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Health Behavior

Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Karina W Davidson, John W Epling, Francisco A R García, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, William R Phillips, Maureen G Phipps, Michael P Pignone
Importance: There is convincing evidence that breastfeeding provides substantial health benefits for children. However, nearly half of all US mothers who initially breastfeed stop doing so by 6 months, and there are significant disparities in breastfeeding rates among younger mothers and in disadvantaged communities. Objective: To update the 2008 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on primary care interventions to promote breastfeeding. Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to support breastfeeding on breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity...
October 25, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Emma Monte, Manuel Rosa Garrido, Thomas M Vondriska, Jessica Wang
The past two decades have witnessed a rapid evolution in our ability to measure RNA and protein from biological systems. As a result, new principles have arisen regarding how information is processed in cells, how decisions are made, and the role of networks in biology. This essay examines this technological evolution, reviewing (and critiquing) the conceptual framework that has emerged to explain how RNA and protein networks control cellular function. We identify how future investigations into transcriptomes, proteomes, and other cellular networks will enable development of more robust, quantitative models of cellular behavior whilst also providing new avenues to use knowledge of biological networks to improve human health...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Sara de Souza Silva, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Maria Aparecida Turci, James Macinko, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa
This study compared the use of health services and medication, screening test coverage, characteristics of primary care, and health behaviors in 370 diabetics 45 years or older according to sources of care: private health policyholders regardless of place of residence; residents in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy; and individuals covered by a "traditional" Primary Care Unit. The study used data from the 2nd Adult Health Survey in Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region (2010), Minas Gerais State, Brazil...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Jorge Barros, Susana Morales, Orietta Echávarri, Arnol García, Jaime Ortega, Takeshi Asahi, Claudia Moya, Ronit Fischman, María P Maino, Catalina Núñez
Objective: To analyze suicidal behavior and build a predictive model for suicide risk using data mining (DM) analysis. Methods: A study of 707 Chilean mental health patients (with and without suicide risk) was carried out across three healthcare centers in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. Three hundred forty-three variables were studied using five questionnaires. DM and machine-learning tools were used via the support vector machine technique. Results: The model selected 22 variables that, depending on the circumstances in which they all occur, define whether a person belongs in a suicide risk zone (accuracy = 0...
October 20, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Brian Dodge, Debby Herbenick, M Reuel Friedman, Vanessa Schick, Tsung-Chieh Jane Fu, Wendy Bostwick, Elizabeth Bartelt, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, David Pletta, Michael Reece, Theo G M Sandfort
: As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U...
2016: PloS One
W Abel Wright, Jack M Gorman, Melissa Odorzynski, Mark J Peterson, Carol Clayton
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving psychiatric services at community mental health centers (CMHCs) are often prescribed medication that is critical to the treatment of behavioral health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Previous studies have shown correlation between rates of medication adherence and risk of hospitalization, but potential differences in medication adherence and other outcomes for patients of CMHCs by pharmacy type have not been widely studied...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Elena V Fernandez, Jennifer A McDaniel, Norman V Carroll
BACKGROUND: Higher medication adherence is associated with positive health outcomes, including reduction in hospitalizations and costs, and many interventions have been implemented to increase patient adherence. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patients experience higher medication adherence by using mail-order or retail pharmacies. METHODS: Articles pertaining to retail and mail-order pharmacies and medication adherence were collected from 3 literature databases: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA)...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Alex Peaslee, Marleen Wickizer, Julie Olson, Robert Topp
BACKGROUND: Value-based insurance design (VBID) waives or reduces prescription copayments in order to decrease member cost barriers to refilling medications. Medication therapy management (MTM) is a member clinical intervention designed to reinforce members' knowledge of their medications, which addresses barriers to medication adherence. Both methods have been shown to increase adherence in members, particularly when used in combination. To date, studies of such combined programs have often been completed within integrated health systems but have rarely included control populations...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Joanna P MacEwan, Felicia M Forma, Jason Shafrin, Ainslie Hatch, Darius N Lakdawalla, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence contributes to negative treatment response, symptom relapse, and hospitalizations in schizophrenia. Many health plans use claims-based measures like medication possession ratios or proportion of days covered (PDC) to measure patient adherence to antipsychotics. Classifying patients solely on the basis of a single average PDC measure, however, may mask clinically meaningful variations over time in how patients arrive at an average PDC level. OBJECTIVE: To model patterns of medication adherence evolving over time for patients with schizophrenia who initiated treatment with an oral atypical antipsychotic and, based on these patterns, to identify groups of patients with different adherence behaviors...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Scott Monteith, Tasha Glenn
