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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526076/rectal-sparing-type-of-ulcerative-colitis-predicts-lack-of-response-to-pharmacotherapies
#1
Yuki Horio, Motoi Uchino, Toshihiro Bando, Teruhiro Chohno, Hirofumi Sasaki, Akihiro Hirata, Yoshio Takesue, Hiroki Ikeuchi
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is known as an immune disorder of the colon that generally involves the rectum, but an atypical distribution of inflamed mucosa has previously been noted in certain subtypes of UC, such as the rectal-sparing type (RST). As noted in a previous report, patients with the RST may be at elevated risk for disease refractoriness, but the clinical significance of RST remains unknown. METHODS: UC patients who underwent surgery between January 2010 and April 2015 were included...
May 19, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521759/dosimetric-comparison-of-interstitial-brachytherapy-with-multi-channel-vaginal-cylinder-plans-in-patients-with-vaginal-tumors
#2
Lucas C Mendez, Moti Paudel, Matt Wronski, Ananth Ravi, Lisa Barbera, Eric Leung
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the dosimetric performance of multi-channel vaginal cylinder (MCVC) against interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT) for the treatment of vaginal tumors. METHODS: Vaginal tumors with extension of > 0.5 cm and ≤ 2 cm from the lateral vaginal wall and/or ≤ 1 cm in height above the vaginal vault were retrospectively selected from a ISBT registry trial database. The selected patients were treated with ISBT and targets included the intermediate (IRCTV) or high-risk (HRCTV) clinical target volumes...
May 18, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521466/extranodal-marginal-zone-lymphoma-of-the-uterine-cervix-with-concomitant-copy-number-gains-of-the-malt1-and-bcl2-genes-a-case-report
#3
Tomoko Takimoto, Saori Maegawa, Hiroshi Tatsumi, Hisao Nagoshi, Yoshiaki Chinen, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Shigeo Horiike, Shigeo Nakamura, Jo Kitawaki, Junya Kuroda, Masafumi Taniwaki
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the uterus is rare, and the etiology, pathophysiology and cytogenetic features remain unknown at present. The present study reports a case of a 71-year-old female with EMZL of the uterine cervix that was 80 mm in diameter and invaded directly into the rectal serosa. Complete remission was successfully induced by 6 courses of immunochemotherapy with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508695/ganglion-cells-are-frequently-present-in-pediatric-mucosal-colorectal-biopsies
#4
Alexandra E Kovach, M Cristina Pacheco
Hirschsprung disease (HD) rarely presents as chronic constipation after the newborn period. At our institution, calretinin immunohistochemistry (CAL) is frequently requested by clinicians on rectal mucosal biopsies (RMBs) taken during colonoscopy in older children in whom suspicion for HD is low. We hypothesized that review of these biopsies would frequently reveal ganglion cells (GCs). We reviewed features of mucosal biopsies (November 2013 to September 2015) from children ≥1 year of age on which clinicians had requested CAL on at least one specimen...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503933/highly-hiv-exposed-seronegative-men-have-lower-mucosal-innate-immune-reactivity
#5
Jennifer A Fulcher, Laura Romas, Jennifer C Hoffman, Julie Elliott, Terry Saunders, Adam Burgener, Peter A Anton, Otto O Yang
Risk of HIV acquisition varies, and some individuals are highly HIV-1-exposed yet persistently seronegative (HESN). The immunologic mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are an area of intense interest. As immune activation and inflammation facilitate disease progression in HIV-1-infected persons, and gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a highly susceptible site for transmission, we hypothesized that reduced gut mucosal immune reactivity may contribute to reduced HIV-1 susceptibility in HESN men with a history of numerous rectal sexual exposures...
May 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501111/laparoscopic-dissection-and-division-of-distal-fistula-in-boys-with-rectourethral-fistula
#6
Chen Wang, Mei Diao, Long Li, Shuli Liu, Zheng Chen, Xu Li, Wei Cheng
BACKGROUND: Congenital rectourethral fistula (RUF) is the most common form of anorectal malformations found in boys. The aim of this study is to review our experience with dissection and division of distal fistula using laparoscopic surgery in the management of RUF, especially rectourethral bulbar fistula. METHODS: One hundred and two consecutive boys with congenital RUF who underwent conventional or single-incision laparoscopic surgery between July 2008 and June 2015 were enrolled in the study...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458840/a-case-report-on-a-rare-presentation-of-solitary-rectal-ulcer-syndrome
#7
N Merali, M Yousuff, K Lynes, M Akhtar
We describe a highly unusual case of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) that presented as a large polyp protruding from the anal canal. A 67-year-old man presented with rectal bleeding and mucus discharge. At examination under anaesthesia, a large pedunculated polypoidal lesion was found, measuring 25 × 20 mm, arising posterolaterally from the anorectal junction and protruding externally 50 mm in size. SRUS can be a misnomer as the condition can present in a number of different ways and only a minority of patients has a solitary ulcer...
