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Health Behaviour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911487/external-inspection-of-compliance-with-standards-for-improved-healthcare-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Gerd Flodgren, Daniela C Gonçalves-Bradley, Marie-Pascale Pomey
BACKGROUND: Inspection systems are used in healthcare to promote quality improvements (i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes). These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of healthcare. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational-, provider- and patient-level outcomes are not clear...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910849/hydroxyl-radical-induced-formation-of-highly-oxidized-organic-compounds
#2
Torsten Berndt, Stefanie Richters, Tuija Jokinen, Noora Hyttinen, Theo Kurtén, Rasmus V Otkjær, Henrik G Kjaergaard, Frank Stratmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Mikko Sipilä, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn
Explaining the formation of secondary organic aerosol is an intriguing question in atmospheric sciences because of its importance for Earth's radiation budget and the associated effects on health and ecosystems. A breakthrough was recently achieved in the understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone reactions of biogenic emissions by the rapid formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds via autoxidation. However, the important daytime hydroxyl radical reactions have been considered to be less important in this process...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910258/the-role-of-individual-and-personality-factors-in-controlling-risky-behaviours-related-to-aids-proposing-a-causal-model
#3
Mansour Rezaei, Ali Zakiei, Soheyla Reshadat, Seyed Ramin Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Investigating previous studies show that personality traits have an important role in controlling risky behaviours related to AIDS; therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between AIDS health literacy, personality traits and mental health and controlling risky behaviours related to AIDS through self-efficacy. METHODS: The statistical population includes all the young people in western provinces of Iran, 2015. Data analysis was carried out for a sample of 756 participants (59% female)...
December 2, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908287/is-mid-life-social-participation-associated-with-cognitive-function-at-age-50-results-from-the-british-national-child-development-study-ncds
#4
Ann Bowling, Jitka Pikhartova, Brian Dodgeon
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: The vehicle for the study was the National Child Development Study (1958 Birth Cohort Study), which is a general population sample in England, Scotland and Wales (9119: 4497 men and 4622 women) participating in nationally representative, prospective birth cohort surveys...
December 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908276/changes-in-physical-functioning-among-men-and-women-aged-50-79-years-in-germany-an-analysis-of-national-health-interview-and-examination-surveys-1997-1999-and-2008-2011
#5
A K Buttery, Y Du, M A Busch, J Fuchs, B Gaertner, H Knopf, C Scheidt-Nave
BACKGROUND: This study examines changes in physical functioning among adults aged 50-79 years in Germany based on data from two German National Health Interview and Examination Surveys conducted in 1997-1999 (GNHIES98) and 2008-2011 (DEGS1). METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the two surveys (GNHIES98, n = 2884 and DEGS1, n = 3732), we examined changes in self-reported physical functioning scores (Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF)) by sex and age groups (50-64 and 65-79 years)...
December 1, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907173/piglets-born-from-sows-fed-high-fibre-diets-during-pregnancy-are-less-aggressive-prior-to-weaning
#6
Thiago Bernardino, Patricia Tatemoto, Beatrice Morrone, Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues, Adroaldo José Zanella
Aggressive interactions, and their consequences, are the most important causes of poor welfare in piglets. Aggressive behaviour can be modulated by the prenatal and neonatal environment in several species. Commercially kept pregnant sows are often subjected to food restriction, which can compromise their welfare. Limited information is available on the consequences of sow hunger during pregnancy on welfare outcomes for their piglets. High fibre diets can mitigate the feeling of hunger and, consequently, it may improve welfare and productivity measures...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907161/barriers-and-facilitators-to-safe-food-handling-among-consumers-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-qualitative-research-studies
#7
Ian Young, Lisa Waddell
Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907114/rates-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-kenya-results-from-the-second-kenya-aids-indicator-survey-2012
#8
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906471/negotiated-safety-components-context-and-use-an-integrative-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
NataIie M Leblanc, Jason W Mitchell, Joseph P De Santis
AIM: To examine the components and use of negotiated safety in the context of HIV prevention and to identify reported factors associated with the concept. BACKGROUND: There is an emerging interest in dyadic approaches to address HIV transmission. Although there are theoretical foundations for how interpersonal relationships influence individual behaviour, how these dyadic processes influence on health is still not wholly understood. DESIGN: Integrative review of empirical and theoretical literature...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906154/-factors-associated-with-overweight-and-obesity-in-schoolchildren-from-8-to-9-years-old-barcelona-spain
#10
Francesca Sánchez-Martínez, Peter Torres Capcha, Gemma Serral Cano, Sara Valmayor Safont, Conxa Castell Abat, Carles Ariza Cardenal
OBJECTIVE: Childhood overweight and obesity have increased progressively in the last decades, especially in countries of Southern Europe. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of overweight, obesity and its determinants in schoolchildren between 8-9 years old from Barcelona. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 3,262 schoolchildren in 2011. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated following the criteria established by the World Health Organization (z-scores)...
