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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353369/mental-health-professionals-attitudes-towards-mental-illness-professional-and-cultural-factors-in-the-inter-nos-study
#1
Francisco Del Olmo-Romero, María González-Blanco, Salvador Sarró, Jaime Grácio, Manuel Martín-Carrasco, Ana C Martinez-Cabezón, Giampaolo Perna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Pedro Varandas, Javier Ballesteros-Rodríguez, Carlos Rebolleda-Gil, Giovanna Vanni, Eduardo González-Fraile
BACKGROUND: Research shows that personnel working in mental health facilities may share some of the societal prejudices towards mental illness. This might result in stigmatizing behaviours towards people suffering from mental disorders, undermining the quality of their care. AIMS: To describe and compare attitudes towards mental illness across a sample of professionals working in a wide range of mental health facilities in Spain, Portugal and Italy. METHOD: We administered a survey to personnel including two questionnaires related to stigmatizing attitudes: The Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) and the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-27)...
January 20, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352579/informed-consent-in-physiotherapy-practice-it-is-not-what-is-said-but-how-it-is-said
#2
G Copnell
This paper discusses the concept of informed consent in the context of contemporary biomedical ethics. A change in UK law regarding what information should be provided to patients has brought to the fore the role of physiotherapists in the process of gaining informed consent. It is important that physiotherapists are aware of how this change in the law will affect their practice. For an individual to consent, they need to have both the capacity and freedom to exercise rational thought. These concepts are challenged in contemporary biomedical ethics...
August 7, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352532/the-impact-of-severe-mental-disorders-and-psychotropic-medications-on-sexual-health-and-its-implications-for-clinical-management
#3
Angel L Montejo, Laura Montejo, David S Baldwin
Sexual dysfunction often accompanies severe psychiatric illness and can be due to both the mental disorder itself and the use of psychotropic treatments. Many sexual symptoms resolve as the mental state improves, but treatment-related sexual adverse events tend to persist over time, and are unfortunately under-recognized by clinicians and scarcely investigated in clinical trials. Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life and may contribute to reduce treatment adherence. There are important differences between the various compounds in the incidence of adverse sexual effects, associated with differences in mechanisms of action...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352501/predictors-of-beef-calf-temperament-at-weaning-and-its-impact-on-temperament-at-breeding-and-reproductive-performance
#4
V R Kasimanickam, R L Abdel Aziz, H M Williams, R K Kasimanickam
Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) factors influencing calf temperament at weaning, (ii) association between heifer-calf temperament at weaning and temperament at breeding and (iii) effect of heifer-calf temperament on pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (P/AI). In experiment 1, beef cows and their calves (n = 285) from three farms were used. Sire docility estimated progeny difference (EPD) score, birth type (normal or assisted), calf gender, calf behaviour (during 1st 4 weeks) and calf health status (until weaning) were recorded...
January 19, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352280/leisure-time-physical-activity-and-prevalence-of-non-communicable-pathologies-and-prescription-medication-in-spain
#5
Pablo Fernandez-Navarro, María Teresa Aragones, Victoria Ley
Our aims were to describe physical activity (PA) behaviour in Spain and to examine its association with the prevalence of some of the major non-communicable diseases and with the use of prescription medication. Individualized secondary data retrieved from the 2014 European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) for Spain were used to conduct a cross-sectional epidemiological study (n = 18926). PA was assessed by two different measures: a specific designed variable for EHIS and a leisure time PA frequency-based query of the national survey...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352034/translational-new-approaches-for-investigating-mood-disorders-in-rodents-and-what-they-may-reveal-about-the-underlying-neurobiology-of-major-depressive-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Emma S J Robinson
Mood disorders represent one of society's most costly and challenging health burdens. The drug treatments used today were initially discovered serendipitously in the 1950s. Animal models were then developed based on the ability of these drugs to alter specific behaviours. These models have played a major role in the development of the second generation of antidepressants. However, their use has been heavily criticized, particularly in relation to whether they recapitulate similar underlying biology to the psychiatric disorder they are proposed to represent...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352032/the-surprising-subtleties-of-changing-fear-memory-a-challenge-for-translational-science
#7
REVIEW
Merel Kindt