March 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458330/gender-differences-in-serotonin-signaling-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Ryo Katsumata, Akiko Shiotani, Takahisa Murao, Manabu Ishii, Minoru Fujita, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Ken Haruma
Objective Gender differences, including differences in the prevalence, subtypes and the effectiveness of treatment, are generally recognized in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonists appear to be more effective in women with diarrhea predominant IBS (IBS-D) than they are in men, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. The aim of the present was to investigate the gender differences in 5-HT signaling. Methods The subjects were selected from outpatients with IBS-D and healthy controls...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440525/-treatment-of-complications-after-laparoscopic-intersphincteric-resection-for-low-rectal-cancer
#9
Bin Zhang, Ke Zhao, Quanlong Liu, Shuhui Yin, Yujuan Zhao, Guangzuan Zhuo, Yingying Feng, Jun Zhu, Jianhua Ding
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the perioperative and postoperative complications follow laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (LapISR) in the treatment of low rectal cancer and their management. METHODS: An observational study was conducted in 73 consecutive patients who underwent LapISR for low rectal cancer between June 2011 and February 2016 in our hospital. The clinicopathological parameters, perioperative and postoperative complications, and clinical outcomes were collected from a prospectively maintained database...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438965/radiation-induces-proinflammatory-dysbiosis-transmission-of-inflammatory-susceptibility-by-host-cytokine-induction
#10
Shiran Gerassy-Vainberg, Alexandra Blatt, Yael Danin-Poleg, Katya Gershovich, Edmond Sabo, Alex Nevelsky, Shahar Daniel, Aviva Dahan, Oren Ziv, Rishu Dheer, Maria T Abreu, Omry Koren, Yechezkel Kashi, Yehuda Chowers
OBJECTIVE: Radiation proctitis (RP) is a complication of pelvic radiotherapy which affects both the host and microbiota. Herein we assessed the radiation effect on microbiota and its relationship to tissue damage using a rectal radiation mouse model. DESIGN: We evaluated luminal and mucosa-associated dysbiosis in irradiated and control mice at two postradiation time points and correlated it with clinical and immunological parameters. Epithelial cytokine response was evaluated using bacterial-epithelial co-cultures...
April 24, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423551/metabolic-reprogramming-of-the-premalignant-colonic-mucosa-is-an-early-event-in-carcinogenesis
#11
Mart Dela Cruz, Sarah Ledbetter, Sanjib Chowdhury, Ashish K Tiwari, Navneet Momi, Ramesh K Wali, Charles Bliss, Christopher Huang, David Lichtenstein, Swati Bhattacharya, Anisha Varma-Wilson, Vadim Backman, Hemant K Roy
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. There is an increasing need for the identification of biomarkers of pre-malignant and early stage CRC to improve risk-stratification and screening recommendations. In this study, we investigated the possibility of metabolic and mitochondrial reprogramming early in the pre-malignant colorectal field. METHODS: Rectal biopsies were taken from 81 patients undergoing screening colonoscopy, and gene expression of metabolic and mitochondrial markers were assessed using real time quantitative PCR...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418082/non-digestible-carbohydrates-supplementation-increases-mir-32-expression-in-the-healthy-human-colorectal-epithelium-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Fiona C Malcomson, Naomi D Willis, Iain McCallum, Long Xie, Bart Lagerwaard, Seamus Kelly, D Michael Bradburn, Nigel J Belshaw, Ian T Johnson, John C Mathers
Colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is modulated by diet and there is convincing evidence of reduced risk with higher non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs) consumption. Resistant starch (RS), a NDC, positively modulates the expression of oncogenic microRNAs, suggesting that this could be a mechanism through which NDCs protect against CRC. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with two NDCs, RS, and polydextrose (PD), on microRNA expression in the macroscopically-normal human rectal epithelium using samples from the DISC Study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414670/diulafoy-s-lesion-an-uncanny-etiology-of-gastrointestinal-bleed
#13
V Gasia, O Lamendola
INTRODUCTION: Dieulafoy's lesion is a relatively rare, but potentially life-threatening, condition. It accounts for 1-2 percent of acute gastrointestinal (GI); bleeding. CASE: A 99-year-old woman was initially admitted due to left lower extremity cellulitis related to chronic venous stasis ulcer and was receiving broad-spectrum IV antibiotics. Upon admission to the medical floor, she had an episode of hematemesis and multiple bowel movements with black-tarry stools...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405717/-differential-indications-for-ileoanal-pouch-anastomosis-ulcerative-colitis-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-synchronous-colorectal-cancer-crohn-s-disease-constipation
#14
A Fürst
Ileoanal pouch anastomosis is the procedure of choice for patients with drug refractory ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In selected patient groups this procedure is a treatment option for patients with Crohn's disease, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), synchronous colorectal cancer and for severe colorectal constipation refractory to conservative drug treatment. The pouch procedure provides the opportunity to avoid a permanent ileostomy. The majority of surgeons prefer the ileal J‑pouch as the construction is the easiest to perform and complications and dysfunction rates are low...
