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Rectal mucosa

Yoshito Hirata, Keishi Kanno, Nobusuke Kishikawa, Shinji Tomoda, Kazuki Kimura, Tomoki Kobayashi, Daisuke Miyamori, Yuichiro Otani, Masafumi Mizooka, Koji Arihiro, Shiro Oka, Shinji Tanaka, Susumu Tazuma
A 46-year-old man with severe back pain visited our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive bone metastasis and rectal wall thickness. Colonoscopy revealed circumferential stenosis with edematous mucosa, suggesting colon cancer. However, histological findings of biopsy specimens revealed inflammatory cells but no malignant cells. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound, which demonstrated edematous wall thickness without destruction of the normal layer structure. After unsuccessful detection of neoplastic cells by boring biopsies, we performed endoscopic mucosal resection followed by boring biopsies that finally revealed signet ring cell carcinoma...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Elena García-Payá, Marta Fernández, Sergio Padilla, José A García, Catalina Robledano, Victoria Ortiz DE LA Tabla, Félix Gutiérrez, Mar Masiá
OBJECTIVE: The protective effect of ART has not yet been definitively established in men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to characterize the factors associated with persistent HIV-1 RNA rectal shedding. METHODS: Prospective study including virologically-suppressed MSM from an HIV cohort. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) was performed for screening of anal dysplasia, and rectal sampling for HIV-1 RNA quantification and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) investigation through multiplex PCR...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Ondrej Fabian, Ondrej Hradsky, Tereza Drskova, Filip Mikus, Josef Zamecnik, Jiri Bronsky
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remains challenging. We aimed at the value of immunohistochemical assessment of CD30+ lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa in differential diagnosis between pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and its utility as a predictor of future differentiation in patients with IBD unclassified (IBDU). METHODS: Seventy-four treatment naive pediatric patients with IBD (33 CD, 30 UC and 11 IBDU) were enrolled into the study...
March 14, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Muhammad Naeem, Junhwan Bae, Murtada A Oshi, Min-Soo Kim, Hyung Ryong Moon, Bok Luel Lee, Eunok Im, Yunjin Jung, Jin-Wook Yoo
Background: Colon-targeted oral nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an ideal, safe, and effective therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC) owing to their ability to selectively accumulate in inflamed colonic mucosa. Cyclosporine A (CSA), an immunosuppressive agent, has long been used as rescue therapy in severe steroid-refractory UC. In this study, we developed CSA-loaded dual-functional polymeric NPs composed of Eudragit® FS30D as a pH-sensitive polymer for targeted delivery to the inflamed colon, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as a sustained-release polymer...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Tyler B Draeger, Usman Aslam, Nassim Mokraoui, Eric Seitelman, Rajiv Datta, Robert C Amajoyi
In patients who have undergone a colonic resection with creation of an end colostomy, drainage of mucus secreted by the mucosa of the rectal stump may not be possible if there is an outlet obstruction. With an outlet obstruction, formation of a rectal mucocele occurs. A rectal mucocele is a rare condition which has only been reported sporadically in case reports. We present here the utility of an intersphincteric proctectomy for treatment of a rectal mucocele in a 47 year old male Crohn's patient resulting in negligible post-operative or long-term morbidities...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Roshonda B Jones, Xiangzhu Zhu, Emili Moan, Harvey J Murff, Reid M Ness, Douglas L Seidner, Shan Sun, Chang Yu, Qi Dai, Anthony A Fodor, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Martha J Shrubsole
The purpose of this study is to evaluate similarities and differences in gut bacterial measurements and stability in the microbial communities of three different types of samples that could be used to assess different niches of the gut microbiome: rectal swab, stool, and normal rectal mucosa samples. In swab-stool comparisons, there were substantial taxa differences with some taxa varying largely by sample type (e.g. Thermaceae), inter-individual subject variation (e.g. Desulfovibrionaceae), or by both sample type and participant (e...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alison C Levy, Alex J Vanni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urethral strictures that are refractory to initial management present unique challenges to the reconstructive surgeon. Treatment trends have shifted as new tissue resources are becoming available. There is renewed interest in old methods as skill and technique have improved. We describe the scope of the surgical armamentarium available to develop creative approaches and successful outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss techniques to maximize the availability of oral mucosa, harvest and use of rectal mucosa, and developments in tissue engineering...
