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Cesare Granata, Nicholas A Jamnick, David J Bishop
A sedentary lifestyle has been linked to a number of metabolic disorders that have been associated with sub-optimal mitochondrial characteristics and an increased risk of premature death. Endurance training can induce an increase in mitochondrial content and/or mitochondrial functional qualities, which are associated with improved health and well-being and longer life expectancy. It is therefore important to better define how manipulating key parameters of an endurance training intervention can influence the content and functionality of the mitochondrial pool...
June 22, 2018: Sports Medicine
Franciele Mercúrio Rodrigues, Jenifer Inácio Adélio, Vanessa Oliveira Santana, Elisabeth De Marco Ornelas, Romeu Rodrigues de Souza, Clever Gomes Cardoso, Glaucia Luciano da Veiga, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino
To explore the effects of physical exercise on the liver of animals in menopause, we analyzed the histomorphometric parameters of the hepatic tissue in ovariectomized and dyslipidemic female mice. The animals were distributed in six groups (n = 5): sedentary control (SC), sedentary ovariectomized control (SOC), trained ovariectomized control (TOC), sedentary LDL knockout (LDL-S), sedentary ovariectomized LDL knockout (LDL-SO), and trained ovariectomized LDL knockout (LDL-TO). At the end of the experiment, the liver and the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of animals were removed for morphometric and stereological studies...
June 22, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Thomas M Withers, Louise Croft, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, David W Dunstan, Christof A Leicht, Daniel P Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Sedentary behaviour is a distinct risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and could partly explain the increased prevalence of CVD in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Interrupting prolonged sitting periods with regular short bouts of walking acutely suppresses postprandial glucose and lipids in able-bodied individuals. However, the acute CVD risk marker response to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in people with SCI has not been investigated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised two-condition laboratory crossover trial will compare: (1) breaking up prolonged sedentary time with 2 min moderate-intensity arm-crank activity every 20 min, with (2) uninterrupted prolonged sedentary time (control) in people with SCI...
June 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Po-Wen Ku, Andrew Steptoe, Yun-Ju Lai, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Dachen Chu, Yung-Feng Yen, Yung Liao, Li-Jung Chen
OBJECTIVE: This nationwide population-based study aimed to examine the prospective association between near visual activities and incident myopia in Taiwanese children 7 to 12 years old over a 4-year follow-up period. DESIGN: Prospective cohort design. PARTICIPANTS: There were 1958 children aged 7 to 12 years from the Taiwan 2009 National Health Interview Survey who were linked to the 2009 through 2013 claims data from the National Health Insurance system...
June 19, 2018: Ophthalmology
Jean Ferrières, Dominik Lautsch, Baishali M Ambegaonkar, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Ami Vyas, Carl A Baxter, Lori D Bash, Maja Velkovski-Rouyer, Martin Horack, Wael Almahmeed, Fu-Tien Chiang, Kian Keong Poh, Moses Elisaf, Philippe Brudi, Anselm K Gitt
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification and medications to control risk factors in coronary heart disease (CHD). Using data from the observational DYSIS II study, we sought to evaluate the use of guideline-recommended treatments at discharge for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or in the chronic phase for CHD, and participation in rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2014, 10,661 patients (3867 with ACS, 6794 with stable CHD) were enrolled in 332 primary and secondary care centers in 18 countries (Asia, Europe, Middle East)...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Charlotte Lund Rasmussen, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Adrian Bauman, Nidhi Gupta, Kirsten Nabe-Nielsen, Marie Birk Jørgensen, Andreas Holtermann
Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is strongly associated with socioeconomic position (SEP). Few studies have investigated if demanding occupational physical activity (OPA) could impede a physically active lifestyle in low SEP groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OPA and LTPA among low SEP men and women. We used cross-sectional data from 895 low SEP workers who wore accelerometers for 1⁻5 consecutive workdays. The associations between the relative importance of activities performed during work and leisure time were assessed using compositional regression models stratified on sex...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Scott Duncan, Tom Stewart, Lisa Mackay, Jono Neville, Anantha Narayanan, Caroline Walker, Sarah Berry, Susan Morton
To advance the field of time-use epidemiology, a tool capable of monitoring 24 h movement behaviours including sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour is needed. This study explores compliance with a novel dual-accelerometer system for capturing 24 h movement patterns in two free-living samples of children and adults. A total of 103 children aged 8 years and 83 adults aged 20-60 years were recruited. Using a combination of medical dressing and purpose-built foam pouches, participants were fitted with two Axivity AX3 accelerometers—one to the thigh and the other to the lower back—for seven 24 h periods...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Cheryl Haslam, Aadil Kazi, Myanna Duncan, Stacy Clemes, Ricardo Twumasi
This article presents longitudinal data from 1120 participants across 10 worksites enrolled in Walking Works Wonders, a tailored intervention designed to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. The intervention was evaluated over 2 years, using a quasi-experimental design comprising 3 conditions: tailored information; standard information and control. This study explored the impact of the intervention on objective measures (BMI, %Fat, waist circumference, blood pressure and heart rate) and self-reported measures of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, physical and psychological health...