April 12, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403973/a-national-snapshot-of-the-surgical-management-of-deep-infiltrating-endometriosis-of-the-rectum-and-colon-in-france-in-2015-a-multicenter-series-of-1135-cases
#15
H Roman
OBJECTIVE: To perform a survey on the characteristics of the surgical management of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis of the rectum and the sigmoid colon (DIERS) in France in 2015. METHOD: Case-series study enrolling patients with DIERS involving muscularis, submucosa or mucosa, operated on from January 1st to December 31st 2015, in 56 healthcare facilities in France. Surgeons filled in questionnaires concerning the number of patients, deep endometriosis localizations, surgical route and techniques used on digestive tract, associated surgical procedures and major complications...
February 2017: J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390865/spdef-induces-quiescence-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-changing-the-transcriptional-targets-of-%C3%AE-catenin
#16
Yuan-Hung Lo, Taeko K Noah, Min-Shan Chen, Winnie Zou, Ester Borras, Eduardo Vilar, Noah F Shroyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The canonical Wnt signaling pathway activates the transcriptional activity of β-catenin. This pathway is often activated in colorectal cancer cells, but strategies to block it in tumors have not been effective. The SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) suppresses formation of colon tumors by unclear mechanisms. We investigated these mechanisms and the effects of SPDEF on β-catenin activity in mouse models of colorectal cancer (CRC), CRC cell lines, and mouse and human normal and cancer colonoids...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384926/trus-biopsy-yield-in-indian-population-a-retrospective-analysis
#17
Sunil Raghunath Patil, Prakash Wamanrao Pawar, Ajit Somaji Sawant, Akshay Vijay Patil, Sayalee Suryabhan Narwade, Shankar Tanaji Mundhe, Abhishek Jaysukhbhai Savalia, Ashwin Sunil Tamhankar
INTRODUCTION: The reported cancer detection rate of Trans-Rectal Ultrasonography (TRUS) biopsies (TRUS biopsy yield) has been around 30 percent in western countries. However it is much lower in Asian countries, including India. Hence a larger proportion of patients in India undergo unnecessary biopsies. AIMS: To find out the cancer detection rate of TRUS biopsy (TRUS biopsy yield) in contemporary Indian population. Also, to study the positive predictive values at different serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)/PSA Density (PSAD) cut off levels and suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) findings...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366996/claudin-2-expression-is-upregulated-in-the-ileum-of-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#18
Haruka Ishimoto, Tadayuki Oshima, Hiroo Sei, Takahisa Yamasaki, Takashi Kondo, Katsuyuki Tozawa, Toshihiko Tomita, Yoshio Ohda, Hirokazu Fukui, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Intestinal epithelial barrier function is impaired in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Claudins are highly expressed in cells with tight junctions and are involved in the intestinal epithelial barrier function. The expression pattern of tight junction proteins in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have not been fully elucidated. We therefore recruited 17 diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients and 20 healthy controls. The expression of the tight junction-related proteins was examined in the ileal, cecal, and rectal mucosa of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients using real-time PCR and immunofluorescence...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357500/diversion-colitis-25%C3%A2-years-later-the-phenomenon-of-the-disease
#19
Marek Szczepkowski, Tomasz Banasiewicz, Adam Kobus
BACKGROUND: Diversion colitis (DC) seems to be common in stoma patients, and the restoration of the continuity of the digestive tract is crucial for relief from the inflammatory process. No prospective studies of the late effects of DC on the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosa and the clinical condition of patients have been reported. METHODS: Data from 23 patients who underwent stoma creation were analysed during the reversal period (A) and at an average of 3 months (B1) and 5...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323223/robotic-assisted-conservative-excision-of-retrocervical-rectal-deep-infiltrating-endometriosis-a-case-series
#20
Alfredo Ercoli, Emma Bassi, Stefania Ferrari, Daniela Surico, Anna Fagotti, Francesco Fanfani, Fiorenzo De Cicco, Nicola Surico, Giovanni Scambia
Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) is a complex disease that impairs the quality of life and the fertility of women. Colorectal DIE accounts for 70% to 93% of all the intestinal endometriotic sites and frequently needs a surgical approach. However, the indications for the surgical management of this condition are still controversial. From March 2010 to June 2014, we scheduled 33 consecutive patients presenting with retrocervical-rectal DIE of any diameter not involving the mucosa nor producing rectal stenosis > 50% for laparoscopic robotic assisted nerve-sparing rectal nodulectomy (LRN)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
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