February 26, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Aubrey L Presnell, Oranat Chuchuen, Morgan G Simons, Jason R Maher, David F Katz
The prophylactic activity of antiretroviral drugs applied as microbicides against sexually transmitted HIV is dependent upon their concentrations in infectable host cells. Within mucosal sites of infection (e.g., vaginal and rectal mucosa), those cells exist primarily in the stromal layer of the tissue. Traditional pharmacokinetic studies of these drugs have been challenged by poor temporal and spatial specificity. Newer techniques to measure drug concentrations, involving Raman spectroscopy, have been limited by laser penetration depth into tissue...
February 21, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Marek Kowalczyk, Marcin Orłowski, Piotr Siermontowski, Dariusz Mucha, Krzysztof Zinkiewicz, Waldemar Kurpiewski, Ewa Zieliński, Iwona Kowalczyk, Agnieszka Pedrycz
BACKGROUND: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are commonly considered the early pre-cancerous lesions that can progress to colorectal cancer (CRC). The available literature data reveal that age, dietary factors and lifestyle can affect the development of several dozen percentages of malignant tumours, including CRC. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the incidence and growth dynamics of ACF and to determine whether the type of diet affected the development and number of AFC. METHODS: Colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0...
February 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
Pelvender S Gill, Newton A C S Wong
AIMS: The currently recognised subtypes of anal canal/perianal adenocarcinoma are those arising from low rectal mucosa or columnar cuff, fistula-related tumours and anal gland carcinoma. This following report presents two examples of a hitherto undescribed subtype of perianal adenocarcinoma with an intestinal phenotype. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 74 year old man had a perianal tumour locally excised whereas a 73 year old female underwent an abdominoperineal resection for perianal Paget's disease with an underlying carcinoma...
February 21, 2018: Histopathology
Sarah J MacEachern, Catherine M Keenan, Evangelia Papakonstantinou, Keith A Sharkey, Bhavik Anil Patel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by pain, bleeding, cramping and altered gastrointestinal (GI) function. Changes in mucosal serotonin (5-HT) signalling occur in animal models of colitis and in humans suffering from IBD. Melatonin is co-released with 5-HT from the mucosa and has a wide variety of actions in the GI tract. Here we examined how melatonin signalling is affected by colitis and determined how this relates to 5-HT signalling. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using electroanalytical approaches, we investigated how 5-HT release, reuptake and availability as well as melatonin availability are altered in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
G Liebig-Hörl, C Puchner, M Gerken, M Klinkhammer-Schalke, A Fürst
BACKROUND: A common consensus for the definition for early rectal cancer does not exist. This item is used in cases of histological findings including pTis, pT1 or pT2 tumors. The term early rectal cancer is not mentioned in the German S3 guidelines on colorectal cancer. The pTis tumors are located at the mucosa level of the intestinal wall and they have nearly no tendency to develop metastases but pT2 tumors have a high risk of local metastases; therefore, the term early rectal cancer is not adequate for pT2 tumors...
February 14, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Nicholas J Haley, Davin M Henderson, Sarah Wycoff, Joanne Tennant, Edward A Hoover, Dan Love, Ed Kline, Aaron Lehmkuhl, Bruce Thomsen
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting members of the cervid species, and is one of the few TSEs with an expanding geographic range. Diagnostic limitations, efficient transmission, and the movement of infected animals are important contributing factors in the ongoing spread of disease. Managing CWD in affected populations has proven difficult, relying on population reduction in the case of wild deer and elk, or quarantine and depopulation in farmed cervids...
