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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787833/dehydroepiandrosterone-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications-in-osteoarthritis
#1
REVIEW
Kai Huang, Li-Dong Wu
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a 19-carbon steroid hormone primarily synthesized in the adrenal gland, exerts a chondroprotective effect against osteoarthritis (OA) and has been considered an effective candidate of disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) that slow disease progression. We and others previously demonstrated that DHEA exerted a beneficial effect on osteoarthritic cartilage by positively modulating the balance between anabolic and catabolic factors (e.g., MMPs/TIMP-1, ADAMTS/TIMP-3 and cysteine proteinases/cystatin C), inhibiting catabolic signaling pathways (e...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786512/-kidney-full-of-stones-and-an-adrenal-gland-not-quite-normal
#2
S Regnier Le Coz, D Drui
A 31-year-old patient was followed for cystinuria, justifying CT scans. In 2006, a tissue mass of 3cm of the right adrenal gland, homogeneous, measured at 3.5cm in 2007 was noted. Blood pressure was 90/61mmHg, without orthostatic hypotension. During the clinical interview, no discomfort, sweat attack, headache, or palpitation was reported by the patient. Hormonal assays did not favor a primary hyperaldosteronism, or a hypercortisolism. Adrenal androgens were normal. 24h normetanephrines urinary excretion and metanephrines to creatinine ratio were elevated...
May 18, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785317/a-rare-case-of-penile-metastases-as-a-harbinger-of-primary-pulmonary-adenosquamous-carcinoma
#3
Partha Hota, Tejas N Patel, Xiaofeng Zhao, Carrie Schneider, Omar Agosto
Although lung cancer has a high propensity for distant metastatic disease, penile metastases from primary lung neoplasms are considered particularly rare. A 71-year-old male presented to our hospital with a rapidly enlarging hard palpable penile mass. MR imaging demonstrated two penile masses centered in the left and right corpus cavernosa. Subsequent CT imaging revealed a spiculated pulmonary mass in the right upper lobe with PET/CT, MRI, and surgical exploration, demonstrating evidence of metastases to the left adrenal gland, right subscapularis muscle, brain, and small bowel...
2018: Case Reports in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779047/over-diagnosis-of-potential-malignant-behavior-in-men-2a-associated-pheochromocytomas-using-the-pass-and-gapp-algorithms
#4
Adam Stenman, Jan Zedenius, Carl Christofer Juhlin
PURPOSE: Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) exhibit malignant potential, but current histological modalities for the proper detection of aggressive behavior are debated. The two most widespread algorithms are the "Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score" (PASS) and the "Grading System for Adrenal Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma" (GAPP), both which mostly rely on histological parameters to identify PCC patients at risk of disseminated disease. Since the algorithms are derived from studies using predominantly sporadic PCCs, little is known whether the PASS or GAPP scores can predict malignant potential in hereditary cases...
May 19, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775122/nitration-of-mnsod-in-the-carotid-body-and-adrenal-gland-induced-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#5
Esteban A Moya, Paulina Arias, Rodrigo Iturriaga
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), main feature of obstructive sleep apnea, produces nitro-oxidative stress, which contributes to potentiate carotid body (CB) chemosensory discharges and sympathetic-adrenal-axis activity, leading to hypertension. The MnSOD enzymatic activity, a key enzyme on oxidative stress control, is reduced by superoxide-induced nitration. However, the effects of CIH-induced nitration on MnSOD enzymatic activity in the CB and adrenal gland are not known. We studied the effects of CIH on MnSOD protein and immunoreactive (MnSOD-ir) levels in the CB, adrenal gland and superior cervical ganglion (SCG), and on 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT-ir), CuZnSOD (CuZnSOD-ir), MnSOD nitration, and its enzymatic activity in the CB and adrenal gland from male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to CIH for 7 days...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772978/outcomes-of-the-addition-of-pasireotide-to-traditional-adrenal-directed-treatment-for-dogs-with-pituitary-dependent-hyperadrenocorticism-secondary-to-macroadenoma-9-cases-2013-2015
#6
Maya Lottati, David S Bruyette
OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinical signs, endocrine test results, and pituitary tumor size for dogs with medically managed pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and macroadenoma following 6 months of concurrent treatment with pasireotide. DESIGN Prospective case series. ANIMALS 9 client-owned dogs with PDH and macroadenoma in which PDH had been successfully managed with adrenal-directed treatment (trilostane or mitotane). PROCEDURES Dogs were given pasireotide (0.03 mg/kg [0.014 mg/lb], SC, q 12 h) for 6 months, while adrenal-directed treatment was continued...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772620/-development-of-ectopic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-prostate-cancer-during-combined-androgen-blockade-therapy
#7
Yosuke Sekii, Mitsuhiro Yoshinaga, Masahiro Nakagawa, Hidefumi Kishikawa, Kazumasa Oka, Kenji Nishimura
A 74-year old man presented to us with difficulty urinating. The laboratory examinations revealed an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. A prostate biopsy revealed prostate adenocarcinoma. The computed tomography scan showed metastasis to lymph nodes in the pelvic cavity and both adrenal glands. Combined androgen blockade therapy was started, and PSA levels began to decrease gradually. However, 2 months later, he was hospitalized for treatment of cellulitis and was found to have hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hypokalemia...