Current pharmacological and psychological treatments for disorders of emotional memory only dampen the affective response while leaving the original fear memory intact. Under adverse circumstances, these original memories regain prominence, causing relapses in many patients. The (re)discovery in neuroscience that after reactivation consolidated fear memories may return to a transient labile state, requiring a process of restabilization in order to persist, offers a window of opportunity for modifying fear memories with amnestic agents...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352031/can-we-use-mice-to-study-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Canetta, Christoph Kellendonk
The validity of rodent models for the study of psychiatric disorders is controversial. Despite great efforts from academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies, as of today, no major therapeutic intervention has been developed for the treatment of psychiatric disorders based on mechanistic insights from rodent models. Here, we argue that despite these historical shortcomings, rodent studies are nevertheless instrumental for identifying neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying behaviours that are affected in psychiatric disorders...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352029/dissociable-temporal-effects-of-bupropion-on-behavioural-measures-of-emotional-and-reward-processing-in-depression
#9
Annabel E L Walsh, Michael Browning, Wayne C Drevets, Maura Furey, Catherine J Harmer
Antidepressants remediate negative biases in emotional processing early in treatment, prior to mood improvement. However, the effects on reward processing potentially relevant to the treatment of anhedonia are less clear. Here we investigate the early and sustained effects of the dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor bupropion on behavioural measures of emotional and reward processing in currently depressed individuals. Forty-six currently depressed patients and 42 healthy controls participated in a repeated measures study, during which open-label bupropion was administered to only the patient group over a six week period without a placebo group...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352028/the-mysteries-of-remote-memory
#10
REVIEW
Zimbul Albo, Johannes Gräff
Long-lasting memories form the basis of our identity as individuals and lie central in shaping future behaviours that guide survival. Surprisingly, however, our current knowledge of how such memories are stored in the brain and retrieved, as well as the dynamics of the circuits involved, remains scarce despite seminal technical and experimental breakthroughs in recent years. Traditionally, it has been proposed that, over time, information initially learnt in the hippocampus is stored in distributed cortical networks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352027/the-thalamus-in-drug-addiction-from-rodents-to-humans
#11
REVIEW
Anna S Huang, Jameson A Mitchell, Suzanne N Haber, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
Impairments in response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) have been proposed to underlie the clinical symptoms of drug addiction as mediated by cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical networks. The bulk of evidence supporting the iRISA model comes from neuroimaging research that has focused on cortical and striatal influences with less emphasis on the role of the thalamus. Here, we highlight the importance of the thalamus in drug addiction, focusing on animal literature findings on thalamic nuclei in the context of drug-seeking, structural and functional changes of the thalamus as measured by imaging studies in human drug addiction, particularly during drug cue and non-drug reward processing, and response inhibition tasks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352026/addictive-behaviour-in-experimental-animals-prospects-for-translation
#12
REVIEW
Barry J Everitt, Chiara Giuliano, David Belin
Since the introduction of intravenous drug self-administration methodology over 50 years ago, experimental investigation of addictive behaviour has delivered an enormous body of data on the neural, psychological and molecular mechanisms of drug reward and reinforcement and the neuroadaptations to chronic use. Whether or not these behavioural and molecular studies are viewed as modelling the underpinnings of addiction in humans, the discussion presented here highlights two areas-the impact of drug-associated conditioned stimuli-or drug cues-on drug seeking and relapse, and compulsive cocaine seeking...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352025/state-of-the-art-and-future-directions-for-extinction-as-a-translational-model-for-fear-and-anxiety
#13
REVIEW
Michelle G Craske, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
Through advances in both basic and clinical scientific research, Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction have become an exemplary translational model for understanding and treating anxiety disorders. Discoveries in associative and neurobiological mechanisms underlying extinction have informed techniques for optimizing exposure therapy that enhance the formation of inhibitory associations and their consolidation and retrieval over time and context. Strategies that enhance formation include maximizing prediction-error correction by violating expectancies, deepened extinction, occasional reinforced extinction, attentional control and removal of safety signals/behaviours...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352024/neuropharmacology-of-compulsive-eating
#14
