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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923303/an-extremely-high-bioavailability-of-orally-administered-vancomycin-in-a-patient-with-severe-colitis-and-renal-insufficiency
#1
Shingo Yamazaki, Takaaki Suzuki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Hirokazu Takatsuka, Masayuki Ishikawa, Noriyuki Hattori, Takeshi Fujishiro, Hideaki Miyauchi, Takehiko Oami, Noritaka Ariyoshi, Shigeto Oda, Hisahiro Matsubara, Itsuko Ishii
Because there is little absorption of orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) through the normal intestinal microvillus membrane, the pharmacokinetics of VCM absorbed from the digestive tract are mostly unknown. Here we report a case of severe colitis and renal insufficiency in which the serum concentration of VCM reached the supratherapeutic range after oral administration. A 54-year-old man receiving outpatient chemotherapy for rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis and acute renal failure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916858/an-endoscopic-mucosal-grading-system-is-predictive-of-leak-in-stapled-rectal-anastomoses
#2
Sarath Sujatha-Bhaskar, Mehraneh D Jafari, Mark Hanna, Christina Y Koh, Colette S Inaba, Steven D Mills, Joseph C Carmichael, Ninh T Nguyen, Michael J Stamos, Alessio Pigazzi
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak is a devastating postoperative complication following rectal anastomoses associated with significant clinical and oncological implications. As a result, there is a need for novel intraoperative methods that will help predict anastomotic leak. METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, patient undergoing rectal anastomoses by colorectal surgeons at our institution underwent prospective application of intraoperative flexible endoscopy with mucosal grading...
September 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914704/rectoneovaginal-fistula-in-a-transgender-woman-successfully-repaired-using-a-buccal-mucosa-graft
#3
Molly Abbott Elmer-DeWitt, Hadley M Wood, Tracy Hull, Cecile A Unger
BACKGROUND: Rectoneovaginal fistulae (RnVFs) are abnormal connections between the rectum and a surgically created neovagina. Although very uncommon, they confer significant morbidity in patients and may require a multidisciplinary team approach to the repair. Risk factors for RnVF include rectal injury at the time of neovaginoplasty, malignancy in the neovagina, trauma (iatrogenic or otherwise), radiation, and neovaginal revision surgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 64-year-old transgender woman with recurrent RnVF following penile skin inversion neovaginoplasty, which was complicated by an intraoperative rectal injury...
September 13, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903954/quantity-and-source-of-dietary-protein-influence-metabolite-production-by-gut-microbiota-and-rectal-mucosa-gene-expression-a-randomized-parallel-double-blind-trial-in-overweight-humans
#4
Martin Beaumont, Kevin Joseph Portune, Nils Steuer, Annaïg Lan, Victor Cerrudo, Marc Audebert, Florent Dumont, Giulia Mancano, Nadezda Khodorova, Mireille Andriamihaja, Gheorghe Airinei, Daniel Tomé, Robert Benamouzig, Anne-Marie Davila, Sandrine Paule Claus, Yolanda Sanz, François Blachier
Background: Although high-protein diets (HPDs) are frequently consumed for body-weight control, little is known about the consequences for gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and for large intestine mucosal homeostasis. Moreover, the effects of HPDs according to the source of protein need to be considered in this context.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the quantity and source of dietary protein on microbiota composition, bacterial metabolite production, and consequences for the large intestinal mucosa in humans...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893560/endoscopic-mucosal-resection-is-superior-to-rectal-suction-biopsy-for-analysis-of-enteric-ganglia-in-constipation-and-dysmotility
#5
Kenneth Barshop, Field F Willingham, William R Brugge, Lawrence R Zukerberg, Braden Kuo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with chronic constipation or motility disorders may be referred for rectal suction biopsy (RSB) to rule out Hirschsprung's disease (HD). RSB may not be successful beyond infancy due to the increased thickness of rectal mucosa. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) could improve the diagnostic yield for HD when compared with traditional RSB because of the larger and deeper samples acquired for analysis. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center study, patients referred for RSB were offered enrollment for concurrent EMR...
September 8, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893282/development-of-targeted-adjuvants-for-hiv-1-vaccines
#6
REVIEW
Jun Liu, Mario Ostrowski
Finding new adjuvants is an integrated component of the efforts in developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Compared with traditional adjuvants, a modern adjuvant in the context of HIV-1 prevention would elicit a durable and potent memory response from B cells, CD8(+) T cells, and NK cells but avoid overstimulation of HIV-1 susceptible CD4(+) T cells, especially at genital and rectal mucosa, the main portals for HIV-1 transmission. We briefly review recent advances in the studies of such potential targeted adjuvants, focusing on three classes of molecules that we study: TNFSF molecules, TLRs agonists, and NODs agonists...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885403/postpartum-management-after-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries
#7
Allison Eubanks, Scott M Petersen
A 26-year-old woman, gravida 1 para 1, experiences a severe perineal laceration that extends through the rectal mucosa after a vaginal delivery. She asks you, "What can be done to optimize my recovery?"