April 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770310/interventional-radiology-of-the-adrenal-glands-current-status
#8
REVIEW
Anna Maria Ierardi, Mario Petrillo, Francesca Patella, Pierpaolo Biondetti, Enrico Maria Fumarola, Salvatore Alessio Angileri, Filippo Pesapane, Antonio Pinto, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Gianpaolo Carrafiello
As more and more adrenal neoplasms are found incidentally or symptomatically, the need for interventional procedures has being increasing. In recent years these procedures registered continued steady expansion. Interventional radiology of the adrenal glands comprises angiographic and percutaneous procedures. They may be applied both in benign and in malignant pathologies. The present review reports the current status of indications, techniques results and complications of the image-guided procedures.
April 2018: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770282/mature-testicular-teratoma-with-a-focus-of-embryonal-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Waliul Chowdhury, Muhammad Uzair Lodhi, Intekhab Askari Syed, Umar Rahim, Mustafa Rahim
We present a 37-year-old male patient with a mature teratoma of the right testicle with a focus of embryonal carcinoma. This patient's tumor metastasized radically to the retroperitoneum, right adrenal gland, bilateral lungs, and liver. A metastatic teratoma with embryonal carcinoma in males is a very rare case. We will describe our patient's case, diagnostic workup, and management in detail, in addition to reviewing the related literature.
March 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768344/synchronous-adrenocortical-carcinoma-and-ovarian-malignant-mixed-germ-cell-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Ying He, Lian Xu, Qingli Li, Min Feng, Wei Wang
RATIONALE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an endocrine malignancy with poor prognosis, which commonly arises in a sporadic manner, but may also become a part of a familial syndrome. ACC rarely arises simultaneously with other malignant tumors. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 29-year-old woman with ACC synchronously followed by an ovarian malignant mixed germ cell tumor. We describe the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings and review the English literatures...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767741/gateway-reflex-neural-activation-mediated-immune-cell-gateways-in-the-central-nervous-system
#11
Daisuke Kamimura, Takuto Ohki, Yasunobu Arima, Masaaki Murakami
The neural regulation of organs can be categorized as systemic or local. Whereas systemic regulation by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland-mediated release of steroid hormones has been well studied, the mechanisms for local regulation have only recently emerged. Two types of local neural regulation are known, the gateway reflex and the inflammatory reflex. The gateway reflex describes a mechanism that converts regional neural stimulations into inflammatory outputs by changing the state of specific blood vessels...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764284/role-of-glucocorticoid-negative-feedback-in-the-regulation-of-hpa-axis-pulsatility
#12
Julia K Gjerstad, Stafford L Lightman, Francesca Spiga
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major neuroendocrine axis regulating homeostasis in mammals. Glucocorticoid hormones are rapidly synthesized and secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. In addition, under basal conditions glucocorticoids are released rhythmically with both a circadian and an ultradian (pulsatile) pattern. These rhythms are important not only for normal function of glucocorticoid target organs, but also for the HPA axis responses to stress. Several studies have shown that disruption of glucocorticoid rhythms is associated with disease both in humans and in rodents...
May 15, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763783/sex-differences-in-the-acth-and-cortisol-response-to-pharmacological-probes-are-stressor-specific-and-occur-regardless-of-alcohol-dependence-history
#13
Robert M Anthenelli, Jaimee L Heffner, Thomas J Blom, Belinda E Daniel, Benjamin S McKenna, Gary S Wand
Women and men differ in their risk for developing stress-related conditions such as alcohol use and anxiety disorders and there are gender differences in the typical sequence in which these disorders co-occur. However, the neural systems underlying these gender-biased psychopathologies and clinical course modifiers in humans are poorly understood and may involve both central and peripheral mechanisms regulating the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, triple-dummy crossover study, we juxtaposed a centrally-acting, citalopram (2 mg/unit BMI) neuroendocrine stimulation test with a peripherally-acting, dexamethasone (Dex) (1...