February 9, 2018: Prion
Catia T Perciani, Walter Jaoko, Bashir Farah, Mario A Ostrowski, Omu Anzala, Kelly S MacDonald
Cell surface expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins play a key role in T cell distribution. Understanding the contribution of integrins to the density and ratios of CD4+: CD4negT cell at the portals of entry for HIV is of fundamental importance for the advance of more effective HIV prevention strategies. We therefore set out to characterize and compare the expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins on systemic, cervical and rectal CD4+ and CD4negT cells isolated from a cohort of healthy Kenyan women at low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (n = 45)...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer A Fulcher, Steven Shoptaw, Solomon B Makgoeng, Julie Elliott, F Javier Ibarrondo, Amy Ragsdale, Ron Brookmeyer, Peter A Anton, Pamina M Gorbach
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use increases the risk of HIV-1 infection among seronegative users, and can exacerbate disease progression in HIV-positive users. The biological mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. In this cross-sectional pilot study, we examine the associations between recent methamphetamine use and inflammation in the rectal mucosa and peripheral blood compartments in HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: HIV-seronegative and seropositive MSM participants were enrolled (N=24)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Philip J Kieffer, Jarred M Williams, Molly K Shepard, Steeve Giguère, Kira L Epstein
The objectives of the study were to: i) determine baseline microvascular perfusion indices (MPI) and assess their repeatability in healthy horses under general anesthesia, and ii) compare the MPIs of 3 microvascular beds (oral mucosa, colonic serosa, and rectal mucosa). Healthy adult horses were anesthetized and sidestream dark field microscopy was used to collect video loops of the oral mucosa, rectal mucosa, and colonic serosa under normotensive conditions without cardiovascular support drugs; videos were later analyzed to produce MPIs...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Jacob Antunes, Satish Viswanath, Justin T Brady, Benjamin Crawshaw, Pablo Ros, Scott Steele, Conor P Delaney, Raj Paspulati, Joseph Willis, Anant Madabhushi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop and quantitatively evaluate a radiology-pathology fusion method for spatially mapping tissue regions corresponding to different chemoradiation therapy-related effects from surgically excised whole-mount rectal cancer histopathology onto preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included six subjects with rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy who were then imaged with a 3-T T2-weighted MRI sequence, before undergoing mesorectal excision surgery...
January 19, 2018: Academic Radiology
Min-Sun Kwak, Su Jin Chung, Jong In Yang, Jong Pil Im, Min Jung Park, Cheol Lee, Joo Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: Incidental, small rectal neuroendocrine tumors during colonoscopy screening are sometimes removed using biopsy forceps. Few studies have examined the clinical course of rectal neuroendocrine tumors removed by simple excisional biopsy. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the long-term outcome of rectal neuroendocrine tumors removed by simple excisional biopsy compared with standard endoscopic resection. DESIGN: This was a cohort study. SETTINGS: This study was performed at a healthcare center in Korea...
January 23, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Kattayoun Kordy, Julie Elliott, Karen Tanner, Elizabeth Jane Johnson, Ian McGowan, Peter A Anton
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether human whole semen (WS) and seminal plasma (SP) either previously frozen or freshly acquired altered ex vivo infectibility of human colonic explants or was associated with histology or toxicity changes which may influence mucosal HIV-1 transmission in vivo. METHODS: Pooled human semen samples were freshly obtained from study volunteers (never frozen) and from commercial sources (frozen /thawed). Endoscopically acquired rectal biopsies were evaluated for toxicity following titered ex vivo WS/SP exposure by histological grading and by MTT assay...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Haiyang Zhou, Canping Ruan, Zhiguo Wang, Zhiqian Hu
BACKGROUND: Intersphincter resection (ISR) is considered to be a superior technique offering sphincter preservation in patients with ultralow rectal cancer.1 Because high-definition laparoscopy offers wider and clearer vision into the narrow pelvic cavity and intersphincteric space, ISR has been further refined.2 However, functional outcome after ISR has not been optimal. More than half of patients receiving ISR suffer partial or even complete anal incontinence.3 We therefore propose a laparoscopic-assisted modified ISR, with the aim of improving sphincter function following ISR...
April 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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