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Rectal mucosa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146137/transvaginal-mesh-and-transanal-resection-to-treat-outlet-obstruction-constipation-caused-by-rectocele
#1
Yang Shi, Yongjun Yu, Xipeng Zhang, Yuwei Li
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effect of transvaginal mesh repair (TVMR) and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in treating outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients who had outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele were retrospectively analyzed and 39 patients were enrolled the study. Patients were assigned to either the TVMR or STARR group. Postoperative factors such as complications, pain, recurrence rate, and operative time were compared between the 2 groups...
February 1, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143501/safe-and-successful-birth-following-pelvic-radiotherapy-for-rectal-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-a-case-report
#2
Yoshiomi Hatayama, Masahiko Aoki, Hideo Kawaguchi, Katsumi Hirose, Mariko Sato, Hiroyoshi Akimoto, Mitsuki Tanaka, Ichitaro Fujioka, Shuichi Ono, Yoshihiro Takai
BACKGROUND: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas can occur in various parts of the body, and half of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas occur in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is the most common lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract and primary rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is very rare. Because of the high radiosensitivity of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, this condition can be controlled with radiotherapy of approximately 30 Gy alone...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139830/low-dose-aspirin-acetylates-cyclooxygenase-1-in-human-colorectal-mucosa-implications-for-the-chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer
#3
Paola Patrignani, Angela Sacco, Carlos Sostres, Annalisa Bruno, Melania Dovizio, Elena Piazuelo, Luigia Di Francesco, Annalisa Contursi, Mirco Zucchelli, Simone Schiavone, Stefania Tacconelli, Carlo Patrono, Angel Lanas
The mechanism of action of low-dose aspirin in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely hypothetical. We aimed to compare the effects of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day for 7 days) given to 40 individuals undergoing CRC screening on the extent of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 acetylation at serine-529 (AceCOX-1), in blood platelets vs colorectal mucosa, at 7 (group 1) and 24 hours (group 2) after dosing. A significantly (P<0.01) lower %AceCOX-1 was detected in colonic and rectal mucosa (average 64%) vs platelets (average 75%) in both groups...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139502/diagnostic-roles-of-calretinin-in-hirschsprung-disease-a-comparison-to-neuron-specific-enolase
#4
Zaidoon A Musa, Ban J Qasim, Haider F Ghazi, A Wahab A K Al Shaikhly
BACKGROUND/AIM: Diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) can be hard and requires good experience, principally for pathologists who infrequently encounter the disease. However, diagnosis is not always possible with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) because staining has limitations in the identification of immature ganglion cells in neonates and the submucosal area. AIM: To assess the diagnostic role of calretinin immunostaining in HD in comparison to neuron-specific enolase...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132889/mucosal-expression-of-type-2-and-type-17-immune-response-genes-distinguishes-ulcerative-colitis-from-colon-only-crohn-s-disease-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-pediatric-patients
#5
Michael J Rosen, Rebekah Karns, Jefferson E Vallance, Ramona Bezold, Amanda Waddell, Margaret H Collins, Yael Haberman, Phillip Minar, Robert N Baldassano, Jeffrey S Hyams, Susan S Baker, Richard Kellermayer, Joshua D Noe, Anne M Griffiths, Joel R Rosh, Wallace V Crandall, Melvin B Heyman, David R Mack, Michael D Kappelman, James Markowitz, Dedrick E Moulton, Neal S Leleiko, Thomas D Walters, Subra Kugathasan, Keith T Wilson, Simon P Hogan, Lee A Denson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is controversy over the role of the type 2 immune response in pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC)-few data are available from treatment-naïve patients. We investigated whether genes associated with a type 2 immune response in the intestinal mucosa are upregulated in treatment-naïve pediatric patients with UC, compared to patients with Crohn's disease (CD)-associated colitis or without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and whether expression levels associate with clinical outcomes...
January 26, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118954/does-circumferential-tumor-location-affect-the-circumferential-resection-margin-status-in-mid-and-low-rectal-cancer
#6
Byung Mo Kang, Yong-Koo Park, Sun Jin Park, Kil Yeon Lee, Chang Woo Kim, Suk-Hwan Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of circumferential tumor location on circumferential resection margin (CRM) status and the depth of tumor invasion in mid and low rectal cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed whole-mount slides of 58 patients who underwent total mesorectal excision for mid and low rectal cancer. The rate of tumor-positive CRM was compared according to the circumferential tumor location. In 31 patients, morphometric analyses of whole-mount specimens were performed to measure the depth of tumor invasion according to circumferential tumor location...
