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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236062/measuring-activity-performance-of-older-adults-using-the-activpal-a-rapid-review
#1
REVIEW
Charice S Chan, Susan E Slaughter, C Allyson Jones, Carla Ickert, Adrian S Wagg
Current measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviors such as questionnaires and functional assessments are insufficient to provide comprehensive data on older adults. In response, the use of activity monitors has increased. The purpose of this review was to summarize and assess the quality of observational literature on activity measuring of older adults using the activPAL activity monitor. Seventeen databases and a bibliography, compiled by the activPAL creators, were searched. Articles were included if they were in English, were peer-reviewed, included people 65 years or older, measured activity using the activPAL and reported at least one of the following outcomes: step count, hours upright, hours sitting/lying, hours stepping, or hours standing...
December 13, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235967/effect-of-alternating-postures-on-cognitive-performance-for-healthy-people-performing-sedentary-work
#2
Bernhard Schwartz, Jay M Kapellusch, Andreas Schrempf, Kathrin Probst, Michael Haller, Arnold Baca
Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for several diseases and the prevalence of worksite-based interventions such as sit-to-stand workstations is increasing. Although their impact on sedentary behaviour has been regularly investigated, the effect of working in alternating body postures on cognitive performance is unclear. To address this uncertainty, forty-five students participated in a two-arm, randomized controlled cross-over trial under laboratory conditions. Subjects executed validated cognitive tests (working speed, reaction time, concentration performance) either in sitting or alternating working postures on two separate days (ClinicalTrials...
December 13, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234478/fructose-ingestion-impairs-expression-of-genes-involved-in-skeletal-muscle-s-adaptive-response-to-aerobic-exercise
#3
Natalia Gomes Gonçalves, Stephanie Heffer Cavaletti, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Milton Arruda Martins, Chin Jia Lin
Background: The inverse relationship between exercise capacity and its variation over time and both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality suggests the existence of an etiological nexus between cardiometabolic diseases and the molecular regulators of exercise capacity. Coordinated adaptive responses elicited by physical training enhance exercise performance and metabolic efficiency and possibly mediate the health benefits of physical exercise. In contrast, impaired expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or protein turnover in skeletal muscle-key biological processes involved in adaptation to physical training-leads to insulin resistance and obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233173/the-importance-of-health-behaviours-in-childhood-for-the-development-of-internalizing-disorders-during-adolescence
#4
Xiu Yun Wu, Sara F L Kirk, Arto Ohinmaa, Paul J Veugelers
BACKGROUND: Poor mental health constitutes a considerable global public health burden with approximately half of all cases of poor mental health having their onset before the age of 14 years. The identification of modifiable risk factors early in life is therefore essential to prevention, however, there are presently very few longitudinal studies on health behaviours for mental health to inform public health decision makers and to justify preventive action. We examined the importance of diet quality, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours in childhood for internalizing disorder throughout adolescence...
December 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232696/effect-of-temperature-on-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-untrained-and-endurance-trained-rats
#5
Jerzy A Zoladz, Agnieszka Koziel, Izabela Broniarek, Andrzej M Woyda-Ploszczyca, Karolina Ogrodna, Joanna Majerczak, Jan Celichowski, Zbigniew Szkutnik, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
We studied the effects of various assay temperatures, representing hypothermia (25°C), normothermia (35°C), and hyperthermia (42°C), on the oxidation of lipid-derived fuels in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria of untrained and endurance-trained rats. Adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a training group (rats trained on a treadmill for 8 weeks) or a sedentary control group. In skeletal muscle mitochondria of both control and trained rats, an increase in the assay temperature from 25°C to 42°C was accompanied by a consistent increase in the oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine and glycerol-3-phosphate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232407/temporal-changes-in-cardiac-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-remodeling-induced-by-exercise-in-hypertension-role-for-local-angiotensin-ii-reduction
#6
Sebastião D Silva, Zaira P Jara, Roseli Peres, Larissa S Lima, Cristóforo Scavone, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz, Dulce E Casarini, Lisete C Michelini