December 2, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906123/one-health-research-and-training-and-government-support-for-one-health-in-south-asia
#11
REVIEW
Joanna S McKenzie, Rojan Dahal, Manish Kakkar, Nitish Debnath, Mahmudur Rahman, Sithar Dorjee, Khalid Naeem, Tikiri Wijayathilaka, Barun Kumar Sharma, Nasir Maidanwal, Asmatullah Halimi, Eunmi Kim, Pranab Chatterjee, Brecht Devleesschauwer
INTRODUCTION: Considerable advocacy, funding, training, and technical support have been provided to South Asian countries to strengthen One Health (OH) collaborative approaches for controlling diseases with global human pandemic potential since the early 2000s. It is essential that the OH approach continues to be strengthened given South Asia is a hot spot for emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases. The objectives of this article are to describe OH research and training and capacity building activities and the important developments in government support for OH in these countries to identify current achievements and gaps...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906020/targeting-vulnerable-populations-a-synthetic-review-on-alcohol-use-and-risky-sexual-behaviour-among-migrant-populations
#12
REVIEW
Emilia Maria Vaz Martins-Fonteyn, Nina Sommerland, Herman Meulemans, Olivier Degomme, Ines Raimundo, Edwin Wouters
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated a link between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviour among different types of migrant populations. Therefore, research investigating risk factors associated with alcohol consumption among them is a public health priority. This review aimed to explore the intersection between migration, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. METHODS: This article is a synthetic review of empirical studies on the association of alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviour among different types of the migrant populations, focusing on measurable outcomes generated from quantitative data...
September 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905981/correlates-of-meal-skipping-in-young-adults-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Felicity J Pendergast, Katherine M Livingstone, Anthony Worsley, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Meal skipping rates may be highest during young adulthood, a period of transition and development. Although these dietary behaviours may increase future risk of chronic disease, limited research has investigated correlates of meal skipping in young adults. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that investigated correlates of meal skipping behaviours in young adults (aged 18-30 years). EBSCO host, MEDLINE Complete, Global Health, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Informit platforms were searched for eligible articles...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905934/estimation-of-country-specific-and-global-prevalence-of-male-circumcision
#14
Brian J Morris, Richard G Wamai, Esther B Henebeng, Aaron Ar Tobian, Jeffrey D Klausner, Joya Banerjee, Catherine A Hankins
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC) status and genital infection risk are interlinked and MC is now part of HIV prevention programs worldwide. Current MC prevalence is not known for all countries globally. Our aim was to provide estimates for country-specific and global MC prevalence. METHODS: MC prevalence data were obtained by searches in PubMed, Demographic and Health Surveys, AIDS Indicator Surveys, and Behavioural Surveillance Surveys. Male age was ≥15 years in most surveys...
March 1, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905917/are-distinctive-risk-indicators-associated-with-different-stages-of-caries-in-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Maria Grazia Cagetti, Giovanna Congiu, Fabio Cocco, Gianfranco Meloni, Silvana Sale, Guglielmo Campus
BACKGROUND: Actual caries figures emphasize the need to identify the risk indicators involved in the disease's development. The hypothesis that certain risk indicators might affect the dynamic evolution of the caries process was assessed; to clarify this premise, a cross-sectional survey was performed in school children. METHODS: A total of 390 subjects aged 6-8 years old were randomly selected. Caries was assessed, and the subjects were stratified as follows: i) highest caries score; ii) most prevalent caries score; and iii) number of affected teeth...
December 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#16
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904519/mind-conduct-disorders-in-children-with-poor-oral-hygiene-habits-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-with-excessive-tooth-decay
#17
Onur Burak Dursun, Fatih Şengül, İbrahim Selçuk Esin, Tevfik Demirci, Nermin Yücel, Mehmet Melih Ömezli
INTRODUCTION: Dental caries and poor oral hygiene are among the major childhood public health problems. Although dental research frequently refers to the link between these conditions and behavioural issues, little attention has been paid to understanding the reason for oral health problems from a psychiatric point of view. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between poor oral health and hygiene and parental attitudes towards child rearing, parents' and children's oral hygiene behaviours, and childhood psychiatric disorders...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903784/terrain-following-and-applications-caenorhabditis-elegans-swims-along-the-floor-using-a-bump-and-undulate-strategy
#18
Jinzhou Yuan, Hungtang Ko, David M Raizen, Haim H Bau
Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans are heavier than water. When submerged in water, they settle to the bottom surface. Observations reveal that the animals do not lie flat on the bottom surface, but remain substantially suspended above the surface through continuous collisions with the surface, while maintaining their swimming gaits. Consequently, the swimming animals follow the bottom surface topography. When the bottom surface is inclined, the animals swim up or down along the incline. As the magnitude of the gravitational force can be easily estimated, this behaviour provides a convenient means to estimate the animal's propulsive thrust...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903563/leveraging-ongoing-research-to-evaluate-the-health-impacts-of-south-africa-s-salt-reduction-strategy-a-prospective-nested-cohort-within-the-who-sage-multicountry-longitudinal-study
#19
Karen Charlton, Lisa J Ware, Elias Menyanu, Richard Berko Biritwum, Nirmala Naidoo, Chiné Pieterse, Savathree Lorna Madurai, Jeannine Baumgartner, George A Asare, Elizabeth Thiele, Aletta E Schutte, Paul Kowal
INTRODUCTION: Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903561/keeping-weight-off-study-protocol-of-an-rct-to-investigate-brain-changes-associated-with-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction
#20
Carl Fulwiler, Julia A Siegel, Jeroan Allison, Milagros C Rosal, Judson Brewer, Jean A King
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
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