January 21, 2017: Asian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114388/multicompartmental-pharmacokinetic-model-of-tenofovir-delivery-to-the-rectal-mucosa-by-an-enema
#7
Yajing Gao, David F Katz
Rectal enemas that contain prophylactic levels of anti-HIV microbicides such as tenofovir have emerged as a promising dosage form to prevent sexually transmitted HIV infections. The enema vehicle is promising due to its likely ability to deliver a large amount of drug along the length of the rectal canal. Computational models of microbicide drug delivery by enemas can help their design process by determining key factors governing drug transport and, more specifically, the time history and degree of protection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100059/all-that-glitters-is-not-gold-a-different-cause-for-an-ulcerative-colitis
#8
Armando Peixoto, Marco Silva, Filipe Vilas-Boas, Guilherme Macedo
The authors present the case of a 32-year-old Caucasian male, engineer, who was submitted to a colonoscopy after a presumptive diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. The patient referred an acute bloody and mucous diarrhea, lasting for three weeks, with no fever or rectal tenesmus. Stool studies were negative. During the procedure, colonic segments with continuous hyperemic and exudative mucosa, with small papules with apical ulcers and erosions, were observed.
January 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095874/clinicopathological-study-of-9-cases-of-prostate-cancer-involving-the-rectal-wall
#9
Tao Tang, Zhengduo Yang, Dan Zhang, Jie Qu, Guang Liu, Shiwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer involving the rectal wall is rare and may lead to diagnostic pitfalls. CASE PRESENTATION: Out of 9504 patients with rectal tumors between January 2003 and January 2015, 9 patients (elderly with a mean age of 74 years) with prostate cancer involving the rectal wall were clinically misdiagnosed with rectal cancer. The lesions were located in the rectum, and included 3 circumferential rectal masses, 1 ulceration lesion, 1 crater-like mass, and 4 protruding lesions...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094790/californium-252-neutron-intracavity-brachytherapy-alone-for-t1n0-low-lying-rectal-adenocarcinoma-a-definitive-anal-sphincter-preserving-radiotherapy
#10
Yanli Xiong, Jinlu Shan, Jia Liu, Kewei Zhao, Shu Chen, Wenjing Xu, Qian Zhou, Mei Yang, Xin Lei
This study evaluated the 4-year results of 32 patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma treated solely with californium-252 (Cf-252) neutron intracavity brachytherapy (ICBT). Patients were solicited into the study from January 2008 to June 2011. All the patients had refused surgery or surgery was contraindicated. The patients were treated with Cf-252 neutron ICBT using a novel 3.5-cm diameter off-axis 4-channel intrarectal applicator designed by the authors. The dose reference point was defined on the mucosa surface, with a total dose of 55-62 Gy-eq/4 f (13-16 Gy-eq/f/wk)...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077379/effects-of-supplementation-with-nondigestible-carbohydrates-on-fecal-calprotectin-and-on-epigenetic-regulation-of-sfrp1-expression-in-the-large-bowel-mucosa-of-healthy-individuals
#11
Fiona C Malcomson, Naomi D Willis, Iain McCallum, Long Xie, Idoia Ibero-Baraibar, Wing C Leung, Seamus Kelly, D Michael Bradburn, Nigel J Belshaw, Ian T Johnson, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND: Hyperactive Wnt signaling is frequently observed in colorectal cancer. Higher intakes of dietary fiber [nondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs)] and the fermentation product butyrate are protective against colorectal cancer and may exert their preventative effects via modulation of the Wnt pathway. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of supplementing healthy individuals with 2 NDCs [resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose] on fecal calprotectin concentrations and Wnt pathway-related gene expression...
February 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061442/genetic-variants-in-the-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-influence-expression-of-mirnas-in-colon-and-rectal-normal-mucosa-and-tumor-tissue
#12
Martha L Slattery, Andromahi Trivellas, Andrew J Pellatt, Lila E Mullany, John R Stevens, Roger K Wolff, Jennifer S Herrick
The TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in regulation of cell growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We test the hypothesis that genetic variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway alters miRNA expression.We use data from 1188 colorectal cancer cases to evaluate associations between 80 SNPs in 21 genes.Seven variants eIF4E rs12498533, NFκB1 rs230510, TGFB1 rs4803455, TGFBR1 rs1571590 and rs6478974, SMAD3 rs3743343, and RUNX1 rs8134179 were associated with expression level of miRNAs in normal colorectal mucosa...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059920/local-excision-techniques-for-rectal-cancer-after-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-what-are-we-doing
#13
Fraser McLean Smith, Abdul Ahad, Rodrigo Oliva Perez, John Marks, Krzysztof Bujko, Richard J Heald
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that the majority of rectal cancers demonstrate occult tumor scatter after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy that can extend for several centimeters under adjacent normal-appearing mucosa beside the residual mucosal abnormality or scar. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to determine all of the published selection criteria and technical descriptions for local excision to date with regard to this phenomenon. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase were searched using the following key words: rectal cancer, local excision, radiotherapy, and neoadjuvant...
