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Health Behaviour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738670/antidoping-program-an-important-factor-in-the-promotion-and-protection-of-the-integrity-of-sport-and-athlete-s-health
#1
Filomena Mazzeo, Vincenzo Monda, Stefania Santamaria, Ersilia Nigro, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonietta Messina, Giovanni Messina
Use of performance-enhancing drugs concern not only elite Olympic and Paralympic Games' athletes but also amateur athletes, who are making increasing use of substances and/or methods. Furthermore, a new frontier reached by the doping is the use of genes. World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA), expressly prohibited the participation in competitive sports by the athlete in case of taking banned substances to treat disease in the event that the above assumption implies an excessive improvement of performance. This study aims to analyze and show the doping control as an essential part of the anti-doping program to promote and protect the integrity of sport and athlete's health...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738317/the-application-of-signalling-theory-to-health-related-trust-problems-the-example-of-herbal-clinics-in-ghana-and-tanzania
#2
Kate Hampshire, Heather Hamill, Simon Mariwah, Joseph Mwanga, Daniel Amoako-Sakyi
In contexts where healthcare regulation is weak and levels of uncertainty high, how do patients decide whom and what to trust? In this paper, we explore the potential for using Signalling Theory (ST, a form of Behavioural Game Theory) to investigate health-related trust problems under conditions of uncertainty, using the empirical example of 'herbal clinics' in Ghana and Tanzania. Qualitative, ethnographic fieldwork was conducted over an eight-month period (2015-2016) in eight herbal clinics in Ghana and ten in Tanzania, including semi-structured interviews with herbalists (N = 18) and patients (N = 68), plus detailed ethnographic observations and twenty additional key informant interviews...
July 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737362/-ethnography-of-the-determinants-of-eating-behaviour-in-diabetic-schooolchildren-in-yaounde
#3
Mathilde Matchika Megaptché, André Wamba
Objective: Failure to comply with dietary recommendations exposes young insulin-dependent diabetics to a risk of acute complications of diabetes and is a subject of major concern for health care professionals, who expected young diabetics to effectively adopt the recommended eating behaviour based on the revised diet. However, the revised diet initiated by health care professionals in Cameroon has been shown to have a limited efficacy. The objective of this study was to elucidate the motivations underlying poor compliance young diabetics with dietary recommendations and which simultaneously determine their eating behaviour...
July 10, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737361/-sex-education-in-tunisia-students%C3%A2-%C3%A2-expectations-and-teachers%C3%A2-conceptions
#4
Sameh Hrairi
Health education, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO 1983), includes sex education. In Tunisia, there is a growing interest in sexuality issues, in contrast with the reigning conservative culture, challenging the taboos and restrictions imposed by religion. A global sex education strategy is therefore required in Tunisian in schools to help students understand their body and its biological functions, construct a real sexual identity and adopt behaviours that promote a healthy and low-risk lifestyle...
July 10, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737352/-the-role-of-a-new-syringe-filter-in-harm-reduction-the-views-of-active-injection-drug-users
#5
Maitena Milhet, Marie Jauffret-Roustide
Reducing the risks associated with drug injection is a core component of the Drug Harm Reduction Policy. In France, this strategy was implemented in the context of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s. Unless appropriate hygienic precautions are taken, injecting drugs may cause infectious, bacterial or fungal diseases. French Health authorities promote the use of effective tools to help reduce the harm associated with drug injection. In this context, public authorities supported the evaluation of new drug injection paraphernalia...
July 10, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737345/-high-school-student-160-and-skin-bleaching-in-cameroon
#6
Adeline Mayoughouo Mouliom, André Wamba
These elements can be used as a basis for better prevention and health promotion in schools; so that students adopt healthy behaviours and to prevent those students at risk.</ce:para>.
April 27, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737309/i-still-haven-t-found-what-i-m-looking-for-bono-google-and-glaucoma-awareness
#7
C Lyons, R Ellard, E McElnea, D Townley
The effect of celebrity diagnosis on public awareness of health conditions has already been well documented. In October 2014, Bono, the lead singer with U2, revealed publicly for the first time that he has glaucoma. This study aimed to analyze the impact of Bono's announcement on public awareness of glaucoma using Google Search trends as an indicator of public interest in the disease. Google Trends was used to examine Google Search activity for the term 'Glaucoma' between 2009 and 2015 in both Ireland and the United Kingdom...
May 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736955/does-compliance-with-healthy-lifestyle-behaviours-cluster-within-individuals-in-australian-primary-school-aged-children
#8
T Olds, I Sanders, C Maher, F Fraysse, L Bell, E Leslie
BACKGROUND: The 3 "movement behaviours" of sleep, screen time, and physical activity are associated with a wide range of health outcomes in children. This study examined whether these behaviours cluster together within individuals in Australian primary school children. METHODS: Three datasets including 4,449 9- to 11-year-old children were interrogated-(a) Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL), (b) the International Study of Children, Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment (ISCOLE), and (c) the National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NCNPAS)...