May 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762233/adrenal-histoplasmosis
#14
Vanessa Sanders, Joseph Donald, Barry A Siegel
An 89-year-old woman presented with seizure and hyponatremia. CT and MRI demonstrated mass-like enlargement of the adrenal glands and multiple pulmonary nodules. PET/CT performed to evaluate for metastatic disease demonstrated intense 18F-FDG uptake within enlarged adrenal glands. Given mild uptake in the pulmonary nodules, the differential diagnosis for the adrenal uptake included lymphoma, granulomatous infection, and less likely, metastatic lung cancer.
May 14, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761333/adrenal-incidentalomas-during-diagnostic-work-up-of-colorectal-cancer-patients-what-is-the-risk-of-metastases
#15
Joris van den Broek, Remy Geenen, Luc Heijnen, Carolien Kobus, Hermien Schreurs
BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are regularly discovered on staging computed tomography (CT) of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Although CRC is considered unlikely to metastasize to the adrenal gland, it is not known how often an AI appears to be a CRC metastasis. This causes a diagnostic dilemma for many patients with newly diagnosed CRC. This study aimed primarily to describe the incidence of AIs and adrenal metastases in CRC patients. METHODS: A single-center cohort of 475 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed CRC was defined...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760287/-multi-organ-distribution-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#16
Koichi Wakabayashi, Yasuo Miki
In Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, neuronal α-synuclein aggregates (Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites) are distributed throughout the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic ganglia, enteric nervous system, cardiac and pelvic plexuses, submandibular gland, adrenal medulla, and skin. Lewy bodies also occur in 10-20% of neurologically asymptomatic individuals older than 60 years. These cases are called incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD). In ILBD, Lewy bodies can be found in the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic ganglia, visceral autonomic nervous system and skin...
May 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757442/effect-of-intravenous-fluid-volumes-on-the-adrenal-glucocorticoid-response-after-burn-injury-in-swine
#17
Belinda I Gómez, Celestine He, Tony Chao, Michael A Dubick, David M Burmeister
Objective: Severe thermal injury induces metabolic and physiological stress, prompting a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential confounding effects of Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation on adrenal damage and cortisol production following burn. Methods: Anesthetized swine were instrumented with jugular catheters and sustained 40% TBSA burns from brass probes heated to 100ºC. Animals recovered to consciousness and received IV fluid resuscitation with LR at two different volumes: 15 mL/kg/day (Limited Volume; LV, n=6) or 2 mL/kg/%TBSA/day (Modified Brooke; MB, n=6)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755708/growth-and-endocrine-function-in-tunisian-thalassemia-major-patients
#18
Naouel Guirat Dhouib, Monia Ben Khaled, Monia Ouederni, Habib Besbes, Ridha Kouki, Fethi Mellouli, Mohamed Bejaoui
β-thalassemia major (β-TM) is among the most common hereditary disorders imposing high expenses on health-care system worldwide. The patient's survival is dependent on lifetime blood transfusion which leads to iron overload and its toxicity in various organs including endocrine glands. This article provides an overview of endocrine disorders in beta-TM patients. This single center investigation enrolled 28 β-TM patients (16 males, 12 females) regularly transfused with packed red cell since early years of life...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753694/physiological-adaptation-of-the-growth-restricted-fetus
#19
REVIEW
Karel Maršál
The growth-restricted fetus in utero is exposed to a hostile environment and suffers undernutrition and hypoxia. To cope with the stress, the fetus changes its physiological functions. These adaptive changes aid intrauterine survival; however, they can lead to permanent functional and structural changes that can contribute to the development of serious chronic diseases later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms are an important part of the pathophysiological processes behind this "developmental origin of adult diseases...
February 24, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753511/acute-adrenal-cortex-injury-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-a-canine-model
#20
Bo Mei, Song Yang, Yuan Yue, Jian Hou, Keke Wang, Guangxian Chen, Mengya Liang, Zhongkai Wu
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) might induce systemic inflammatory responses that cause acute injuries to multiple organs. However, no direct evidence exists to determine whether CPB leads to adrenal cortex injury or to describe its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Twelve healthy adult beagles were randomly assigned into control and CPB groups. After cannulation, mild hypothermia CPB was performed in the CPB group but not in the control group. The serum concentrations of various cytokines, cortisol, and aldosterone were assessed...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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