February 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058078/extramammary-paget-s-disease-of-anal-canal-associated-with-rectal-adenoma-without-invasive-carcinoma
#14
Vaibhav Chumbalkar, Timothy A Jennings, Sanaz Ainechi, Edward C Lee, Hwajeong Lee
Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare disease which is found in apocrine-rich locations such as anogenital region, axilla and rarely in other sites. Perianal EMPD is often reported as the involvement of perianal skin, but involvement of anal mucosa is very rare. Based on pathogenesis and association with either synchronous or metachronous malignancy, EMPD can be divided into primary and secondary types. Treatment approach for these two types of Paget's disease and their prognosis is different, thus it is important to make the distinction...
December 2016: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053552/diet-and-lifestyle-factors-associated-with-mirna-expression-in-colorectal-tissue
#15
Martha L Slattery, Jennifer S Herrick, Lila E Mullany, John R Stevens, Roger K Wolff
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Diet and lifestyle factors have been hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of miRNA expression. In this study it was hypothesized that diet and lifestyle factors are associated with miRNA expression. Data from 1,447 cases of colorectal cancer to evaluate 34 diet and lifestyle variables using miRNA expression in normal colorectal mucosa as well as for differential expression between paired carcinoma and normal tissue were used...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051083/the-loss-of-ccr6-and-cd161-cd4-t-cell-homeostasis-contributes-to-disease-progression-in-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#16
C S McGary, X Alvarez, S Harrington, B Cervasi, E S Ryan, R I Iriele, S Paganini, J L Harper, K Easley, G Silvestri, A A Ansari, M Lichterfeld, L Micci, M Paiardini
Although previous studies have shown that CD4(+) T cells expressing CCR6 and CD161 are depleted from blood during HIV infection, the mechanisms underlying their loss remain unclear. In this study, we investigated how the homeostasis of CCR6(+) and CD161(+) CD4(+) T cells contributes to SIV disease progression and the mechanisms responsible for their loss from circulation. By comparing SIV infection in rhesus macaques (RMs) and natural host sooty mangabeys (SMs), we found that the loss of CCR6(+) and CD161(+) CD4(+) T cells from circulation is a distinguishing feature of progressive SIV infection in RMs...
January 4, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047139/we-de-201-02-a-statistical-analysis-tool-for-plan-quality-verification-in-hdr-brachytherapy-forward-planning-for-cervix-cancer
#17
R Ma, X Zhu, S Li, D Zheng, Y Lei, S Wang, V Verma, N Bennion, A Wahl, S Zhou
PURPOSE: High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy forward planning is principally an iterative process; hence, plan quality is affected by planners' experiences and limited planning time. Thus, this may lead to sporadic errors and inconsistencies in planning. A statistical tool based on previous approved clinical treatment plans would help to maintain the consistency of planning quality and improve the efficiency of second checking. METHODS: An independent dose calculation tool was developed from commercial software...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042165/coupled-gel-spreading-and-diffusive-transport-models-describing-microbicidal-drug-delivery
#18
Claire Funke, Kelsey MacMillan, Anthony Ham, Andrew J Szeri, David F Katz
Gels are a drug delivery platform that is being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, that act topically against vaginal and rectal mucosal infection by sexually transmitted HIV. Despite success in one Phase IIb trial of a vaginal gel delivering tenofovir, problems of user adherence to designed gel application scheduling have compromised results in two other trials. The microbicides field is responding to this dilemma by expanding behavioral analysis of the determinants of adherence while simultaneously improving the pharmacological, biochemical, and biophysical analyses of the determinants of microbicide drug delivery...
October 2, 2016: Chemical Engineering Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008401/rectal-blue-nevus-distinguishing-features-of-a-rare-entity
#19
Neena Mohan, Christina Tofani, Peter McCue, Daniel Quirk
A 26-year-old African American man with a history of depression and tuberculosis presented to the gastroenterology department after several months of rectal pain with bowel movements. Colonoscopy revealed hyperpigmentation in the distal rectum and internal hemorrhoids, which resulted in a diagnosis of blue nevi. This is only the third known description of a blue nevus involving the gastrointestinal mucosa.
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000199/-meta-analysis-of-incidence-of-postoperative-complications-for-the-modified-posterior-sagittal-anorectoplasty-treatment-of-intermediate-or-high-anorectal-malformations
#20
Liqiong Duan, Hongxia Ren, Xiaobing Sun
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of postoperative complications of children with intermediate or high anorectal malformations treated by one-stage modified posterior sagittal anorectoplasty(PSARP) by meta-analysis. METHODS: Cases with intermediate or high anorectal malformations treated by one-stage modified PSARP nearly a decade at home and abroad were collected by searching in Wanfang Data, CNKI, and PubMed database, then all the papers that recorded the number of cases of postoperative complications were screened out according to inclusion and exclusion criteria...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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