechanisms by which ethanol (EtOH) exerts its carcinogenic effect on the colorectal mucosa are not clear and may include oxidative stress with the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated through EtOH metabolism via cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) leading to carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts. ROS may also induce apoptosis. However, the effect of chronic EtOH consumption on CYP2E1, etheno-DNA adducts as well as anti-apoptotic proteins in the colorectal mucosa of heavy drinkers without colorectal inflammation is still not known...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560015/computed-tomography-features-of-appendiceal-metastasis-in-patients-with-underlying-malignancy-comparison-with-pathological-findings
#19
Mi Yeon Nam, Mi Young Kim, Yeo Ju Kim, Chang Hae Suh, Young Chae Chu, Dae Hyung Lee, Jae Sung Cho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) findings compared with pathologic features and to determine whether CT findings are useful for diagnosis of appendiceal metastasis in patients with underlying malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative CT examinations of 59 patients who had underlying malignancy and underwent appendectomy were evaluated. Appendiceal metastasis (n = 21) and nonmetastasis (n = 38) were pathologically confirmed. Computed tomography features (appendiceal morphology and diameter, presence of ascites, rectal shelf, omental cake, lymphadenopathy or organ metastasis) were retrospectively reviewed, and compared with histopathological findings...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558656/rare-presentation-of-gastroesophageal-carcinoma-with-rectal-metastasis-a-case-report
#20
Jasbir Makker, Niraj Karki, Binita Sapkota, Masooma Niazi, Prospere Remy
BACKGROUND Gastroesophageal cancers, previously considered rare, are rapidly increasing worldwide. We present here a unique case of gastroesophageal carcinoma with metastasis to the rectum. CASE REPORT A 60-year-old female patient presented with constipation, bloating, and weight loss of 4-month duration. She had undergone sleeve gastrectomy 6 years before. Endoscopies performed revealed a friable-looking mucosa in the lower esophagus and a polypoid rectal mass. Histopathological examination from both the esophageal and rectal lesions revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
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