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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332346/vaginal-packing-volume-impact-on-dose-parameters-during-radiography-and-computed-tomography-based-postoperative-brachytherapy-of-cervical-carcinoma
#1
Aleksandar Tomasevic, Vesna Plesinac-Karapandzic, Suzana Stojanovic-Rundic, Sandra Vuckovic, Jasmina Stevanovic, Dusica Gavrilovic, Mirjan Nadrljanski
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of the vaginal packing volume on the registered dose parameters evaluated by radiography (2D) and computed tomography (CT) (3D) based brachytherapy planning in cervical cancer patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy. METHODS: The postoperative radiotherapy was performed in 40 cervical cancer patients with increased risk for disease relapse. Both, radiography and CT based brachytherapy planning were done in all patients...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324429/a-pilot-clinical-study-of-a-safe-and-efficient-stool-management-system-in-patients-with-fecal-incontinence
#2
Ashlee Garcia, Sally Fung, Karen Lou Kennedy-Evans
INTRODUCTION: According to the Wound Ostomy Continence Nursing Society's Continence Committee, the incidence of fecal incontinence (FI) can occur from 18% to 37% in an acute care setting. A stool management system has been designed to manage FI in bedridden patients and has proven to be efficacious in wound management and prevention and infection control, provide safer patient outcomes, and enhance ease of nursing. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an intrarectal device intended to manage fecal incontinence in hospitalized bedridden patients through nonclinical and clinical testings...
December 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317245/current-pharmaceutical-strategies-for-efficient-site-specific-delivery-in-inflamed-distal-intestinal-mucosa
#3
REVIEW
Sumit Sharma, Vivek R Sinha
Inflammatory bowel disorder is associated with certain pathophysiological disturbances which make established techniques of colon targeting more complex and inconsistent. Probable reason is severity of inflammation which leads to more variability in normal range of triggering factors that are being exploited for colon targeting. Influential changes in pathophysiology of intestine during inflammatory bowel disorder including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis both in active as well as quiescent stage have been discussed...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308654/anatomic-site-of-sampling-and-the-rectal-mucosal-microbiota-in-hiv-negative-msm-engaging-in-crai
#4
Nicole Pescatore, Rebecca Pollak, Coleen Kraft, Jennifer Mulle, Colleen Kelley
Rectal HIV transmission accounts for the majority of HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM). We previously demonstrated a distinct rectal mucosal immune environment in MSM engaging in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) compared to men who do not engage in anal intercourse including enrichment of the microbiota for the Prevotella family as compared to Bacteroides. Here, we expand upon these previous findings to determine differences by anatomic site of collection (anal vs. rectal mucosa) and examine associations of the predominant taxa with other genera...
January 7, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304518/image-processing-and-analysis-of-mucosal-calretinin-staining-to-define-the-transition-zone-in-hirschsprung-disease-a-pilot-study
#5
Saleh Najjar, Sangtae Ahn, Israel Kasago, Chunlai Zuo, Kavita Umrau, Sanaz Ainechi, Christine Whyte, Christine E Sheehan, Suzanne M Homan, Hwajeong Lee
PURPOSE:  Quantification of calretinin-stained mucosal nerve fibers by image processing and analysis (IPA) may objectively define the transition zone (TZ) of Hirschsprung disease (HD). We tested the utility of IPA as an adjunctive tool in HD. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Calretinin immunostain was performed on 15 HD pull-through specimens, and multiple images were captured from the proximal aganglionic zone, TZ, and probable normal zone (NZ). Pixel count (PC), defined as the percentage of brown-stained pixels in the mucosa, was quantified and plotted against distance from the rectal distal end...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304229/cd16-macrophages-mediate-fibrosis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Pedro Salvador, Dulce Carolina Macías-Ceja, Laura Gisbert-Ferrándiz, Carlos Hernández, David Bernardo, Rafael Alós, Francisco Navarro-Vicente, Juan Vicente Esplugues, Dolores Ortiz-Masiá, Maria Dolores Barrachina, Sara Calatayud
Background and aims: Fibrosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease, and is related with dysregulated tissular repair following inflammation, in which macrophages play a central role. We have previously observed that STAT6-/- mice present delayed mucosal recovery after TNBS-induced colitis due to a deficiency in reparatory IL4/STAT6-dependent M2 macrophages, which can be reverted by the exogenous transfer of this cell type. In the present study we aimed to analyze the role of STAT6-dependent macrophages in intestinal fibrosis...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280119/-efficacy-of-altemeier-procedure-in-the-treatment-of-rectal-prolapse
#7