June 22, 2018: Ergonomics
Alireza Ghardashi Afousi, Mohammad Reza Izadi, Kamran Rakhshan, Farnoosh Mafi, Soheil Biglari, Habibalah Gandomkar Bagheri
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Endothelial function is impaired because of increased oscillatory and retrograde shear in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous moderate intensity exercise can modulate oscillatory and retrograde shear, blood flow and flow-mediated arterial dilation in these patients. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that low-volume high-intensity interval training, by increasing anterograde shear and decreasing retrograde shear and oscillatory index, can increase nitric oxide production and consequently result in increased flow-mediated dilation and outward arterial remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes...
June 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Myoungock Jang, Sangchoon Jeon, Soohyun Nam, Hee-Jung Song, Robin Whittemore
There is limited understanding about the obesity-related behaviors of diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in Korean American women. The purpose of this study was to cluster obesity-related behavior patterns of Korean American women and to examine group differences in acculturation, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). A secondary analysis from a cross-sectional study was conducted using two-step cluster analysis for clustering groups. A total of 137 Korean American women ( M age = 42...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Nursing Research
Gaia Sampogna, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Luciano, Valeria Del Vecchio, Luca Steardo, Benedetta Pocai, Marina Barone, Mario Amore, Francesca Pacitti, Liliana Dell'Osso, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Mario Maj
Patients with severe mental disorders die on average 20 years prior to the general population. This mortality gap is mainly due to the higher prevalence of physical diseases and the adoption of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors.The LIFESTYLE trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of a new psychosocial group intervention (including psychoeducational, motivational, and problem-solving techniques) focused on healthy lifestyle behavior compared to a brief educational group intervention in a community sample of patients with severe mental disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mami Yamada, Chihiro Hokazono, Mitsuharu Okutsu
Regular exercise during pregnancy can prevent offspring from several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and type II diabetes during adulthood. However, little information is available about whether maternal exercises during pregnancy protect the offspring from infectious diseases, such as sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). This study aimed to investigate whether maternal exercise training protects the offspring from endotoxin-induced septic shock in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice performed voluntary wheel exercises during pregnancy...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Yong-Cai Zhao, Jin-Mei Fu, Bing-Hong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To detect the levels of miR-1, miR-21 and their targeted proteins in hearts of mice after different exercise training, and discuss potential molecular mechanism. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to 3 groups:sedentary (SE), exercise training 1(ET1) and exercise training 2 (ET2). SE did not do any exercise; ET1 undertook swimming training for 8 weeks, once a day, 5 days/week. Swimming 30 min in the 1st week, and the duration was increased 10 min per week to 90 min and maintained in the 7th and 8th week...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Nipun Shrestha, Katriina T Kukkonen-Harjula, Jos H Verbeek, Sharea Ijaz, Veerle Hermans, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: A large number of people are employed in sedentary occupations. Physical inactivity and excessive sitting at workplaces have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace interventions to reduce sitting at work compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, OSH UPDATE, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elizabeth D Dalton, Constance L Hammen