September 5, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876650/pph-where-did-it-go-wrong
#8
D Surridge
BACKGROUND: The stapled haemorrhoidopexy has been used for 20 years. A rare but serious complication is stenosis, occurring in 1-2% of cases. The mechanism for this stenosis has never been described. METHOD: The cadavers of five pigs previously euthanised underwent the procedure for prolapse and haemorrhoids (PPH). Four deliberate mistakes were tested: 1) doubling the circular suture back on itself for part of the circumference at the same depth; 2) placing the circular suture at varying depths; 3) placing one bite of the suture deeper and on the opposite wall of the rectum; and 4) firing the stapler with the anvil positioned proximal to the circular suture but with the suture secured tightly to the shaft of the device...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868184/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-2b-differential-increase-in-enteric-nerve-subgroups-in-muscle-and-mucosa
#9
John M Hutson, Pam J Farmer, Cristal J Peck, Chung W Chow, Bridget R Southwell
Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is a rare syndrome caused by an activating mutation of the RET gene, leading to enteric gangliomatosis. This child presented with constipation at 1-mo old, was diagnosed with MEN2B by rectal biopsy at 4 mo, had thyroidectomy at 9 mo and a colectomy at 4 years. We studied the extent of neuronal and nerve fibre proliferation and which classes of enteric nerves are affected by examining the colon with multiple neuronal antibodies. Resected transverse colon was fixed, frozen, sectioned and processed for fluorescence immunohistochemistry labelling with antibodies against TUJ1, Hu, ChAT, NOS, VIP, SP and CGRP and cKit...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863773/down-regulation-of-mirna-148a-and-mirna-625-3p-in-colorectal-cancer-is-associated-with-tumor-budding
#10
Edita Baltruskeviciene, Diana Schveigert, Vaidotas Stankevicius, Ugnius Mickys, Tadas Zvirblis, Jaroslav Bublevic, Kestutis Suziedelis, Eduardas Aleknavicius
BACKGROUND: MiRNAs are often deregulated in colorectal cancer and might function as tumor suppressors or as oncogenes. They participate in controlling key signaling pathways involved in proliferation, invasion and apoptosis and may serve as prognostic and predictive markers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of miRNA-148a and miRNA-625-3p in metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with a first-time diagnosed CRC receiving FOLFOX ± Bevacizumab were involved in the study...
September 1, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815477/radiotherapy-for-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-malt-lymphoma-of-the-rectum-a-case-report
#11
Toyokazu Hayakawa, Tetsuo Nonaka, Nobutaka Mizoguchi, Yasuhito Hagiwara, Shino Shibata, Rika Sakai, Norisuke Nakayama, Tomoyuki Yokose, Yuko Nakayama
Extra-nodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is frequently involved with the upper gastrointestinal tract, but rarely involved with the rectum. We report a case of rectal MALT lymphoma treated by radiotherapy (RT) alone. A 74-year-old woman with lower abdominal pain was diagnosed with MALT lymphoma by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). She was diagnosed as stage IE (Ann Arbor) MALT lymphoma by diagnostic work-up and review of EMR specimens. Definitive RT was performed with curative intent, totaling 30 Gy in 15 fractions...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780040/long-term-direct-visualization-of-passively-transferred-fluorophore-conjugated-antibodies
#12
Jeffrey R Schneider, Ann M Carias, Arangaserry R Bastian, Gianguido C Cianci, Patrick F Kiser, Ronald S Veazey, Thomas J Hope
The use of therapeutic antibodies, delivered by intravenous (IV) instillation, is a rapidly expanding area of biomedical treatment for a variety of conditions. However, little is known about how the antibodies are anatomically distributed following infusion and the underlying mechanism mediating therapeutic antibody distribution to specific anatomical sites remains to be elucidated. Current efforts utilize low resolution and sensitivity methods such as ELISA and indirect labeling imaging techniques, which often leads to high background and difficulty in assessing biodistribution...
November 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770479/effect-of-milk-fermented-with-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-diarrheal-incidence-growth-performance-and-microbiological-and-blood-profiles-of-newborn-dairy-calves
#13
N C Maldonado, J Chiaraviglio, E Bru, L De Chazal, V Santos, M E F Nader-Macías
The effect of the administration of milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria to calves was evaluated. The strains included were: Lactobacillus murinus CRL1695, Lact. mucosae CRL1696, Lact. johnsonii CRL1693, and Lact. salivarius CRL1702, which were selected for their beneficial and functional properties and isolated from healthy calves in the northwestern region of Argentina. The trial was conducted on a dairy farm located in Tucumán (Holando-Argentino calves). A randomized controlled trial was performed in which 56 new-born animals were divided into two groups: the treated group (T) received the fermented milk for 60 days and the control group (C) only milk...