Yonglei Cao, Yan Zhou, Congqing Jiang, Guiyi Yang, Hui Song, Lvfeng Liu, Xu Ai, Jing Zhong, Zhilin Gong, Jianhua Ding, Wei Fu, Qun Qian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the perineal rectosigmoidectomy (Altemeier procedure) in the treatment of full thickness rectal prolapse. METHODS: Clinical and follow-up data of 52 patients with full thickness rectal prolapse undergoing Altemeier procedure in 9 hospitals from September 2010 to July 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Of which 38 cases were from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 1 case from Suizhou Central Hospital of Hubei province, 1 case from Jingzhou Second People's Hospital of Hubei province, 3 cases from Wuxue First People's Hospital of Hubei province, 1 case from Jingmen First People's Hospital of Hubei province, 1 case from Tuanfeng County Hospital of Hubei province, 4 cases from Jingzhou Central Hospital of Hubei province, 2 from PLA Rocket Army General Hospital, 1 case from the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University in Jiangsu province...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274977/technical-note-changes-in-rumen-mucosa-thickness-measured-by-transabdominal-ultrasound-as-a-noninvasive-method-to-diagnose-subacute-rumen-acidosis-in-dairy-cows
#8
V Neubauer, E Humer, I Kröger, A Meißl, N Reisinger, Q Zebeli
Feeding high-grain diets leads to the release and accumulation of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen. The subsequent prolonged decline in ruminal pH can lead to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Accumulation of short-chain fatty acids can cause proliferation of rumen papillae to increase absorption surface, subsequently leading to a thickening of the rumen mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of continuous measurements of the rumen mucosa thickness (RMT) as a diagnostic tool for SARA in dairy cows compared with continuous measurements of ruminal pH...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234924/a-new-direction-in-anastomotic-research-should-we-redesign-the-angle-of-sorrow
#9
Omar E Aly
INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in oncological outcomes in colo-rectal surgery, rates of anastomotic leak have not improved. The precise mechanisms of anastomotic leak remain poorly understood. Current research has focused on anastomotic reinforcement to tackle anastomotic leak with little success. The 'Angle of Sorrow', the corner of the anastomosis is prone to anastomotic leak, but remains a persistent feature in the gastrointestinal anastomosis. The tendency for stress forces to concentrate in the vulnerable 'Angle of Sorrow' prompts the need for anastomotic design research...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223560/the-relationship-between-intestinal-and-oral-mucosa-microcirculation-in-anaesthetized-horses
#10
Klaus Hopster, Stephan Neudeck, Liza Wittenberg-Voges, Sabine Br Kästner
OBJECTIVE: To compare alteration in intestinal blood flow in anaesthetized horses with changes in oral mucosa blood flow. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: Eight warmblood horses. METHODS: After induction with guaifenesin and ketamine, anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane at 1.5 vol% in oxygen. The tissue blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry at the jejunum, colon, rectal mucosa, oesophageal mucosa and the oral mucosa...
August 18, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220358/minimally-invasive-monitoring-of-cd4-t-cells-at-multiple-mucosal-tissues-after-intranasal-vaccination-in-rhesus-macaques
#11
Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Pramod N Nehete, Guojun Yang, Hong He, Bharti P Nehete, Kathryn K Shelton, Michael A Barry, K Jagannadha Sastry
Studies in nonhuman primates (NHP) for prospective immune cell monitoring subsequent to infection and/or vaccination usually rely on periodic sampling of the blood samples with only occasional collections of biopsies from mucosal tissues because of safety concerns and practical constraints. Here we present evidence in support of cytobrush sampling of oral, rectal, and genital mucosal tissues as a minimally invasive approach for the phenotypic analyses of different T cells subsets de novo as well as prospectively after intranasal immunization in rhesus macaques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212517/is-hematoxylin-eosin-staining-in-rectal-mucosal-and-submucosal-biopsies-still-useful-for-the-diagnosis-of-hirschsprung-disease
#12
Suellen Serafini, Maria Mercês Santos, Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri, Maria Claudia Nogueira Zerbini, Maria Cecília de Mendonça Coelho, Josiane de Oliveira Gonçalves, Uenis Tannuri
BACKGROUND: Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining of a full-thickness rectal wall fragment is classically used for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease (HD). However, this technique requires large fragments for a better diagnosis. Additionally, the histochemical and immunohistochemical methods of staining small fragments of rectal mucosal and submucosal biopsies are not available in all centers. Therefore, the possibility of diagnosing HD through HE staining in these biopsies could be a valuable alternative for centers that do not have more specific techniques...