Automated decision-making by computer algorithms based on data from our behaviors is fundamental to the digital economy. Automated decisions impact everyone, occurring routinely in education, employment, health care, credit, and government services. Technologies that generate tracking data, including smartphones, credit cards, websites, social media, and sensors, offer unprecedented benefits. However, people are vulnerable to errors and biases in the underlying data and algorithms, especially those with mental illness...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Andrea T Kozak, Joanna Buscemi, Misty A W Hawkins, Monica L Wang, Jessica Y Breland, Kathryn M Ross, Anupama Kommu
Obesity is a prevalent health care issue associated with disability, premature morality, and high costs. Behavioral weight management interventions lead to clinically significant weight losses in overweight and obese individuals; however, many individuals are not able to participate in these face-to-face treatments due to limited access, cost, and/or time constraints. Technological advances such as widespread access to the Internet, increased use of smartphones, and newer behavioral self-monitoring tools have resulted in the development of a variety of eHealth weight management programs...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Cynthia Huang-Pollock, Zvi Shapiro, Hilary Galloway-Long, Alex Weigard
In contrast to historical conceptualizations that framed psychological disorders as distinct, categorical conditions, it is now widely understood that co- and multi-morbidities between disorders are extensive. As a result, there has been a call to better understand the dimensional liabilities that are common to and influence the development of multiple psychopathologies, as supported and exemplified by the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework. We use a latent variable SEM approach to examine the degree to which working memory deficits represent a cognitive liability associated with the development of common and discrete dimensions of psychopathology...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Linhai Wu, Guoyan Xu, Qingguang Li, Bo Hou, Wuyang Hu, Jianhua Wang
Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China...
October 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jaroslava Voráčová, Erik Sigmund, Dagmar Sigmundová, Michal Kalman
Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data from the Czech Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2002 and 2014 was utilized. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS) was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Higher odds of daily consumption of fruit (2002: OR = 1...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hanns Moshammer, Stana Simic, Daniela Haluza
Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation covers the spectrum of wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. The potency and biological activity for a variety of endpoints differ by wavelength. For monitoring and communication purposes, different UV action spectra have been developed. These spectra use different weighting functions. The action spectrum for erythemal dose is the most widely used one. This erythemal dose per time or dose-rate has been further simplified into a "UV index". Following this example, in our review we use the term "index" or (plural) "indices" in a more general description for all simplified single-value measures for any biologically effective UV dose, e...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Caroline A Yao, Jordan Swanson, Dayana Chanson, Trisa B Taro, Barrie Gura, Jane C Figueiredo, Heather Wipfli, Kristin Hatcher, Richard Vanderburg, William P Magee
BACKGROUND: Despite health system advances, residents of low- and middle-income countries continue to experience substantial barriers in accessing health care, particularly for specialized care such as plastic and reconstructive surgery. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey of patients seeking surgical care for cleft lip and/or cleft palate was completed at five Operation Smile International mission sites throughout Vietnam (Hanoi, Nghe An, Hue, Ho Chi Minh City, An Giang, and Bac Lieu) in November of 2014...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Michael Heit, Nayera Guirguis, Nadine Kassis, Michelle Takase-Sanchez, Janet Carpenter
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this illustrative review is to provide guidance for the measurement of socioeconomic position when conducting health disparities research in urogynecology study populations. METHODS: Deidentified data were extracted from existing investigational review board-approved research databases for illustrative purposes. Attributes collected included the study participant's marital status, level of educational attainment (in number of years of school completed) and occupation as well as the study participant's last/only spouses' level of education and occupation...
October 25, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Valentina Iacopino, Daniele Mascia, Americo Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the role of technology in health care organizations has become increasingly relevant because it enhances health care outcomes and the achievement of clinical goals. Extant research demonstrates that the effectiveness of a medical innovation depends largely on health care professionals' perceptions of its usefulness and impact on their activities and practices. We also know that interaction among social actors contributes to the shaping of their judgments and opinions regarding innovation...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Michelle M Fleig-Palmer, Cheryl Rathert, Tracy H Porter
BACKGROUND: In health care organizations, trust is critical for effective workplace relationships that ensure patient-centered outcomes. Although research has focused on trust in the relationship between patients and clinicians, less is known about what influences workers to trust their managers. An understanding is needed of the specific behaviors that influence health care workers' evaluations of their managers' trustworthiness. Mentoring research focuses on the developmental assistance that a more experienced worker provides to a less experienced worker...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Sioban Nelson, Catriona F White, Brian D Hodges, Maria Tassone
PURPOSE: The authors undertook a descriptive analysis review to gain a better understanding of the various approaches to and outcomes of team training initiatives in prelicensure curricula since 2000. METHOD: In July and August 2014, the authors searched the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, Business Source Premier, and CINAHL databases to identify evaluative studies of team training programs' effects on the team knowledge, communication, and skills of prelicensure students published from 2000 to August 2014...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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