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Julia I Panciera, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive eating behaviour is a transdiagnostic construct observed in certain forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as in the proposed construct of 'food addiction'. Compulsive eating can be conceptualized as comprising three elements: (i) habitual overeating, (ii) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state, and (iii) overeating despite adverse consequences. Neurobiological processes that include maladaptive habit formation, the emergence of a negative affect, and dysfunctions in inhibitory control are thought to drive the development and persistence of compulsive eating behaviour...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352023/monoamine-abnormalities-in-the-sapap3-knockout-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-related-behaviour
#15
Jesse Wood, Zoe LaPalombara, Susanne E Ahmari
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of illness-related disability, but the neural mechanisms underlying OCD symptoms are unclear. One potential mechanism of OCD pathology is monoamine dysregulation. Because of the difficulty of studying monoamine signalling in patients, animal models offer a viable alternative to understanding this aspect of OCD pathophysiology. We used HPLC to characterize post-mortem monoamine levels in lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial OFC, medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral striatum of SAPAP-3 knockout (KO) mice, a well-validated model of compulsive-like behaviours in OCD...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352022/of-mice-and-mental-health-facilitating-dialogue-and-seeing-further
#16
Amy L Milton, Emily A Holmes
The science of mental life is critical for understanding both how we function, and impairments in our functioning. However, understanding the causal mechanisms underlying mental health disorders and developing new treatments are challenges too great to be solved by any individual approach. There is a growing awareness that translational research-from laboratory to patient and back again to animal models-will be critical for the improved understanding and treatment of mental health disorders. The motivation and intention to pursue translational approaches is therefore strong in mental health research, but critically, opportunities for interaction between basic scientists and clinicians are relatively limited, and vary depending on the institution in which researchers are working...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351795/malaria-knowledge-and-bed-net-use-in-three-transmission-settings-in-southern-africa
#17
Mufaro Kanyangarara, Harry Hamapumbu, Edmore Mamini, James Lupiya, Jennifer C Stevenson, Sungano Mharakurwa, Mike Chaponda, Philip E Thuma, Lovemore Gwanzura, Shungu Munyati, Modest Mulenga, Douglas E Norris, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in endemic areas. Despite increasing availability, the use of ITNs remains limited in some settings. Poor malaria knowledge is a barrier to the widespread use of ITNs. The goal of this study was to assess the levels of malaria knowledge and evaluate factors associated with bed net use among individuals residing in three regions of southern Africa with different levels of malaria transmission and control...
January 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351781/mindmap-establishing-an-integrated-database-infrastructure-for-research-in-ageing-mental-well-being-and-the-urban-environment
#18
Mariëlle A Beenackers, Dany Doiron, Isabel Fortier, J Mark Noordzij, Erica Reinhard, Emilie Courtin, Martin Bobak, Basile Chaix, Giuseppe Costa, Ulrike Dapp, Ana V Diez Roux, Martijn Huisman, Emily M Grundy, Steinar Krokstad, Pekka Martikainen, Parminder Raina, Mauricio Avendano, Frank J van Lenthe
BACKGROUND: Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals...
January 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351632/presenteeism-in-academic-employees-occupational-and-individual-factors
#19
G Kinman, S Wray
Background: There is growing evidence that presenteeism can be damaging for individuals and organizations. It is, therefore, important to identify the prevalence of working while sick in different working environments and the factors that contribute to such behaviour. Aims: To examine the prevalence of self-reported presenteeism in academic staff working in UK universities and colleges and the extent to which job demands, control, support and work engagement are risk factors...
January 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351574/self-reported-knowledge-correct-knowledge-and-use-of-uk-drinking-guidelines-among-a-representative-sample-of-the-english-population
#20
Penny Buykx, Jessica Li, Lucy Gavens, Lucie Hooper, Elena Gomes de Matos, John Holmes
Aims: Promotion of lower risk drinking guidelines is a commonly used public health intervention with various purposes, including communicating alcohol consumption risks, informing drinkers' decision-making and, potentially, changing behaviour. UK drinking guidelines were revised in 2016. To inform potential promotion of the new guidelines, we aimed to examine public knowledge and use of the previous drinking guidelines, including by population subgroup. Methods: A demographically representative, cross-sectional online survey of 2100 adults living in England in July 2015 (i...
January 17, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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