August 2, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748455/resection-of-rectal-cancer-resembling-submucosal-tumor-that-was-preoperatively-diagnosed-with-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-biopsy
#14
Akimitsu Tanio, Hiroaki Saito, Keigo Ashida, Shouichi Urushibara, Manabu Yamamoto, Naruo Tokuyasu, Teruhisa Sakamoto, Soichiro Honjo, Yoshihiko Maeta, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) resembling submucosal tumor (SMT; CRC/SMT) is very rare. Because its biopsy is challenging, accurate preoperative diagnosis is also very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old woman with a high serum carcinoembryonic antigen level underwent a computed tomography colonoscopy, which showed extrinsic rectum compression. A coronal magnetic resonance image showed a 4-cm low-intensity tumor between her rectum and sacrum. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) showed a 30-mm low-echoic lesion originating from the rectum...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718368/remodeling-of-extracellular-matrix-of-the-lamina-propria-in-the-uninvolved-human-rectal-mucosa-10-and-20%C3%A2-cm-away-from-the-malignant-tumor
#15
Sanja Z Despotović, Novica M Milićević, Dragoslav P Milošević, Nebojša Despotović, Predrag Erceg, Petar Svorcan, Udo Schumacher, Sebastian Ullrich, Gordana Mihajlović, Dragan Kalem, Srđan Marković, Ivana M Lalić, Aleksandar J Krmpot, Mihailo D Rabasović, Dejan V Pantelić, Svetlana Z Jovanić, Thomas Rösch, Živana Milićević
In recent years, it has been demonstrated that malignancy arises and advances through the molecular interplay between tumor cells and non-malignant elements of the tumor stroma, that is, fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. However, in contrast to the mounting evidence about the role of tumor stroma in the genesis and progression of the malignant disease, there are very few data regarding the uninvolved stromal tissue in the remote surrounding of the tumor. Using the objective morphometric approach in patients with adenocarcinoma, we demonstrate the remodeling of extracellular matrix of the lamina propria in the uninvolved rectal mucosa 10 and 20 cm away from the neoplasm...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712179/clinical-spectrum-of-solitary-rectal-ulcer-in-children-presenting-with-per-rectal-bleed
#16
Muhammad Nadeem Anjum, Huma Arshad Cheema, Hassan Suleman Malik, Muhammad Almas Hashmi
BACKGROUND: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults and less common in children. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and clinical spectrum of solitary rectal ulcer in children with bleeding per rectum. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology& Nutrition; The Children's Hospital & The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from January-December 2015...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698865/comparisons-of-gut-microbiota-among-healthy-control-patients-with-conventional-adenoma-sessile-serrated-adenoma-and-colorectal-cancer
#17
Hyuk Yoon, Nayoung Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Yong Sung Kim, Jongchan Lee, Hyoung Woo Kim, Yoon Jin Choi, Cheol Min Shin, Young Soo Park, Dong Ho Lee, Hyun Chae Jung
BACKGROUND: Studies on gut microbiota regarding colorectal carcinogenesis, including sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), have been scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of mucosa-associated gut microbiota in the colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: We collected biopsy samples of normal rectal mucosa during colonoscopy from healthy control and patients with conventional adenoma, SSA, and colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively (n = 6). Pyrosequencing for 16S rRNA gene of bacteria was performed to compare gut microbiota...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690772/bladder-urothelial-carcinoma-extending-to-rectal-mucosa-and-presenting-with-rectal-bleeding
#18
Andrew M Aneese, Vinayata Manuballa, Mitual Amin, Mitchell S Cappell
An 87-year-old-man with prostate-cancer-stage-T1c-Gleason-6 treated with radiotherapy in 1996, recurrent prostate cancer treated with leuprolide hormonal therapy in 2009, and bladder-urothelial-carcinoma in situ treated with Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin and adriamycin in 2010, presented in 2015 with painless, bright red blood per rectum coating stools daily for 5 mo. Rectal examination revealed bright red blood per rectum; and a hard, fixed, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass at the normal prostate location. The hemoglobin was 7...
June 16, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685802/hemorrhagic-meckel-s-diverticulum-interest-of-the-digestive-pertechnetate-scintigraphy
#19
Aida Mhiri, Ihsen Slim, Faouzi Ben Slimène
Meckel's diverticulum is the most prevalent congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical symptoms can result in pain, bleeding and perforation caused by peptic ulceration. Among all imaging modalities, Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy is the most sensitive method for Meckel's diverticulum diagnosis, but only mentioned in a few publications. We report the case of a young child with rectal bleeding related hemorrhagic Meckel's diverticulum. Endoscopy and ultrasound were normal. The diagnosis was done by scintigraphy with technetium revealing an accumulation of radiotracer by mucous cells in ectopic gastric mucosa, which allows a detection of Meckel's diverticulum...
October 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667784/transcription-factor-microrna-associations-and-their-impact-on-colorectal-cancer-survival
#20
Lila E Mullany, Jennifer S Herrick, Roger K Wolff, John R Stevens, Wade Samowitz, Martha L Slattery
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and Transcription Factors (TFs) both influence messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, disrupting biological pathways involved in carcinogenesis and prognosis. As many miRNAs target multiple mRNAs, thus influencing a multitude of biological pathways, deciphering which miRNAs are important for cancer development and survival is difficult. In this study, we (i) determine associations between TF and survival (N = 168 colon cancer cases); (ii) identify miRNAs associated with TFs related to survival; and (iii) determine if factors derived from TF-specific miRNA principal component analysis (PCA) influence survival...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
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