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Albright hereditary osteodystrophy

N S Kochar, J J Jacob
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Paria Kashani, Madan Roy, Linda Gillis, Olufemi Ajani, M Constantine Samaan
A 19-month-old boy was referred for progressive weight gain. His past medical history included congenital hypothyroidism and developmental delay. Physical examination revealed characteristics of Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy, macrocephaly, and calcinosis cutis. He had hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated Parathyroid Hormone levels. Genetic testing revealed a known mutation of GNAS gene, confirming the diagnosis of Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ia (PHP-Ia) (c.34C>T (p.G1n12X)). He had a normal brain MRI at three months, but developmental delay prompted a repeat MRI that revealed Chiari Malformation Type I (CM-I) with hydrocephalus requiring neurosurgical intervention...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
N Nand, S Aggarwal, M Yadav, S Dsouza, A R Deshmukh
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by variable insensitivity to parathyroid hormone. We describe two cases of 22 year male and 24 year female who have typical clinical features of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). Laboratory investigation revealed evidence of pseudohypoparathyroidism and skeletal survey showed shortening of the metacarpals and metatarsals.
October 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Kelly Wentworth, Alyssa Hsing, Ashley Urrutia, Yan Zhu, Andrew E Horvai, Murat Bastepe, Edward C Hsiao
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate a wide spectrum of biological activities. The GNAS complex locus encodes the stimulatory alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide binding protein (Gsα) and regulates production of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). Loss-of-function GNAS mutations classically lead to Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) and pseudohypoparathyroidism, often with significant effects on bone formation and mineral metabolism. We present the case of a child who exhibits clinical features of osteolysis, multiple childhood fractures, and neonatal SIADH...
2016: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Ali Birjandinejad, Mohammad-Hossein Taraz-Jamshidi, Sayyed Hadi Sayyed Hosseinian
Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a rare inherited disease that begins with skin ossification and proceeds into the deeper connective tissues. The disease should be distinguished from other genetic disorders of heterotopic ossification including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). We report a case of progressive osseous heteroplasia in a twenty four years old male with a complaint of ankylosis of the entire upper left limb and digital cutaneous lesions and sparing of the other limbs and the axial skeleton...
June 2016: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Francesca Marta Elli, Agnès Linglart, Intza Garin, Luisa de Sanctis, Paolo Bordogna, Virginie Grybek, Arrate Pereda, Federica Giachero, Elisa Verrua, Patrick Hanna, Giovanna Mantovani, Guiomar Perez de Nanclares
CONTEXT: The term pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) was coined to describe the clinical condition resulting from end-organ resistance to parathormone (rPTH), caused by genetic and/or epigenetic alterations within or upstream of GNAS. Though knowledge about PHP is growing, there are few data on the prevalence of underlying molecular defects. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to ascertain the relative prevalence of PHP-associated molecular defects. DESIGN: With a specially designed questionnaire, we collected data from all patients (n=407) clinically and molecularly characterized to date by expert referral centres in France, Italy and Spain...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sezgin Sahin, Olaf Hiort, Susanne Thiele, Olcay Evliyaoğlu, Beyhan Tüysüz
Pseudohypoparathyroidism-Ia is characterized by multihormone resistance and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy phenotype. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in GNAS gene. Clinical and biochemical findings of the patient were evaluated between 6.5 years and 14.5 years of age. The girl had short stature, brachydactyly and subcutaneous heterotopic ossification. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal, but parathyroid hormone levels were high. Based on the typical clinical findings of AHO phenotype and biochemical findings, she was diagnosed as having PHP-Ia...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Iris M de Lange, Annemarie A Verrijn Stuart, Rob B van der Luijt, Hans Kristian Ploos van Amstel, Mieke M van Haelst
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a genetic disorder with resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) as most important feature. Main subtypes of the disease are pseudohypoparathyroidism 1b (PHP1b) and pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a (PHP1a). PHP1b is characterized by PTH resistance of the renal cortex due to reduced activity of the stimulatory G protein α subunit (Gsα) of the PTH receptor. In addition to resistance to PTH, PHP1a patients also lack sensitivity for other hormones that signal their actions through G protein-coupled receptors and display physical features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), which is not classically seen in PHP1b patients...
September 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
F Elia, G Paolino, M Donati, F M Solivetti
PURPOSE: Multiple miliaryosteoma cutis (MMOC) is a rare nodular skin disease, characterized by tiny bone nodules in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, presenting clinically as multiple normochromic papules and nodules, usually on the face. We described the case of MMOC of the face in a woman, ultrasonically evaluated with very high frequency probe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 45-year-old patient with multiple papules, 3-5 mm in diameter, grouped in the frontal region...
2016: Journal of Ultrasound
Francesca Marta Elli, Paolo Bordogna, Luisa de Sanctis, Federica Giachero, Elisa Verrua, Maria Segni, Laura Mazzanti, Valentina Boldrin, Alma Toromanovic, Anna Spada, Giovanna Mantovani
The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) intracellular signaling pathway mediates the physiological effects of several hormones and neurotransmitters, acting by the activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and several downstream intracellular effectors, including the heterotrimeric stimulatory G-protein (Gs), the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), and cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Defective G-protein-mediated signaling has been associated with an increasing number of disorders, including Albright hereditary osteodistrophy (AHO) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), a heterogeneous group of rare genetic metabolic disorders resulting from molecular defects at the GNAS locus...
June 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Jie Zhu, Dong Wang, An Ren, Yan Xing, Dongliang Zhang, Jun Wei, Ning Yu, Xuenong Xing, Shandong Ye
Pseudohypohyperparathyroidism (PHHP) is a rare type of pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), which seems to have a normal skeletal response to parathyroid hormone but shows renal resistance. Almost all patients with PHHP have PHP Ib, a subtype of PHP that is usually caused by GNAS methylation defects, often in exon 1A. Some features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy can occasionally be found in patients with PHHP, but these features are also common in Turner syndrome. The authors report on an extremely rare case of a patient with PHHP and Turner syndrome, a 47-year-old woman who sought medical attention for hypocalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone...
