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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124010/positive-fecal-occult-blood-test-as-a-diagnostic-cue-for-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-a-developed-country
#1
Itaru Nakamura, Kenji Yagi, Takashi Kumagai, Nobuo Ohta
The rise in eco-tourism and travel off the beaten track have increased numbers of tourists with schistosomiasis which is seldom seen in developed countries, although this disease is considered a neglected tropical disease especially in poor communities. A Guinean male living in Japan was seen complaining of severe constipation. He was positive for fecal occult blood (FOB) and underwent colonoscopy. Colonoscopy showed petechiae of the rectal mucosa, with pathologic examination of biopsy tissue showing calcified eggs of the genus Schistosoma...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122600/width-and-depth-of-resection-for-small-colorectal-polyps-hot-versus-cold-snare-polypectomy
#2
Sho Suzuki, Takuji Gotoda, Chika Kusano, Hisatomo Ikehara, Akihiro Sugita, Misa Yamauchi, Mitsuhiko Moriyama
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Curability is associated with resection width and depth in polypectomy. We evaluated the resection width and depth achieved with hot snare polypectomy (HSP) and cold snare polypectomy (CSP) for small colorectal polyps. METHODS: In this single-center, prospective, randomized controlled study, patients with rectal or rectosigmoid polyps ≤10 mm in diameter were treated with HSP or CSP. Resection width was evaluated as mucosal defect size, measured immediately postprocedure and 1 day later...
November 6, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118747/emerging-targets-for-developing-t-cell-mediated-vaccines-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1
#3
REVIEW
Danushka K Wijesundara, Charani Ranasinghe, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Eric J Gowans
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has infected >75 million individuals globally, and, according to the UN, is responsible for ~2.1 million new infections and 1.1 million deaths each year. Currently, there are ~37 million individuals with HIV infection and the epidemic has already resulted in 35 million deaths. Despite the advances of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), a cost-effective vaccine remains the best long-term solution to end the HIV-1 epidemic especially given that the vast majority of infected individuals live in poor socio-economic regions of the world such as Sub-Saharan Africa which limits their accessibility to ART...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108563/the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-intestinal-integrity-and-salmonella-invasion-in-broiler-birds
#4
Alhanof Alhenaky, Anas Abdelqader, Mohannad Abuajamieh, Abdur-Rahman Al-Fataftah
The intestinal mucosa works as a barrier to protect the internal environment of the animal from bacteria and bacterial toxins found in the gut lumen. Heat stress may harm this function. Therefore, we designed the current experiment to investigate the effect of heat stress on intestinal integrity, physiological and immunological responses and Salmonella invasion in broiler chickens. At 26 days of age, 72 birds were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 3 birds per replicate...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098931/ante-mortem-detection-of-chronic-wasting-disease-in-recto-anal-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissues-from-elk-cervus-elaphus-nelsoni-using-real-time-quaking-induced-conversion-rt-quic-assay-a-blinded-collaborative-study
#5
Sireesha Manne, Naveen Kondru, Tracy Nichols, Aaron Lehmkuhl, Bruce Thomsen, Rodger Main, Patrick Halbur, Somak Dutta, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Prion diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) characterized by fatal, progressive neurologic diseases with prolonged incubation periods and an accumulation of infectious misfolded prion proteins. Antemortem diagnosis is often difficult due to a long asymptomatic incubation period, differences in the pathogenesis of different prions, and the presence of very low levels of infectious prion in easily accessible samples. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a TSE affecting both wild and captive populations of cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, moose, muntjac, and most recently, wild reindeer...