July 23, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736911/observational-study-of-adherence-to-a-traditional-mediterranean-diet-sociocultural-characteristics-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-of-older-greek-australians-from-mediterranean-islands-medis-australia-study-protocol-and-rationale
#9
Antonia Thodis, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Antigone Kouris-Blazos, Laima Brazionis, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
AIM: To describe the study protocol of the MEDiterranean ISlands-Australia (MEDIS-Australia) Study modelled on the MEDIS Study conducted in Greece. The present study aims to explore adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet pattern, determine enablers and barriers to adherence, explore the definition of Greek cuisine, and associations between adherence to the diet pattern and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome in older Greek Australians originally from Greek islands and Cyprus...
July 24, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736876/geriatric-cooperatives-in-southwestern-ontario-a-novel-way-of-increasing-inter-sectoral-partnerships-in-the-care-of-older-adults-with-responsive-behaviours
#10
Iris Gutmanis, Loretta M Hillier
Established in 2010, Geriatric Cooperatives support the evolving Behavioural Supports Ontario (BSO) programme in the South West Local Health Integration Network. Geriatric Cooperatives bring together members representing relevant cross-sectoral services and are tasked with identifying system gaps associated with the BSO target population as well as developing work plans specific to their local area, leveraging local capacity, and co-ordinating and improving linkages between sectors and services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the partnerships formed over time within these Cooperatives in order to inform their ongoing development and sustainability...
July 24, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736783/halogen-effects-on-the-solid-state-packing-of-phenylalanine-derivatives-and-the-resultant-gelation-properties
#11
Susana M Ramalhete, Jamie S Foster, Hayley R Green, Karol P Nartowski, Margaux Heinrich, Peter C Martin, Yaroslav Z Khimyak, Gareth O Lloyd
Phenylalanine is an important amino acid both biologically, essential to human health, and industrially, as a building block of artificial sweeteners. Our interest in this particular amino acid and its derivatives lies with its ability to form gels in a number of solvents. We present here the studies of the influence of halogen addition to the aromatic ring on the gelation properties and we analyse the crystal structures of a number of these materials to elucidate the trends in their behaviour based on the halogen addition to the aromatic group and the interactions that result...
July 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736760/self-harm-and-violent-criminality-among-young-people-who-experienced-trauma-related-hospital-admission-during-childhood-a-danish-national-cohort-study
#12
Roger T Webb, Sussie Antonsen, Matthew J Carr, Louis Appleby, Carsten B Pedersen, Pearl L H Mok
BACKGROUND: Development of a better understanding of subsequent pathways for individuals who experienced trauma during childhood might usefully inform clinicians and public health professionals regarding the causes of self-harm and interpersonal violence. We aimed to examine these risks during late adolescence and early adulthood among people admitted to hospital following injuries or poisonings during their childhood. METHODS: This national cohort study included Danish people born between Jan 1, 1977, and Dec 31, 1997, and was linked to the National Patient Register and Psychiatric Central Research Register to identify all people exposed to hospital admissions for injuries or poisonings due to self-harm, interpersonal violence, or accidents before their 15th birthday...
July 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736395/understanding-the-relationship-between-couple-dynamics-and-engagement-with-hiv-care-services-insights-from-a-qualitative-study-in-eastern-and-southern-africa
#13
Joyce Wamoyi, Jenny Renju, Mosa Moshabela, Estelle McLean, Daniel Nyato, Doris Mbata, Oliver Bonnington, Janet Seeley, Kathryn Church, Basia Zaba, Alison Wringe
OBJECTIVE: To explore the interplay between couple dynamics and the engagement of people living with HIV (PLHIV) with HIV care and treatment services in three health and demographic surveillance sites in Tanzania, Malawi and South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted involving 107 in-depth interviews with PLHIV with a range of HIV care and treatment histories, including current users of HIV clinics, and people not enrolled in HIV care. Interviews explored experiences of living with HIV and how and why they chose to engage or not with HIV services...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736389/hiv-testing-experiences-and-their-implications-for-patient-engagement-with-hiv-care-and-treatment-on-the-eve-of-test-and-treat-findings-from-a-multicountry-qualitative-study
#14
Alison Wringe, Mosa Moshabela, Constance Nyamukapa, Dominic Bukenya, Ken Ondenge, William Ddaaki, Joyce Wamoyi, Janet Seeley, Kathryn Church, Basia Zaba, Victoria Hosegood, Oliver Bonnington, Morten Skovdal, Jenny Renju
OBJECTIVE: In view of expanding 'test and treat' initiatives, we sought to elicit how the experience of HIV testing influenced subsequent engagement in HIV care among people diagnosed with HIV. METHODS: As part of a multisite qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews in Uganda, South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe with 5-10 health workers and 28-59 people living with HIV, per country. Topic guides covered patient and provider experiences of HIV testing and treatment services...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735599/effectiveness-of-the-metslim-lifestyle-intervention-targeting-individuals-of-low-socio-economic-status-and-different-ethnic-origins-with-elevated-waist-to-height-ratio
#15
Andrea J Bukman, Dorit Teuscher, Agnes Meershoek, Reint Jan Renes, Marleen A van Baak, Edith Jm Feskens
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the lifestyle intervention MetSLIM targeting individuals of low socio-economic status of Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch origin was successful in improving waist circumference and other cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle behaviour and quality of life. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental intervention study (Netherlands Trial Register NTR3721). The intervention group participated in a 12-month combined dietary and physical activity programme...