December 2015: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Rieko Takatani, Angelo Molinaro, Giedre Grigelioniene, Olta Tafaj, Tomoyuki Watanabe, Monica Reyes, Amita Sharma, Vibha Singhal, F Lucy Raymond, Agnès Linglart, Harald Jüppner
Proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are preeminent abnormalities in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B), but resistance toward other hormones as well as variable features of Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) can occur also. Genomic DNA from PHP1B patients shows epigenetic changes at one or multiple differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS, the gene encoding Gαs and splice variants thereof. In the autosomal dominant disease variant, these methylation abnormalities are caused by deletions in STX16 or GNAS on the maternal allele...
April 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Boudewijn Bakker, Laura J H Sonneveld, M Claire Woltering, Hennie Bikker, Sarina G Kant
CONTEXT: Several patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) with multiple imprinting defects found by genetic analysis have been described. However, only two cases have been described with both genetic and clinical signs and symptoms of multiple diseases caused by imprinting defects. CASE DESCRIPTION: The girl in this case presented at the age of 6 months with morbid obesity (body mass index, +7.5 SDS) and a large umbilical hernia. Genetic analysis showed BWS (hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1 gene)...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sang Heon Lee, Seung Hyeon Mun, Sung Yoon Cho, Yeo Ju Kim, Dong-Kyu Jin, Chang-Seok Ki, Ji-Eun Lee
Children with Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) suffering from spinal cord compression are rarely reported worldwide. The association of compressive myelopathy with AHO is not still well known. AHO is a rare heterogeneous group of inherited disorders and results from the GNAS mutation. AHO manifests in two different phenotypes, pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia) and pseudopsedohypoparthyroidim (PPHP), which may happen in the same family members. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with AHO features, who was later diagnosed with PHP-Ia...
2015: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Yasmin Mehraein, Martina Pfob, Ortrud Steinlein, Eric Aichinger, Marlene Eggert, Valerie Bubendorff, Adelina Mannhart, Stefan Müller
2q37.3 deletion syndrome belongs to the chromosomal 2q37 deletion spectrum which clinically resembles Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) syndrome. It is is mainly characterized by short stature, obesity, round face, brachydactyly type E, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and variable intellectual deficits. Different from classical AHO syndrome, patients with 2q37 deletion syndrome lack renal parathyroid hormone resistance (pseudohypoparathyroidism) and soft tissue ossification. So far, deletion mapping or molecular breakpoint analyses of 2q37 have been performed in only few patients...
2015: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Rieko Takatani, Masanori Minagawa, Angelo Molinaro, Monica Reyes, Kaori Kinoshita, Tomozumi Takatani, Itsuro Kazukawa, Misako Nagatsuma, Kenichi Kashimada, Kenichi Sato, Kazuyuki Matsushita, Fumio Nomura, Naoki Shimojo, Harald Jüppner
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is caused by proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone that occurs in most cases in the absence of Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO). Familial forms of PHP1B are caused by maternally inherited microdeletions within STX16, the gene encoding syntaxin 16, or within GNAS, a complex genetic locus on chromosome 20q13.3 encoding Gsα and several splice variants thereof. These deletions lead either to a loss-of-methylation affecting GNAS exon A/B alone or to epigenetic changes involving multiple differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS...
October 2015: Bone
Giovanna Mantovani, Francesca M Elli
The term pseudohypoparathryoidism (PHP) refers to a group of rare genetic and epigenetic disorders characterized by resistance to the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) that activates cAMP signaling in target cells. Together with pseudohypoparathyroidism, Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) and progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) represent rare, related and deeply impairing disorders encompassing heterogeneous features, such as brachydactyly, ectopic ossifications, short stature, mental retardation and endocrine deficiencies due to resistance to the action of different hormones...
May 2015: Annales D'endocrinologie
Maria H Lin, Nawaporn Numbenjapon, Emily L Germain-Lee, Pisit Pitukcheewanont
INTRODUCTION: Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a condition of invasive heterotopic ossification. Reports of patients with mild POH with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), specifically pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia) with hormonal resistance, suggest the possibility of a common molecular basis. GNAS has been implicated to account for overlapping features of POH and PHP Ia. Case 1: A 4-year-old boy with obesity, speech delay, and expanding subcutaneous masses on buttock/forearm...
July 2015: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Serap Turan, Murat Bastepe
The GNAS complex locus encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), a ubiquitous signaling protein mediating the actions of many hormones, neurotransmitters, and paracrine/autocrine factors via generation of the second messenger cAMP. GNAS gives rise to other gene products, most of which exhibit exclusively monoallelic expression. In contrast, Gsα is expressed biallelically in most tissues; however, paternal Gsα expression is silenced in a small number of tissues through as-yet-poorly understood mechanisms that involve differential methylation within GNAS...
June 2015: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Susanne Thiele, Ralf Werner, Joachim Grötzinger, Bettina Brix, Pia Staedt, Dagmar Struve, Benedikt Reiz, Jennane Farida, Olaf Hiort
Maternally inherited inactivating GNAS mutations are the most common cause of parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) leading to pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHPIa) due to Gsα deficiency. Paternally inherited inactivating mutations lead to isolated AHO signs characterizing pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). Mutations are distributed throughout the Gsα coding exons of GNAS and there is a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation. In this study, we sequenced exon 1-13 of GNAS in a large cohort of PHPIa- and PPHP patients and identified 58 different mutations in 88 patients and 27 relatives...
March 2015: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
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