November 3, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033437/acute-anorectal-thrombophlebitis-caused-by-a-protein-c-deficiency
#6
Yuji Eso, Satoshi Yoshiji, Yuto Nakakubo, Minoru Matsuura, Hiroshi Seno
A 46-year-old man visited the emergency department of our hospital with a 3-day history of anal pain, hemorrhaging, and a slight fever. He had previously been diagnosed with protein C deficiency and was prescribed dabigatran, a direct oral anticoagulant. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed severe rectal wall thickening with partial defect of enhancement. In addition, sigmoidoscopy revealed a dusky purplish swollen anorectal mucosa just above the dentate line. He was diagnosed with acute anorectal thrombophlebitis, and anticoagulant therapy with heparin was initiated...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028817/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-gastrointestinal-mucosa-of-children-with-autism-a-blinded-case-control-study
#7
Shannon Rose, Sirish C Bennuri, Katherine F Murray, Timothy Buie, Harland Winter, Richard Eugene Frye
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Imbalances in the enteric microbiome have been associated with ASD and can cause GI dysfunction potentially through disruption of mitochondrial function as microbiome metabolites modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction is highly associated with GI symptoms. In this study, we compared mitochondrial function in rectal and cecum biopsies under the assumption that certain microbiome metabolites, such as butyrate and propionic acid, are more abundant in the cecum as compared to the rectum...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019178/second-harmonic-generation-for-collagen-i-characterization-in-rectal-cancer-patients-with-and-without-preoperative-radiotherapy
#8
Stéphanie Blockhuys, Nisha Rani Agarwal, Camilla Hildesjö, Ingvar Jarlsfelt, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Xiao-Feng Sun
Rectal cancer is treated with preoperative radiotherapy (RT) to downstage the tumor, reduce local recurrence, and improve patient survival. Still, the treatment outcome varies significantly and new biomarkers are desired. Collagen I (Col-I) is a potential biomarker, which can be visualized label-free by second harmonic generation (SHG). Here, we used SHG to identify Col-I changes induced by RT in surgical tissue, with the aim to evaluate the clinical significance of RT-induced Col-I changes. First, we established a procedure for quantitative evaluation of Col-I by SHG in CDX2-stained tissue sections...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991089/retained-needle-following-transanal-hemorrhoidal-dearterialization
#9
Valerio Celentano, Anjan Banerjee, Federico Luvisetto, Syed Naqvi, Jim Khan
INTRODUCTION: A needle was retained during transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization. This rare complication has not been described before. TECHNIQUE: A spinal needle was inserted from the perianal skin to localize the retained foreign body that was located at 7 cm from the anal margin. A decision was made to proceed to intersphincteric dissection, and a 3-cm incision was made in the perianal skin from 2 to 4 o'clock. Deep pararectal dissection continued, and the needle was eventually found lying in the muscular layer, parallel to the plane of the dissection...
November 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990150/biomarkers-of-colorectal-cancer-risk-decrease-6%C3%A2-months-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery
#10
Sorena Afshar, Fiona Malcomson, Seamus B Kelly, Keith Seymour, Sean Woodcock, John C Mathers
PURPOSE: The impact of weight loss on obesity-related colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not well defined. Previous studies have suggested that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery may have an unexpected adverse impact on CRC risk. This study aimed to investigate the impact of RYGB on biomarkers of CRC risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal mucosal biopsies and blood were obtained from patients undergoing RYGB (n = 22) and non-obese control participants (n = 20) at baseline and at a median of 6...
October 8, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963746/expression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-and-its-correlation-with-clinical-symptoms-and-endoscopic-findings-in-patients-with-chronic-radiation-proctitis
#11
Radzislaw Trzcinski, Adam Dziki, Magdalena Brys, Malgorzata Moszynska-Zielinska, Justyna Chalubinska-Fendler, Michal Mik, Ryszard Kujawski, Lukasz Dziki
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a key proangiogenic factor and determine whether there is any correlation between its expression and clinical symptoms or endoscopic changes in patients with chronic radiation proctitis (ChRP). METHOD: Fifty patients who had all undergone radiotherapy for prostate, cervical and uterine cancers were included in the study (37 females, 13 males). There was a control group of 20 patients (9 females, 11 males)...
September 29, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959428/coincidence-or-not-a-rare-case-of-rectal-leiomyosarcoma-amidst-incidental-findings-of-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-case-presentation-and-literature-review
#12
Gosta Iwasiuk, Jason Nealy
Leiomyosarcoma accounts for only a small percentage of colorectal malignancies and remains a difficult disease to diagnose and treat. Here, we describe a case of leiomyosarcoma in a middle-age female first identified on colonoscopy. The cancer had invaded the posterior vaginal wall necessitating an abdominoperineal resection with partial vaginectomy and pelvic floor reconstruction with neovagina creation. Final pathologic analysis revealed invasion into the posterior vaginal wall without direct involvement of the vaginal squamous mucosa...
September 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953077/rare-enterorectal-pelvic-floor-hernia-a-cadaveric-study
#13
Jennifer C Hocking, Momoe Hyakutake, Christine A Webber
We present a cadaveric case study of an 88-year-old woman with an unusual posterior perineal hernia containing small bowel, rectum, and mesentery. Dissection revealed several loops of the small bowel occupying the presacral space and displacement of the rectum into a large perineal evagination. The intestinal mucosa appeared to have been healthy at the time of death, and we did not find any indication of rectal prolapse. There was also no evidence of past surgery, suggestive of a primary hernia. We conclude this patient had a posterior enterorectal perineal hernia...