December 6, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198808/development-of-rectal-self-emulsifying-suspension-of-a-moisture-labile-water-soluble-drug
#13
Tina Kauss, Alexandra Gaubert, Luc Tabaran, Giovanni Tonelli, Thida Phoeung, Marie-Hélène Langlois, Nick White, Anthony Cartwright, Melba Gomes, Karen Gaudin
Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, commonly used for oral delivery of poorly soluble compounds, were used to formulate water soluble but moisture labile compounds for rectal application. The objective was to use the oily phase of the system to formulate a liquid, non-aqueous product while obtaining the advantages of self-emulsification, rapid contact with the rectal mucosa and rapid absorption post-administration. Ceftriaxone was used as a model drug and the human bile salt sodium chenodeoxycholate was used as an absorption enhancer...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177374/-effects-in-rats-of-bee-wax-alcohols-d-002-on-ulcerative-colitis-induced-by-dextran-sulfate-and-ethanol
#14
Vivian Molina-Cuevas, Yazmin Ravelo-Calzado, Zullyt Zamora-Rodríguez, Miriam Noa-Puig, Maikel Valle-Clara, Yohani Pérez-Guerra, Ámbar Oyarzabal-Yera, Sonia Jiménez-Despaigne, Rosa Mas-Ferreiro
OBJECTIVES.: To investigate the effects of D-002, a mixture of 6 high molecular weight primary aliphatic alcohols, obtained from beeswax (Apis mellifera), on severe inflammatory ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by Dextran sulfate (DSS) and ethanol in rats (Ratus ratus). MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Rats were randomly distributed in six groups: a zero control to which no damage was caused, and five to which the UC was induced: a negative control (vehicle), three treated with D-002 (25, 100 and 400 mg/kg) and a positive control with sulfasalazine (200 mg/kg) (reference substance)...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174928/efficacy-of-indigo-naturalis-in-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-of-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#15
Makoto Naganuma, Shinya Sugimoto, Keiichi Mitsuyama, Taku Kobayashi, Naoki Yoshimura, Hidehisa Ohi, Shinji Tanaka, Akira Andoh, Naoki Ohmiya, Keiichiro Saigusa, Takayuki Yamamoto, Yuichi Morohoshi, Hitoshi Ichikawa, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, Kenji Watanabe, Shinta Mizuno, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Shinji Fukuda, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Takayuki Abe, Mamoru Watanabe, Toshifumi Hibi, Yasuo Suzuki, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Indigo naturalis (IN) is a traditional Chinese medicine that contains ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and promotes regeneration of the mucosa, by inducing production of interleukin 22. IN might induce mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We performed a randomized controlled trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of IN in patients with UC. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, double-blind trial evaluated the safety of 86 patients in Japan with active UC (Mayo scores of 6 or more), enrolled from March 30 through December 27 2016...
November 22, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171232/-process-of-gallnut-suppository-preparation
#16
Mubarak Iminjan, Xue-Mei Cheng, Nazuk Abudu, Abdurahman Nurulla, Zhi-Hong Ji, Halmurat Upur
The main objective was to research the process of gallnut suppository preparation with its water extract as the main drug, and evaluate its irritation to rectal mucosa. gallnut extract was obtained by decocting method, and its suppository preparation was obtained by fusion method with semi-synthetic aliphatic esters and rose flower oil as the matrix. Weight difference and in vitro melting time limit of the suppository were assayed and UV-Vis was used to determine the contents of polyphenols, tannin and saccharide...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124010/positive-fecal-occult-blood-test-as-a-diagnostic-cue-for-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-a-developed-country
#17
Itaru Nakamura, Kenji Yagi, Takashi Kumagai, Nobuo Ohta
The rise in eco-tourism and travel off the beaten track have increased numbers of tourists with schistosomiasis which is seldom seen in developed countries, although this disease is considered a neglected tropical disease especially in poor communities. A Guinean male living in Japan was seen complaining of severe constipation. He was positive for fecal occult blood (FOB) and underwent colonoscopy. Colonoscopy showed petechiae of the rectal mucosa, with pathologic examination of biopsy tissue showing calcified eggs of the genus Schistosoma...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122600/width-and-depth-of-resection-for-small-colorectal-polyps-hot-versus-cold-snare-polypectomy
#18
Sho Suzuki, Takuji Gotoda, Chika Kusano, Hisatomo Ikehara, Akihiro Sugita, Misa Yamauchi, Mitsuhiko Moriyama
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Curability is associated with resection width and depth in polypectomy. We evaluated the resection width and depth achieved with hot snare polypectomy (HSP) and cold snare polypectomy (CSP) for small colorectal polyps. METHODS: In this single-center, prospective, randomized controlled study, patients with rectal or rectosigmoid polyps ≤10 mm in diameter were treated with HSP or CSP. Resection width was evaluated as mucosal defect size, measured immediately postprocedure and 1 day later...
November 6, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118747/emerging-targets-for-developing-t-cell-mediated-vaccines-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1
#19
REVIEW
Danushka K Wijesundara, Charani Ranasinghe, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Eric J Gowans
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has infected >75 million individuals globally, and, according to the UN, is responsible for ~2.1 million new infections and 1.1 million deaths each year. Currently, there are ~37 million individuals with HIV infection and the epidemic has already resulted in 35 million deaths. Despite the advances of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), a cost-effective vaccine remains the best long-term solution to end the HIV-1 epidemic especially given that the vast majority of infected individuals live in poor socio-economic regions of the world such as Sub-Saharan Africa which limits their accessibility to ART...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108563/the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-intestinal-integrity-and-salmonella-invasion-in-broiler-birds
#20
Alhanof Alhenaky, Anas Abdelqader, Mohannad Abuajamieh, Abdur-Rahman Al-Fataftah
The intestinal mucosa works as a barrier to protect the internal environment of the animal from bacteria and bacterial toxins found in the gut lumen. Heat stress may harm this function. Therefore, we designed the current experiment to investigate the effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity, physiological and immunological responses and Salmonella invasion in broiler chickens. At 26 days of age, 72 birds were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 3 birds per replicate...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
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