July 24, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735593/virtual-reality-in-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-its-utility-acceptability-and-effectiveness
#16
M Rus-Calafell, P Garety, E Sason, T J K Craig, L R Valmaggia
Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid increase of studies testing the efficacy and acceptability of virtual reality in the assessment and treatment of mental health problems. This systematic review was carried out to investigate the use of virtual reality in the assessment and the treatment of psychosis. Web of Science, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Scopus, ProQuest and PubMed databases were searched, resulting in the identification of 638 articles potentially eligible for inclusion; of these, 50 studies were included in the review...
July 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735582/health-literacy-and-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-in-rural-australia
#17
Siew Lim, Alison Beauchamp, Sarity Dodson, Jonathan O'Hara, Crystal McPhee, Alexandra Fulton, Carol Wildey, Richard H Osborne
OBJECTIVE: Adequate fruit and vegetable intake is important in the prevention of chronic disease. Health literacy is associated with health outcomes but its role in dietary behaviour has received little attention. The present study investigated the association between a multidimensional measure of health literacy, sociodemographic characteristics, and fruit and vegetable intake in rural Australia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey on intake of fruits and vegetables (servings/d), demographic characteristics and health literacy profile using a nine-scale Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)...
July 24, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735272/perceived-nicotine-content-of-reduced-nicotine-content-cigarettes-is-a-correlate-of-perceived-health-risks
#18
Lauren R Pacek, F Joseph McClernon, Rachel L Denlinger-Apte, Melissa Mercincavage, Andrew A Strasser, Sarah S Dermody, Ryan Vandrey, Tracy T Smith, Natalie Nardone, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Rachel V Kozink, Eric C Donny
BACKGROUND: Reducing cigarette nicotine content may reduce smoking. Studies suggest that smokers believe that nicotine plays a role in smoking-related morbidity. This may lead smokers to assume that reduced nicotine means reduced risk, and attenuate potential positive effects on smoking behaviour. METHODS: Data came from a multisite randomised trial in which smokers were assigned to use cigarettes varying in nicotine content for 6 weeks. We evaluated associations between perceived and actual nicotine content with perceived health risks using linear regression, and associations between perceived nicotine content and perceived health risks with smoking outcomes using linear and logistic regression...
July 22, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734670/population-health-and-regional-variations-of-disease-burden-in-japan-1990-2015-a-systematic-subnational-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#19
Shuhei Nomura, Haruka Sakamoto, Scott Glenn, Yusuke Tsugawa, Sarah K Abe, Md M Rahman, Jonathan C Brown, Satoshi Ezoe, Christina Fitzmaurice, Tsuyoshi Inokuchi, Nicholas J Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Yosuke Kita, Naoki Kondo, Stephen S Lim, Satoshi Maruyama, Hiroaki Miyata, Meghan D Mooney, Mohsen Naghavi, Tomoko Onoda, Erika Ota, Yuji Otake, Gregory A Roth, Eiko Saito, Takahiro Tabuchi, Yohsuke Takasaki, Tadayuki Tanimura, Manami Uechi, Theo Vos, Haidong Wang, Manami Inoue, Christopher J L Murray, Kenji Shibuya
BACKGROUND: Japan has entered the era of super-ageing and advanced health transition, which is increasingly putting pressure on the sustainability of its health system. The level and pace of this health transition might vary across regions within Japan and concern is growing about increasing regional variations in disease burden. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive, comparable framework. We used data from GBD 2015 with the aim to quantify the burden of disease and injuries, and to attribute risk factors in Japan at a subnational, prefecture-level...
July 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734026/falling-into-a-routine-from-habits-to-situated-practices
#20
Simon Cohn, Rebecca Lynch
In line with the concept of 'nudging' people to change their behaviour, there has been increased attention on habit as a focus for psychologically-based health interventions. It is hoped that behaviours initiated by interventions not only become so regular that they are normalised into people's everyday lives, but that through repetition they may eventually become fixed and habitual. In this paper we draw on people's accounts of participating in a trial designed to encourage greater physical activity, and attend to the ways they describe their engagement with interventions within wider narratives of their everyday lives...
July 21, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
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