September 25, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939581/protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-characterising-the-immune-responses-induced-by-varicella-zoster-virus-vzv-vaccination-in-healthy-kenyan-women-setting-the-stage-for-a-potential-vzv-based-hiv-vaccine
#14
Catia T Perciani, Walter Jaoko, Sharon Walmsley, Bashir Farah, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Mario Ostrowski, Omu Anzala, Kavi-Icr Team, Kelly S MacDonald
INTRODUCTION: A protective HIV vaccine would be expected to induce durable effector immune responses at the mucosa, restricting HIV infection at its portal of entry. We hypothesise that use of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) as an HIV delivery vector could generate sustained and robust tissue-based immunity against HIV antigens to provide long-term protection against HIV. Given that HIV uniquely targets immune-activated T cells, the development of human vaccines against HIV must also involve a specific examination of the safety of the vector...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923303/an-extremely-high-bioavailability-of-orally-administered-vancomycin-in-a-patient-with-severe-colitis-and-renal-insufficiency
#15
Shingo Yamazaki, Takaaki Suzuki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Hirokazu Takatsuka, Masayuki Ishikawa, Noriyuki Hattori, Takeshi Fujishiro, Hideaki Miyauchi, Takehiko Oami, Noritaka Ariyoshi, Shigeto Oda, Hisahiro Matsubara, Itsuko Ishii
Because there is little absorption of orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) through the normal intestinal microvillus membrane, the pharmacokinetics of VCM absorbed from the digestive tract are mostly unknown. Here we report a case of severe colitis and renal insufficiency in which the serum concentration of VCM reached the supratherapeutic range after oral administration. A 54-year-old man receiving outpatient chemotherapy for rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis and acute renal failure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916858/an-endoscopic-mucosal-grading-system-is-predictive-of-leak-in-stapled-rectal-anastomoses
#16
Sarath Sujatha-Bhaskar, Mehraneh D Jafari, Mark Hanna, Christina Y Koh, Colette S Inaba, Steven D Mills, Joseph C Carmichael, Ninh T Nguyen, Michael J Stamos, Alessio Pigazzi
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak is a devastating postoperative complication following rectal anastomoses associated with significant clinical and oncological implications. As a result, there is a need for novel intraoperative methods that will help predict anastomotic leak. METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, patient undergoing rectal anastomoses by colorectal surgeons at our institution underwent prospective application of intraoperative flexible endoscopy with mucosal grading...
September 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914704/rectoneovaginal-fistula-in-a-transgender-woman-successfully-repaired-using-a-buccal-mucosa-graft
#17
Molly Abbott Elmer-DeWitt, Hadley M Wood, Tracy Hull, Cecile A Unger
BACKGROUND: Rectoneovaginal fistulae (RnVFs) are abnormal connections between the rectum and a surgically created neovagina. Although very uncommon, they confer significant morbidity in patients and may require a multidisciplinary team approach to the repair. Risk factors for RnVF include rectal injury at the time of neovaginoplasty, malignancy in the neovagina, trauma (iatrogenic or otherwise), radiation, and neovaginal revision surgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 64-year-old transgender woman with recurrent RnVF following penile skin inversion neovaginoplasty, which was complicated by an intraoperative rectal injury...
September 27, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903954/quantity-and-source-of-dietary-protein-influence-metabolite-production-by-gut-microbiota-and-rectal-mucosa-gene-expression-a-randomized-parallel-double-blind-trial-in-overweight-humans
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Martin Beaumont, Kevin Joseph Portune, Nils Steuer, Annaïg Lan, Victor Cerrudo, Marc Audebert, Florent Dumont, Giulia Mancano, Nadezda Khodorova, Mireille Andriamihaja, Gheorghe Airinei, Daniel Tomé, Robert Benamouzig, Anne-Marie Davila, Sandrine Paule Claus, Yolanda Sanz, François Blachier
Background: Although high-protein diets (HPDs) are frequently consumed for body-weight control, little is known about the consequences for gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and for large intestine mucosal homeostasis. Moreover, the effects of HPDs according to the source of protein need to be considered in this context.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the quantity and source of dietary protein on microbiota composition, bacterial metabolite production, and consequences for the large intestinal mucosa in humans...
October 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893560/endoscopic-mucosal-resection-is-superior-to-rectal-suction-biopsy-for-analysis-of-enteric-ganglia-in-constipation-and-dysmotility
#19
Kenneth Barshop, Field F Willingham, William R Brugge, Lawrence R Zukerberg, Braden Kuo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with chronic constipation or motility disorders may be referred for rectal suction biopsy (RSB) to rule out Hirschsprung's disease (HD). RSB may not be successful beyond infancy due to the increased thickness of rectal mucosa. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) could improve the diagnostic yield for HD when compared with traditional RSB because of the larger and deeper samples acquired for analysis. METHODS: In this prospective, single-center study, patients referred for RSB were offered enrollment for concurrent EMR...
September 8, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893282/development-of-targeted-adjuvants-for-hiv-1-vaccines
#20
REVIEW
Jun Liu, Mario Ostrowski
Finding new adjuvants is an integrated component of the efforts in developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Compared with traditional adjuvants, a modern adjuvant in the context of HIV-1 prevention would elicit a durable and potent memory response from B cells, CD8(+) T cells, and NK cells but avoid overstimulation of HIV-1 susceptible CD4(+) T cells, especially at genital and rectal mucosa, the main portals for HIV-1 transmission. We briefly review recent advances in the studies of such potential targeted adjuvants, focusing on three classes of molecules that we study: TNFSF molecules, TLRs agonists, and NODs agonists...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
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