Exercise training reduces renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, decreases plasma and tissue oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertension. However, the temporal nature of these phenomena in response to exercise is unknown. We sought to determine in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched WKY controls the weekly effects of training on blood pressure (BP), plasma and left ventricle (LV) Ang II and Ang-(1-7) content (HPLC), LV oxidative stress (DHE staining), gene and protein expression (qPCR and WB) of pro-inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes and their consequence on hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232264/fish-oil-derived-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-sarcopenia
#7
Stuart R Gray, Bettina Mittendorfer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Muscle mass and function decline progressively starting in middle age, which can result in sarcopenia and affect people's mobility and independence later in life. Exercise training and increased protein intake are typically recommended to counteract the age-associated decline in muscle mass and function. However, few people comply with exercise recommendations and the effectiveness of high-protein intake to halt the decline in muscle mass and function has not been proven...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229086/effects-of-ground-based-walking-training-on-daily-physical-activity-in-people-with-copd-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Sally L Wootton, Kylie Hill, Jennifer A Alison, Li Whye Cindy Ng, Sue Jenkins, Peter R Eastwood, David R Hillman, Christine Jenkins, Lissa Spencer, Nola Cecins, Leon Straker, Zoe J McKeough
This study explored the effects of ground-based walking training on physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Participants were randomised to a walk group (WG) [supervised, ground-based walking training, two or three times per week for 8-10 weeks] or a control group (CG) [usual medical care]. Before and after the intervention period, PA and ST were measured using the SenseWear® Pro3 Armband. Of the 143 participants randomised, 101 (71%) had sufficient data for the primary analysis; 62 were from the WG (mean [SD] age 69 [8] years, FEV1 42 [15] % predicted) and 39 were from the CG (age 68 [9] years, FEV1 43 [15] % predicted)...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228941/four-years-follow-up-changes-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-in-women-undergoing-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-and-appurtenant-children
#9
Fanny Sellberg, Mikaela Willmer, Per Tynelius, Daniel Berglind
BACKGROUND: Objectively measured levels of physical activity (PA) in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) surgery remain essentially unchanged from before to one year after surgery. Effects from RYGB on objectively measured levels of PA among women undergoing RYGB and appurtenant children beyond one year post-surgery are unknown. The aim of the present study was to objectively assess longitudinal changes in PA and sedentary time (ST), among women undergoing RYGB and appurtenant children, from three months before to nine and 48 months after maternal surgery...
December 11, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226994/demographic-and-clinical-correlates-of-accelerometer-assessed-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-in-lung-cancer-survivors
#10
Adrijana D'Silva, Gwyn D Bebb, Terry Boyle, Steven T Johnson, Jeff K Vallance
OBJECTIVE: To determine demographic and clinical correlates of accelerometer assessed physical activity and sedentary time among a population-based sample of lung cancer survivors. METHODS: Lung cancer survivors in Southern Alberta, Canada (N=527) were invited to complete a mailed survey assessing socio-demographics and wear an Actigraph® GT3X+ accelerometer for seven days. Average daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary time were derived from the accelerometer data...
December 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226798/long-term-effects-of-a-swedish-lifestyle-intervention-programme-on-lifestyle-habits-and-quality-of-life-in-people-with-increased-cardiovascular-risk
#11
Matthias Lidin, Elin Ekblom-Bak, Monica Rydell Karlsson, Mai-Lis Hellénius
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a structured intervention programme on lifestyle habits and quality of life after six months and one year in participants with increased cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Participants aged ≥18 years with increased cardiovascular risk were referred from primary health care and hospitals. The programme was launched at an outpatient clinic in a department of cardiology at a university hospital. It consisted of individual visits to a nurse for a health check-up and lifestyle counselling at baseline, after six months and at one year...
December 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226756/voluntary-wheel-running-improves-adipose-tissue-immunometabolism-in-ovariectomized-low-fit-rats
#12
Terese M Zidon, Young-Min Park, Rebecca J Welly, Makenzie L Woodford, Rebecca J Scroggins, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, Frank W Booth, Jaume Padilla, Jill A Kanaley, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Loss of ovarian hormones is associated with increased adiposity, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR). Previous work demonstrated ovariectomized (OVX) rats bred for high aerobic fitness (HCR) are protected against weight gain and IR compared to rats bred for low aerobic fitness (LCR) yet wheel running prevents OVX-induced IR in LCR rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adipose tissue immunometabolic characteristics from female HCR and LCR rats differs before or after OVX, and whether wheel running mitigates OVX-induced adipose tissue immunometabolic changes in LCR rats...