Stress and depressive symptoms are associated with maladaptive health behavior practices such as unhealthy eating, sedentary behavior, insufficient sleep, and substance use. The relative and interactive effects of stress and depressive symptoms on health behavior practices are less well understood. The present study examined these processes in a daily diary study of 127 college students. Results from hierarchical generalized linear models indicated that depressive symptoms, and chronic and daily stress, but not acute stressful life events, were significantly associated with a composite score of daily maladaptive health behavior engagement (depressive symptoms b = ...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Mary Elizabeth Baugh, Cortney N Steele, Christopher J Angiletta, Cassie M Mitchell, Andrew P Neilson, Brenda M Davy, Matthew W Hulver, Kevin P Davy
Trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Prebiotic supplementation has been purported to reduce TMAO production, but whether prebiotics reduce fasting or postprandial TMAO levels is unclear. Sedentary, overweight/obese adults at risk for T2DM ( n = 18) were randomized to consume a standardized diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat) with 10 g/day of either an inulin supplement or maltodextrin placebo for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained in the fasting state and hourly during a 4-h high-fat challenge meal (820 kcal; 25% carbohydrate, 63% fat; 317...
June 20, 2018: Nutrients
Aadil Kazi, Cheryl Haslam, Myanna Duncan, Stacy Clemes, Ricardo Twumasi
This article presents baseline data from 1120 employees across 10 worksites enrolled in a workplace physical activity intervention. The study provides new data on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and health and highlights gender, geographical, job type and industrial sector differences. Sitting at work accounted for more than 60% of participants' total daily sitting time on work days. Weekly and monthly hours worked, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were significantly higher for workers in the private sector compared to the public sector...
June 21, 2018: Ergonomics
Arne Nygren, Julio Parapar, Joan Pons, Karin Meißner, Torkild Bakken, Jon Anders Kongsrud, Eivind Oug, Daria Gaeva, Andrey Sikorski, Robert André Johansen, Pat Ann Hutchings, Nicolas Lavesque, Maria Capa
We investigate mitochondrial (COI, 16S rDNA) and nuclear (ITS2, 28S rDNA) genetic structure of North East Atlantic lineages of Terebellides, a genus of sedentary annelids mainly inhabiting continental shelf and slope sediments. We demonstrate the presence of more than 25 species of which only seven are formally described. Species boundaries are determined with molecular data using a broad range of analytical methods. Many of the new species are common and wide spread, and the majority of the species are found in sympatry with several other species in the complex...
2018: PloS One
Lori L Ploutz-Snyder, Meghan Downs, Elizabeth Goetchius, Brent Crowell, Kirk L English, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Jeffrey Ryder, E Lichar Dillon, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Jessica M Scott
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of a new integrated aerobic and resistance exercise training prescription (SPRINT) using two different sets of exercise equipment: a suite of large ISS-like exercise equipment similar to what is found on the International Space Station (ISS) and a single device with aerobic and resistance exercise capability in the spaceflight analog of bed rest (BR). METHODS: Subjects (n=34) completed 70 days of 6° head down tilt BR: 9 were randomized to remain sedentary (CONT), 9 to exercise training using traditional equipment (EX), 8 to exercise using traditional equipment and low dose testosterone supplementation (ExT), and 8 to exercise using a combined resistance and aerobic flywheel device (FLY)...
March 26, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Karen J Adams, Jesús L Chirinos
OBJECTIVES: . To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults who are community kitchen-users in a district in Lima. MATERIALS AND METHODS: . An observational, cross-sectional study was carried out with 20 to 59-year-old users of community kitchens selected from a two-stage cluster sampling. The metabolic syndrome was measured according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Risk factors proposed by the WHO and the IDF were assessed, as well as the diet needs and intake average and its components at lunch...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
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