December 11, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226521/the-ontogeny-of-the-female-reproductive-system-in-the-parasitic-castrator-pea-crab-calyptraeotheres-garthi-implications-for-its-mating-system
#13
Emiliano H Ocampo, Tomás A Luppi, Eduardo D Spivak, Sebastian Klaus
The knowledge of the mating system of pea crabs is still fragmentary as it remains dubious whether females copulate in the juvenile and free-living 'hard' or in the obligatory symbiotic stages (adult stage 'V' or intermediate stages II to IV). To discriminate between these two possibilities, we analysed the female seminal receptacles, vagina and opercula, and the sperm content in different stages of the pea crab Calyptraeotheres garthi. Our histology and scanning electron microscopy results revealed that in the hard stage the seminal receptacle is simple without secretory epithelia, and vagina and opercula are not controlled by musculature...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225776/the-sedentary-r-evolution-have-we-lost-our-metabolic-flexibility
#14
Jens Freese, Rainer Johannes Klement, Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, Sebastian Schwarz, Helmut Lötzerich
During the course of evolution, up until the agricultural revolution, environmental fluctuations forced the human species to develop a flexible metabolism in order to adapt its energy needs to various climate, seasonal and vegetation conditions. Metabolic flexibility safeguarded human survival independent of food availability. In modern times, humans switched their primal lifestyle towards a constant availability of energy-dense, yet often nutrient-deficient, foods, persistent psycho-emotional stressors and a lack of exercise...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225572/adaptive-changes-in-the-sensitivity-of-the-dorsal-raphe-and-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nuclei-to-acute-exercise-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-may-contribute-to-the-antidepressant-effect-of-regular-treadmill-running-in-rats
#15
Ayu Nishii, Seiichiro Amemiya, Natsuko Kubota, Takeshi Nishijima, Ichiro Kita
Increasing clinical evidence suggests that regular physical exercise can prevent or reduce the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders including depressive symptoms. Antidepressant effect of regular exercise may be implicated in monoaminergic transmission including serotonergic transmission, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and hippocampal neurogenesis, but few general concepts regarding the optimal exercise regimen for stimulating neural mechanisms involved in antidepressant properties have been developed...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225311/inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-by-antioxidant-supplementation-does-not-limit-muscle-mitochondrial-biogenesis-or-endurance-capacity-in-rats
#16
Jae Cheol Kim, Gi Duck Park, Sang Hyun Kim
The objective of the present study was to analyze the activation and expression patterns of upstream and downstream factors of PGC-1α to determine whether antioxidant (AO) supplementation inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscles as an adaptation to endurance training, as well as to analyze changes in endurance capacity based on such findings. For this objective, 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated into 4 groups (vehicle-sedentary, V-Sed; vehicle-exercise, V-EX; antioxidant-sedentary, AO-Sed; antioxidant-exercise, AO-EX) of 6 rats each...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224702/early-intervention-to-restore-function-and-maintain-healthy-trajectory
#17
REVIEW
Juan Jover, Lydia Abasolo
The health of the global population has undergone rapid transformation. Life expectancy and chronic conditions are increasing, and persons aged 65 years or older have become the fastest growing segment of population. The worldwide picture of disease burden is increasingly defined by disability instead of premature mortality. Population growth, ageing and sedentary lifestyles, particularly in developing countries, will result in a crisis for the population health that requires a multi-system response. The growing awareness of the diseases burden increases the need for accurate measurement and assessment of the burden and measurement of the impact of any public health action...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224701/physical-activity-in-older-people-case-studies-of-how-to-make-change-happen
#18
REVIEW
Monica Rodrigues Perracini, Marcia Rodrigues Costa Franco, Natalia Aquaroni Ricci, Catherine Blake
Enhancing physical activity (PA) is recognized as a powerful intervention for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases and disability in older people. Furthermore, there is an agreement that increased PA in daily life is a key determinant of active and healthy ageing and should be recommended for frail and sedentary older people. Unfortunately, relatively few older people engage in regular PA or stay active in the long term. This article summarizes and discusses PA recommendations for older adults without focussing on specific diseases, presents the main barriers and facilitators for increasing PA levels, and considers the implementation of these recommendations on the basis of the existing evidence...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223790/temporal-and-bi-directional-associations-between-sleep-duration-and-physical-activity-sedentary-time-in-children-an-international-comparison
#19
Yingyi Lin, Mark S Tremblay, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Estelle V Lambert, Carol Maher, Jose Maia, Timothy Olds, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Jean-Philippe Chaput
The purpose of this multinational and cross-sectional study was to investigate whether nighttime sleep duration was associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) the following day, whether daytime PA/SED were associated with sleep duration the subsequent night, and whether the associations were modified by sex and study sites. Data from 5779 children aged 9-11years were analyzed. A waist-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to assess children's 24-h movement behaviours for 7days, i...
December 6, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223777/child-care-centre-adherence-to-infant-physical-activity-and-screen-time-recommendations-in-australia-canada-and-the-united-states-an-observational-study
#20
Lyndel Hewitt, Sara E Benjamin-Neelon, Valerie Carson, Rebecca M Stanley, Ian Janssen, Anthony D Okely
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare adherence to physical activity and sedentary behaviour recommendations within the 2011 Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies as well as screen time recommendations from the 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics for samples of infants in child care centres in Australia, Canada, and the United States (US). METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from: the Australian 2013 Standing Preschools (N=9) and the 2014-2017 Early Start Baseline (N=22) studies; the 2011 Canadian Healthy Living Habits in Pre-School Children study (N=14); and the American 2008 (N=31) and 2013-2017 (N=31) Baby Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) trials...
December 7, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
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